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Popper and the induction

19 Nov

Idealism had a complement without which the “world of ideas” would become only metaphysical, just what it thought it denied, its complement was empiricism, and that is the question now.

While idealism will find its climax in Hegel, modern materialist theories are also Hegelian, the issue of empiricism is more recent and can be said unresolved, at least at the theoretical level, Popper said on this subject: “The formulations that have now become traditional are historically very recent in date: they spring from Hume’s critique of induction and its impact on the common sense theory of knowledge” (Popper, 1972, p. 14), he goes on. quote Bertrand Russell, but there were others.

Popper summarizes Hume’s proposal on two levels, one that will use the acronym HL (Logical Problem) and one that will use the acronym HPS (Psychological Problem), the first part of repeated problems that we experiment with and the second that wise people “believe”. what examples of you without experience will conform to those of you who have experience… that is, do we have expectations in which we place great confidence? ” (Popper, 1972, p. 15) and will say that this comes from habits.

Popper says that Hume’s distinction is “of the utmost importance” between the logical problem of the psychological problem because it equates “valid inference processes” but sees it as “rational mental processes” (Popper, 1972, p. 17), in fact they are subjective and psychological, like “belief”.

Popper thus treats the logical problem, as it is in philosophy and the exact sciences (the term nature is used, which I prefer to differentiate), it is applied to HL (logical) and then goes to HPS.]

The psychological problem led Popper to criticize Hume’s system, what he calls the principle of transference, which is true for logic will also be true for psychology, which is undoubtedly “a somewhat bold conjecture in the psychology of cognition or thought processes.”(idem).

With his principle of transference Popper can present his main result which is, “Hume being certain that there is no repetition induction in logic, by the principle of transference, there can be no such thing in psychology (or scientific method or history). of science): the idea of ​​repetition induction must be the product of error… repetition induction does not exist.”(Popper, 1972, p. 18).

One can explore the consequences of empiricism beyond science, as in politics (The Open Society), but in the scientific method using Popper’s argument this will be definitive, empiricism is irrational. Karl Popper’s Trinity College (Oxford) interview with Sir Anthony Quinton illustrates this extension of his thinking in philosophy and politics:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jXVCaV8T5wE

 

 

 

Because idealism is bad

25 Sep

Like many criticisms that use idealism, they may seem exaggerated, or those that fall into the purely “theoretical” field, such as those that practice without foundation, or often empirical, but not quite, there are serious human diseases.

One of them is individual (in the plural, there is more than one type, eg, or group), criticized by the idealists, as it is not caught in the bud, not reprehensible, as in Popper and already commented on posts from previous weeks, but Sloterdijk is clearer: “Enlightenment, which strives to replace and objectify the saber, the silence, or the physiognomic world.

The price of objectivity is the loss of proximity” (Sloterijk, 2012, p. 200), despite a discourse on individualism, the idealist does not deviate from it, there is no proximity.

Distance exists because we are separate from objects, it is easy to argue the object “to itself”, it seems neutral or little “human”, but the damage or harm is caused by any object that is inherent to the subject that invokes or uses, or that it is inseparable from “physiognomic” objectivity.

The author says what kind of wisdom it produces, that which is linked to empiricism as it has historically happened, says Sloterdijk: “or love of wisdom inevitably to its objects and attenuates a coldness of purely objective saber.

A science that annihilates [or tries] in the last vestiges of philosophy under the guise of a lens also breaks the last strands of the sense of closeness and intimacy that bind things (idem), is easier to understand by insistent discourse against “objects”, and not a form of production, use and consumption.

But there are also opposing discourses, intimacy or intimidation, which manifest themselves here: “as an atmosphere, a moral-psychological vibration that does not find our civilization” (ibid.), Says the simple pronunciation of this word leads people to think of records, moods, and experiences, and is said to “aim in a mirror.”

There is a point not addressed by Sloterdijk that I also identify with idealism, comes from Parmenides and Plato’s World of Ideas, is the beyond the mirror, the perfectionism that is taken to extremes in our time, beyond the inherent narcissism, perfectionism leads the hype in the treatment of objects, food and consumer goods, and worst of all, there is no shortage of “reality shows” to propel these psychopathies.

On the other hand, Sloterdijk will say that the cynicism arising from this current thinking is also the one that leads us to see how ‘unhappy modern consciousness faces itself,’ I say, collapsing ever near nihilism.

While speaking of difference (we have already stated the preference for distinction), “the knowledge of the cynics belonging to the lords class (Herrenzynikers) rests on a false superiority” (Sloterdijk, 2012, p. 203), springs from a “false smile, ”suggest“ empathy, ”and other ways of concealing the appeal to ignorance, hypocrisy, and the reversal of real feeling.

This is beyond the malaise of civilization, says Sloterdijk, and invokes the offensive of Diogenes’ kynikê (cynical in archaic Greek) who, by proposing to “merge the coin again”, made the proposal to change sides definitively and provide to the powerful a philosophy of resourcefulness (see the picture of Goya “you will not find it” quoted by the author), of accepting dishonesty.

Nothing more contemporary than Diogenes, the Cynic, and the search “during the day” with a flashlight to find the honest man, cynicism reigns, there is little honesty in various environments, looking for it would be crazy, says the cynic.

Sloterdijk, P. (2012) Crítica da Razão Cínica * Critique of Cynical Reason). Brazil, São Paulo: Estação Liberdade.

 

Pride, valor and nationalist populism

26 Aug

In the midst of international crises, such as problems ranging from ecological to corruption, we fight a dragon and appear 3, and there is no shortage of apocalyptics. drank, among them: Karl Marx, in fact, Adam Smith did not just write about the subject of economics, for which he is always remembered, he wrote about virtue, success, fortune, happiness, and even morality.
One of the interesting things he writes is about pride, for which he formulates two different patterns, a first one that he says is “the idea of exact convenience and perfection, as each of us can understand this idea.”.
That is, a distinctive ability to understand, but for someone who is really wise.
It says of this pattern: “imitating, however, the work of a divine artist, which can never be matched”, conscious of its weaknesses, one feels embarrassed when “for lack of attention, discernment and moderation, violated in words and actions, conduct and conversation, the exact rules of perfect convenience… “is in his work Theory of Moral Feelings.
The second pattern, which is the pride of the ignorant, is the lack of self-evaluation (in the Aristotelian sense, or if you want the most mundane sense): “it is that degree of approximation with this idea which is usually obtained from the world, which most our friends and mates, rivals and competitors, may have really hit, ”and so have we, of course.
It has a lot to do with contemporary populism, because it is grounded in ideas, beliefs, and beliefs that, while not true, await their leaders, but the frustrations that follow as soon as they are put into practice verify their lack of “theory.” and a deeper thought.
They are based on maxims that are generally popularly accepted, this situation has “no way out”, “violence is really needed”, “all politicians are corrupt”, “they are poor because they do not work” and there are no jobs and other popular dictates.
Nationalism of Wealth of Nations had historical justification, it is a step in the building of the wealth of countries that was necessary, but as soon as international trade prospered it became unrealizable, but international conflicts not due to trade but to protective barriers are reborn. , containment of markets in a few countries, and over-protectionist regulation.
Allied to national economic crises they seem to be a way out, but they are not, because without international regulation with egalitarian and fair criteria, there is no price control. Adam Smith argued that the use value and the exchange value were not directly related, but essentially both he and David Ricardo, who Marx also studied, said that the process of producing goods can be thought of with a series of human efforts. the Austrian School of Economics, especially with Carl Menger (1940-1921) who made this point clearer.

 

How was holography born

20 Aug

Dennis Gabor was a Hungarian electrical engineer working in England in the post-war 1947 who, thinking of quality street lighting invented holography, in fact his research was to look for clearer records of electron microscopy.

The problem with nascent electron microscopy was the aberrations that the electromagnetic lens produced and he was trying to reduce, the electron microscopes were a breakthrough, and so he had a whole new idea, eliminating the lens.

This was because it was known that the information corresponding to light was independent of it and the process of photonics is not the same as light, although both depended on light, the natural light in the lens was only that which solar energy or local lighting allowed. ..

He experimented with light from low-pressure, green-filter mercury lamps that proved his point.

He had already experimented with mercury lamps, and the result proved what he already thought, the low-pressure green-filter mercury lamp that proved what he said.

In 1958 Yuri N. Denisvuk read a science fiction book, and unaware of Gabor’s invention, obtained the holography in another way, but in higher order did not publish the result.

 In 1962, the engineers E. Leith and Y. Ypatnieks who had in the laboratory the first practical laiser, and knowing Gabor’s idea, proved the effect and created the first high quality holograms, Gabor won the Nobel in 1972 and passed away in 1972. 1979

 

Agnus dei´s Josefa, Óbidos, PT

24 Jul

This main work Josefa d’Ayala and Cabrera, or Josefa d´Óbidos (1630-1684), was a baroque painter in the city of Óbidos, her main work was Agnus Dei, whose painting is in the Évora museum.

The painting “Cordeiro Pascal Agnus Dei” was painted between 1660 and 1670 and is in the Museum of Évora, being one of his main works, but it is for the next post.

Its baroque style of still life is characteristic of the period called “Siglo d’Oro” of the arts. There was a new glimpse of nature by integrating floreros, scenes of hunting and representation of animals and still life in the painting.

Strong Iberian influence, among them of Francisco de Zurbarán, see Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose of the Iberian style of the “bodegóns” and “vases”, of the time.

The Christian influence is also in the work, which can be observed by the grapes, two branches of wheat below and details of the leaves of the vines, besides the Lamb himself.

 

 

The formation of the noosphere

20 Jun

In moments of the discovery of the reality of black holes, even of midimage made by composition of black hole photos, of publication of music of the universe, of the discovery of the Cave of Chaveut in which there are even three-dimensional paintings made 30 thousand years ago, it is time to understand that a new world is already unfolding beyond our vain philosophy and our skepticism.
Teilhard Chardin wrote at a time when his thinking could not be divulged: “Let us not forget that the human soul, no matter how created apart our philosophy imagines it, is inseparable, in its birth and maturation, from the Universe where it was born. In every soul God soul and partially save the whole world, summed up in this soul in a particular and incommunicable way, “this was his view of the universe.
To the pessimists, who see only the negative and the evil, Teilhard Chardin away from France, sent to China where he could not even have the consolation of a minimally organized Christian community, continued to see beyond a “Disintegrated and disordered Humanity: the multitude, the mass , where we could distinguish only ugliness and brutality, “he observed, seeing an evolving noosphere: “The progress of the Universe, and especially of the human universe, is not a competition made to God, nor a waste of the energies He gave us.
The more Man is great, the greater the Humanity will be united, conscious and lady of his strength, – the more beautiful the Creation, the more the adoration will be perfect, the more Christ will find, for mystical additions, a body worthy of resurrection. He saw through the Eucharist this human walk, though groping, towards unity and the convergence of a free, happy and fraternal humanity: “Receive, Lord, this total Host that the Creation, moved by your attraction, presents you to the new dawn.
This bread, our effort, is not in itself, I know, more than an immense degradation.
This wine, our pain, is not, alas, more than a dissolving potion.
But in the depths of this report, you have put – I am sure, because I feel it – an irresistible and sanctifying desire that makes us all shout from the impious to the faithful: “Lord, make us One!”
The Earth-Fatherland that Edgar Morin believes, world citizenship, the governance of the planet that ask for the most advanced forces of humanity, for the daily effort of all, but mainly by the Divine will be realized, this time of turbulence gradually, by the living forces of humanity, will return to the path of justice and fraternity.
CHARDIN, Teilhard. The Divine Milieu, 1 st. 1957, SP: Cultrix, 1981.

 

What are the issues and questions of Manovich

03 Apr

All philosophy, thought or thesis must start from one or more fundamental questions, in fact ask is more important than responds, that is, it must in outlining the purpose of the investigation to say what the question is investigated.
One can see, adapting to our object that is the art and computational media from its “artifacts”, see Manovich’s investigation with the following questions:
Considering that there is a change in course, with positive and negative factors, the questions proposed by the author are in our view: a) the extent to which the new media would depend on the ones that preceded them, in cultural and language arts? One can extend the discourse here using McLuhan: primary orality, writing and the Gutenberg Galaxy and digital electronics. b) this change made possible by digital technology, assuming the previous question as positive, would imply the emergence of new forms of culture? c) how the properties of artistic and moving images could be altered by them? But there are more three questions.
The animated changes of works of Van Gogh, and Gustav Klimpt (in Atelie Les Lumières) and Dali, for example, have already had some artistic facilities, in perspective of Atalie des Lumières. how would they incorporate the viewer? The emancipation of the spectator of Ranciere.  How would they represent space and time, that is, how do they act as objects in progress? Here we have made speculations and arts about the 4th dimension, others dimensions and hologram.
What are their aesthetic and technical developments (of this art)? the parenthesis is our addition.
To answer the perspetive of the author is to approach the artifacts conceived throughout the history of the media (other than McLuhan only the most recent): photographs, videos, works of art, films, etc. functioning as a “conceptual lens” that enables the possibility of an analytical focus of cultural arguments and developments.
What are the five principles that the author proposes? three are already consecrated: 1) numerical representation – new media are created by computers or by sources analogous to them, 2) automation – numerical codes, algorithms and modular programming enable automation, and 3) variability – an indeterminate number of media can be created from the same data. But two are new and relate to art: modularity – this principle can be known as the “fractal structure of new media,” modular and fractal because it is repeated at different scales, and, transcoding – through the computer, the media are transformed into data in order to have a structure of their own.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
Rancière, J. The emancipated spectator. Verso Books. 2011.

 

Neither yes nor no, the third excluded

31 Dec

Among the books I will not read are those of William Davies, a sociologist and English political economist, who wrote “How Feeling Took Over the World” and the book by Steven Levitsky & Daniel Ziblatt “How Democracies Die “, New York Times best seller.
In addition to such trivialities as the discovery of the dishonesty of traditional politicians, journalists and executives, a criticism of the growing fury of growing conservatism, which generates a crisis of confidence, little or almost nothing says where we will go, except to combat corruption, but it would fit the question which one? The right was never honest.
Between the Yes and the No, between Fora and Fica (left say this in Brazil), there was never a third option except for the case of Iceland that made a constitution by crowdsourcing and let banks and big companies bankrupt practically banning the state trash.
Portugal is a different case, a competent left creates a “geringonça”, in Brazil could be a gambiarra, but to overcome the ranks of “outside” and “no” seems difficult, but it is not impossible, we would be able to dialogue, after all many speak in dialogia.
The growing wave of conservatism is a bubble, the problem is what can replace it, a comic left of the type of Venezuela and Nicaragua is doomed to failure, creates an even stronger state that wants to dominate all the ins and outs of society. I have seen a lecture by Florent Pasquier of the Sorbonne of Paris, which shows that the excluded third exists, starting from Aristotle’s law that any proposition, or it is true, or its negation is, it seems at this historical moment to have become false.
Nor is it true that the left is incorruptible, in the case of Portugal only await the condemnation of Socrates, ex-prime minister, in Brazil there are controversial, but it is certain that someone absurdly stole the state, under the eyes of the left, nor is it true that the right will fight.
The third way is no longer the purism of the greens, a new left or a right that says not to be just “manager” politics, a third way must come from a broad dialogue between forces that are and can be even more representative of the people of aware parcels of society.
That 2019 is more dialogical, less emotional, not twisted and organized claque (fans clubes), but people willing to listen and talk.

 

What should we do ?

13 Dec

The aporia of the Greeks, the impropriety (I translated as unreasonableness) of Heidegger, the fear and the fragility of Martha Nussbaum, may all be composed in a juice that helps to look forward with serenity and hope. Before the advent of the birth of Jesus, Christmas has this deeper symbolic meaning, we expect a “salvation” and it must be concrete.
John the Baptist preached in the desert and the crowd that followed him are in anguish, they asked him: “What should we to do? “John answered:” Whoever has two coats, give one to him who has not; and whoever has food, do the same! “(Luke 3:11).
There were also tax collectors, the corrupt ones of today who pollute the entire financial health of the state, this is the protest in France, and it seems that Teresa Mey in the United Kingdom also begins to show signs of weakness, the conservative turn shows her impotence.
What we should do, not lose solidarity, fraternity, and the spirit of the advent of Christmas help us in what must “come” and will come, but it takes strong minds and hearts.
The feeling of death, and even a certain despondency in the hearts desirous of the future may be present, but should not mean surrender or paralysis, but Aporia.
It is necessary to be open to the new, and to develop solidarity denouncing violence and social abuses, the Nobel Prize doctor Denis Mukwege who rescues victims of abuse in Congo and denounces the violence ignored by the West that happens in his parents, along with Nadia Murad activist against the sexual abuse of women, who was herself a victim of violence Denis Mukwege praised the good use of new media to denounce these facts that the major press ignores or makes them less serious than they are, so digital change, artificial intelligence, information and communication are there not to disrupt, but to help this.
The examples of Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad serve us to overcome fear and move forward, the changes will happen.

 

The truth that really sets you free

23 Nov

It is common to instrumentalize the truth to favor our opinion, our “doxa”, a certain exaggeration or a little liar detail, or even a distortion of the facts, this has nothing to do with the episteme or with the sincere search of the truth.
The truth that liberates, therefore, is never instrumentalized, it is an opening to the other, an attentive listening beyond our preconceptions, it is never unilateral, it is able to penetrate the hermeneutic circle, the reasons beyond our egos and vanities.
Thus the post-truth and ignorance of the “opinion” or the doxa that contributes to it and creates true twisted, in a sense all fundamentalist religions in one way or another, can only be overcome with dialogue in the light of the facts, acceptance mutual understanding of preconceptions and the openness to new aspects that arise from the fusion of horizons, is the hermeneutic circle that Heidegger and Gadamer sought to explain as a method of arriving at the truth.
It is therefore ontological, this has nothing to do with formal logic, be it positivists, neo-positivist or purely idealistic, it is a logic of Being that admits the Other, and its view of the world and its values.
Scholars, exegetes and fundamentalists say little or nothing at all about the fact that Jesus was born, that’s why Christmas is a special celebration, and it came ontologically with its Being to bear witness to the truth, has little or nothing truth with the logical or legalistic truth of our days, in John 18:37 he states, “I was born and come into the world for this: to bear witness of the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice, “and says this contrary to the Pharisees and Pilate, fundamentalists and law.