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What are the issues and questions of Manovich

03 Apr

All philosophy, thought or thesis must start from one or more fundamental questions, in fact ask is more important than responds, that is, it must in outlining the purpose of the investigation to say what the question is investigated.
One can see, adapting to our object that is the art and computational media from its “artifacts”, see Manovich’s investigation with the following questions:
Considering that there is a change in course, with positive and negative factors, the questions proposed by the author are in our view: a) the extent to which the new media would depend on the ones that preceded them, in cultural and language arts? One can extend the discourse here using McLuhan: primary orality, writing and the Gutenberg Galaxy and digital electronics. b) this change made possible by digital technology, assuming the previous question as positive, would imply the emergence of new forms of culture? c) how the properties of artistic and moving images could be altered by them? But there are more three questions.
The animated changes of works of Van Gogh, and Gustav Klimpt (in Atelie Les Lumières) and Dali, for example, have already had some artistic facilities, in perspective of Atalie des Lumières. how would they incorporate the viewer? The emancipation of the spectator of Ranciere.  How would they represent space and time, that is, how do they act as objects in progress? Here we have made speculations and arts about the 4th dimension, others dimensions and hologram.
What are their aesthetic and technical developments (of this art)? the parenthesis is our addition.
To answer the perspetive of the author is to approach the artifacts conceived throughout the history of the media (other than McLuhan only the most recent): photographs, videos, works of art, films, etc. functioning as a “conceptual lens” that enables the possibility of an analytical focus of cultural arguments and developments.
What are the five principles that the author proposes? three are already consecrated: 1) numerical representation – new media are created by computers or by sources analogous to them, 2) automation – numerical codes, algorithms and modular programming enable automation, and 3) variability – an indeterminate number of media can be created from the same data. But two are new and relate to art: modularity – this principle can be known as the “fractal structure of new media,” modular and fractal because it is repeated at different scales, and, transcoding – through the computer, the media are transformed into data in order to have a structure of their own.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
Rancière, J. The emancipated spectator. Verso Books. 2011.


Neither yes nor no, the third excluded

31 Dec

Among the books I will not read are those of William Davies, a sociologist and English political economist, who wrote “How Feeling Took Over the World” and the book by Steven Levitsky & Daniel Ziblatt “How Democracies Die “, New York Times best seller.
In addition to such trivialities as the discovery of the dishonesty of traditional politicians, journalists and executives, a criticism of the growing fury of growing conservatism, which generates a crisis of confidence, little or almost nothing says where we will go, except to combat corruption, but it would fit the question which one? The right was never honest.
Between the Yes and the No, between Fora and Fica (left say this in Brazil), there was never a third option except for the case of Iceland that made a constitution by crowdsourcing and let banks and big companies bankrupt practically banning the state trash.
Portugal is a different case, a competent left creates a “geringonça”, in Brazil could be a gambiarra, but to overcome the ranks of “outside” and “no” seems difficult, but it is not impossible, we would be able to dialogue, after all many speak in dialogia.
The growing wave of conservatism is a bubble, the problem is what can replace it, a comic left of the type of Venezuela and Nicaragua is doomed to failure, creates an even stronger state that wants to dominate all the ins and outs of society. I have seen a lecture by Florent Pasquier of the Sorbonne of Paris, which shows that the excluded third exists, starting from Aristotle’s law that any proposition, or it is true, or its negation is, it seems at this historical moment to have become false.
Nor is it true that the left is incorruptible, in the case of Portugal only await the condemnation of Socrates, ex-prime minister, in Brazil there are controversial, but it is certain that someone absurdly stole the state, under the eyes of the left, nor is it true that the right will fight.
The third way is no longer the purism of the greens, a new left or a right that says not to be just “manager” politics, a third way must come from a broad dialogue between forces that are and can be even more representative of the people of aware parcels of society.
That 2019 is more dialogical, less emotional, not twisted and organized claque (fans clubes), but people willing to listen and talk.


What should we do ?

13 Dec

The aporia of the Greeks, the impropriety (I translated as unreasonableness) of Heidegger, the fear and the fragility of Martha Nussbaum, may all be composed in a juice that helps to look forward with serenity and hope. Before the advent of the birth of Jesus, Christmas has this deeper symbolic meaning, we expect a “salvation” and it must be concrete.
John the Baptist preached in the desert and the crowd that followed him are in anguish, they asked him: “What should we to do? “John answered:” Whoever has two coats, give one to him who has not; and whoever has food, do the same! “(Luke 3:11).
There were also tax collectors, the corrupt ones of today who pollute the entire financial health of the state, this is the protest in France, and it seems that Teresa Mey in the United Kingdom also begins to show signs of weakness, the conservative turn shows her impotence.
What we should do, not lose solidarity, fraternity, and the spirit of the advent of Christmas help us in what must “come” and will come, but it takes strong minds and hearts.
The feeling of death, and even a certain despondency in the hearts desirous of the future may be present, but should not mean surrender or paralysis, but Aporia.
It is necessary to be open to the new, and to develop solidarity denouncing violence and social abuses, the Nobel Prize doctor Denis Mukwege who rescues victims of abuse in Congo and denounces the violence ignored by the West that happens in his parents, along with Nadia Murad activist against the sexual abuse of women, who was herself a victim of violence Denis Mukwege praised the good use of new media to denounce these facts that the major press ignores or makes them less serious than they are, so digital change, artificial intelligence, information and communication are there not to disrupt, but to help this.
The examples of Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad serve us to overcome fear and move forward, the changes will happen.


The truth that really sets you free

23 Nov

It is common to instrumentalize the truth to favor our opinion, our “doxa”, a certain exaggeration or a little liar detail, or even a distortion of the facts, this has nothing to do with the episteme or with the sincere search of the truth.
The truth that liberates, therefore, is never instrumentalized, it is an opening to the other, an attentive listening beyond our preconceptions, it is never unilateral, it is able to penetrate the hermeneutic circle, the reasons beyond our egos and vanities.
Thus the post-truth and ignorance of the “opinion” or the doxa that contributes to it and creates true twisted, in a sense all fundamentalist religions in one way or another, can only be overcome with dialogue in the light of the facts, acceptance mutual understanding of preconceptions and the openness to new aspects that arise from the fusion of horizons, is the hermeneutic circle that Heidegger and Gadamer sought to explain as a method of arriving at the truth.
It is therefore ontological, this has nothing to do with formal logic, be it positivists, neo-positivist or purely idealistic, it is a logic of Being that admits the Other, and its view of the world and its values.
Scholars, exegetes and fundamentalists say little or nothing at all about the fact that Jesus was born, that’s why Christmas is a special celebration, and it came ontologically with its Being to bear witness to the truth, has little or nothing truth with the logical or legalistic truth of our days, in John 18:37 he states, “I was born and come into the world for this: to bear witness of the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice, “and says this contrary to the Pharisees and Pilate, fundamentalists and law.


Power and empowerment

27 Jul

Empowerment is the buzz word, however, as opposed to meaning more empowerment means only more power and will to power alone. In philosophy, it was Nietzsche who explored him most.

Although he never gave a formal definition of this concept, it is possible to understand it as that will we all have of fulfillment, ambition and effort to reach the highest possible position in life.

Although this may be and in many cases was confused with power, in German “Der Wille zur Macht“, the will to power would be the translation that we use here.

It means that there was still in Nietzsche a remnant of idealism coming from Greek culture, since it is possible to read a power as “virtus”, the virtual coming from the virtuous circle of the exercise of power without any idealism, the seed is virtually the tree and will perform its power to produce fruit remaining as a tree.

It also means that there is an unrealizable virtus, which is the seed not wanting to be a tree, and is not the possibility of its denial, that is to say the grain that dies and rots to give rise to the tree, this is true virtus, but the grain of wheat that would wish to be something else.

The biblical passage in which Jesus performs the miracle of the loaves and asks the disciples to collect all the crumbs, because surely soon that people would feel hunger again, there is also the exit of Jesus to another corner, because after the miracle they wanted to proclaim it King.

It is read in John 6:15. “But when he saw that they were willing to take him to proclaim him king, Jesus went away alone again to the mountain.”


Retreat, desert and epoché

20 Jul

Being in Portugal, I participate from this weekend of a “doctoral retreat”, in a cultural center, in the heart of the Alfama district of Lisbon.
As is common expression in the streets of Lisbon, “comes in handy”, also the readings of Byung Chul Han helped me, he proposes “Contemplative delay presupposes that things last.”
The active vita is that which is dominated at all by labor and by a vertiginous accumulation of capital enclosed within the pure limits of the dialectic of production and consumption.
Homo laborans is inevitably forbidden to the time of rest, of leisure, but the present forms associated with rest or passive entertainment are nothing other than panaceas that do not integrate the deepest of “being.”
There is an Aristotelian notion (the so-called bios theoretikos) founded on the reflection and aesthetic analysis of the world, perhaps this is more appropriate than other analyzes that oppose only the systematic and frenetic “laborans” or “creative leisure” and other remedies.
It takes an “essential emptiness”, a real “arethé” (a virtuous circle, an excellence not a simple specialization) to arrive at a-letheia, the unveiling of truth and reality, a true “epoché” is needed.
It is said of modern epoché, the cogito of reason did not suspend the ego, it was Husserl who went beyond the so-called “evidence of cogitatio” in generalizing the suspension of judgment, and saying that it is necessary to “go the thing by itself”, this is almost a “uprooting,” which Heidegger and other modern existentialists will deny.
The intentional object of Husserl oscillates between the immanent character of the noema and that which transcends the noema itself, so it is a third concept of transcendence surpassed the theocentric and the egocentric.
The Husserl patron of part I of The Crisis of European Humanity and Philosophy – conference given in 1935 in the Kulturbund of Vienna, will criticize the particular cultural form invented by the Greeks, a kind of “Radicality” that is proper to it, and that the finite (circumstantial and episodic) goals are linked to the original meaning of the ideas of “Good”, “Fair” and “Beautiful”, but never separated from ” ideal “and dual: being is and non-being is not.
The negativity proposed by Byung Chul and others (Gadamer for example), is neither positivist negation nor even Hegelian dialectic negation, linked to Greek thinking, is a negation within the “epoché” to bring forth the “new” anything.
Whoever can not go to the desert, does not retreat and does not transcend, does not abandon the ego, does not go to the desert, only “transcends” and affirms nihilism


Exegesis, hermeneutics and ingenuity

21 Jun

The exegetes believe that they have found the truth and thus expect to have the last word on a given subject; if someone challenges them they say that it is by arrogance and not by falsehood, Hermeneutics are those who believe that a new interpretation is always possible, since all truth is contextualized and the naive believes only in what “feels.”
Exegesis is a deep interpretation of a biblical, legal or literary text, although it may have elements of depth as all knowledge, it has implicit and intuitive practices like any other form of knowledge.
Hermeneutics, however, is a branch of philosophy that develops a theory of interpretation, but can also be seen as the “art of interpretation” and also refers to practice and intuition, in this it merges with other knowledge, with the difference it admits interpretation and is not supposed to be the last word in a dialogue, as the hermeneutic circle predicts.
The idea that the senses are the foundation of truth is a very old one, but it is naive because all truth must be contextualized, then it must also be analyzed and interpreted in the light of one’s personal experience, and finally confronted with history, not romantic of the analytical or pragmatic of history, but mainly of what is advance, of what is irreversible and special of what is contextual.
Contextual understanding by culture, the social and traditional structure of a people at a given moment in history, also involves political aspects, and there may be disruption factors that can either be caused by a major social change or by a technological or structural change of a particular process Social.
Exegetes, too, accept the hermeneutic circle, which starts from preconceptions, can interact with hermeneutics, but they know that simple interaction can take them from absolute truth and this does not mean falling into relativism but in dialogue.


Real and virtual objects

19 Jun

It was the mixed reality that clarified what real and virtual objects are, the very authors Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino who have placed lights not only on the taxonomy of virtual and immersive environments, but mainly on the question of the real and the virtual.
They addressed the distinction between real and virtual in three aspects, which can be seen in the figure that is a modified version of Figure 2 of Milgram and Fumio.
The first aspect is the difference between real and virtual objects, which are to the left of the figure, real objects have real objective existence, while virtual exist in essence or effect, but not formally, but it is from them that the in-formation , which they are in essence.
For a real object to be visualized, it can be directly observed or can be sampled (before imagined Shannon) and resynthesized by some artifact.
The second distinction is drawn by the authors of a Naimark paper, which is the question of the quality of the images reflected in an aspect called reflected reality, great efforts were made for this which is the direct visualization in air or glass of a real object, or the so-called “unmediated reality,” now made a reality at Brigham Young University.
The authors’ point of view, and also ours, is that it is not only because the image “looks real” it may be representing the real and its formation, and therefore the terminology used must be careful in explaining this difference.
Clarification of “representation,” the third distinction is between real and virtual images, for this we return to the field of optics and “operationally define a real image as any image that has some luminosity in the place where it appears to be located”, this includes and the image projected on the artifact (the authors say on the screen, but the concept can be extended).
Thus the virtual image can be defined as the inverse mode of the image that does not have luminosity in the place where it appears, and, therefore, this can include examples of holograms and mirror images as suggested by the author, however, escapes the fact that human vision itself mirrors and inverts the images, so what is real if we need the eyes?
Also the question of luminosity is interesting, the shadows and the projections that can be thought from the cave paintings to the myth of the cave of Plato, there already was the virtual one.

Naimark, M. Elements of realspace imaging. Apple Multimedia Lab Technical Report, 1991


The myth of Sisyphus

24 Apr

It was already a myth and could be forgotten, were it not for Albert Camus’s book on the subject in which he provokes the philosophy of his time which he describes as having an attempt to deal with the feeling of the absurd Heidegger, Jaspers, Shestov, Kierkegaard and Husserl.

It would be easy to contradict Camus for his own myth, a closeness to nihilism in his thinking, his tragic death in a car accident, however, his thinking is serious and must be taken seriously, as many authors have done.

The myth of Sisyphus is of a character of Greek philosophy, who having defied the gods is doomed to push a mountain stone up, and when it rolls down, must continually repeat its effort to push it up hill.

The myth of Sisyphus must be taken seriously because in it today much of mankind lives, which resignedly carried out its heavy daily task although sometimes doubts its meaning.

For Camus the world is not the absurd, the absurd happens when “my appetite for absolute and unity” completes the “impossibility of reducing the world to a rational and reasonable principle.”, Thus recognizing the absurdity of man could lead him to the absurd, to live it intensely.

Thus Camus’s reasoning is not a misnomer or irrationality, it is necessary to have the strength of the Brazilian thinker poet Guimarães Rosa, who contradicting logic, without being illogical, affirmed: “Everything is and is not” (ROSA, 1968, 12) in his Book: “Grande Sert]ao: veredas”.

The force of the essence of é is so strong and present that it can create an entity, the finite, the nothingness.

CAMUS, A. (1991) The Myth of Sisyphus: And Other Essays (Vintage International) .


Ride to God and corruption Here does not

26 Mar

As promised (post), I bought Ricardo Araújo Pereira’s book, the Portuguese that is making a success, now with the Reactionary with two c´s, I jumped and went straight to two stories of the index: When God got in my car (page 76) and Corruption does not enter here (page 31).

I do not like transverse readings, but Ricardo Araújo’s book is a series of short stories that could fit well into a blog, but he would not make any money with it, I’m immitating him who makes irony and joke with everything, but with a lot of creativity .

These two tales drew my attention because of the proximity to Brazil, the first account that they were in a traffic jam and saw God waving for almost crowded taxis (it must be the youngest) and asked the parents who were not “believers” to ride to God.

For a young supporter of Benfica soccer, God was Eusebius and the tale goes around, talking about the emotion he kept for many years from the father’s car that he later bought and then made his children sit on the bench that had sat “god”, either to say Eusébio, celebrated player of the Portuguese selection of the 60’s, the similarity with Brazil dispenses comments (Pelé and Neymar are Gods).

The second tale, as I read in this order, tells of a corruption case that involved Germany, explaining that the executive of this case was punished in Germany, although the corruptor here refused to go into history, would be the purchase of two submarines, and ironically says that “in Portugal people do not have the decency to participate in the dance of corruption”, and again the parallel with Brazil is evident, even in the case of “German effectiveness”, I thought that only Brazil thought of the 7 x 1 lost for Germany, there is the Portuguese version of this.

I do not know how much more we inherit from them, but that there is a paternal resemblance, no doubt there is, everything is two c’s because I begin to accept paternity, I explained to the Portuguese my rejection, but I should have remained silent and accepted the paternal affection.