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O que é o mal?

20 Sep

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Ukraine’s counter-offensive and peace

01 May

On Wednesday Roast Ukraine’s Volodymir Zelenksy spoke with China’s President Xi Jinping and some peace talks appear to have moved forward.

On his twitter Zelensky said: “I believe that this phone call, as well as the appointment of Ukraine’s ambassador to China, will give a powerful impetus to the development of our bilateral relations.”

The narrative of a peaceful country contradicts the controversial statements of its ambassador to France, Lu Shaye, also the left-wing forces abroad are beginning to show a pro-Putin position, like a motorcycle made in Germany in this sense.

On the other hand, on the battlefield, the counteroffensive promised by Ukraine began, several Russian positions were hit, in conquered territories, in Crimea and even some Russian villages, Russia expected an offensive in Crimea or in Donbass where its troops faced bloody battles in recent weeks, such as that of Soledar and Bakhmut . (see on the map in blue the reconquer Ukrainians in red the Russian invasion).

In September of last year, while Ukraine was threatening attacks to the south, making Russia move forces there, it ended up attacking to the north, where the Russian army had huge losses.

Russia withdrew most of its military arsenal from the Crimea, yet a fuel supply base was hit in this new Ukrainian counter-offensive. 

The stalemate of forces in the Donbass region may indicate the real source of conflict at this moment, and the place where Ukraine intends to concentrate its counter-offensive, this time Russia seems to be waiting because it has already moved troops from Crimea, even with the explosion of the depot of drone fuels over the weekend.

The serious thing about this situation is that it postpones any possibility of peace, both sides hope to have guaranteed territories before any round of negotiations.



War in Ukraine and pandemic

19 Dec

Due to visual difficulties, today’s post will be short and without references, due to the difficulty of reading, however the news of the war between Russia and Ukraine increases the concerns of those who are really in favor of peace, because there is no peace possible if the speeches and positions do not lead to agreements.

Russia continues its strategy of obstructing Ukraine’s energy sources, which are strategic during the cold European winter, on the other hand Ukraine resists in the fights in the east of the country and threatens the Crimea already annexed to Russia in the previous war, with the Russia’s strategy of dominating the Sea of ​​Azor and the Black Sea region.

Ukraine’s strategy is to reach possible targets in Russian territory, which in addition to military bases can operate strategic nuclear weapons, the greatest fear of this war is an imminent and possible atomic war, which would be a scourge.

Christmas, which is a celebration of Light and peace, has the deepest strategic struggle on this side of the planet and with consequences that are still not very predictable, but in the short term, there will be more Russian bases affected in its territory and Ukraine is already experiencing a serious energy crisis , the allied countries react with measures of sanctions against Russia and attempts to help the Ukrainian people.

Regarding Covid 19, there is a concern that cases will increase again in 2023, just as health organizations are already anticipating a possible new pandemic, as we wrote, due to visual difficulties, we were unable to list the sources of this information due to the difficulty of reading.


Crisis, hypocrisy and clearing

14 Oct

Today, what you really are is worth very little, what matters more is personal marketing, the makeup that hides the defects of what the man really is, this is a consequence of the hiddenness of the Being.

So the concealment of the truth is the result of this concealment of the Being, not its cause, the thought goes in this direction because within each Being there is room for falsification, lying and hypocrisy.

So it is not the case of those who lie the most, it is the absence of a clearing where the conscience of each Being presents itself, and the leaven of the liars grew, as the biblical passage of Lk 12,1=2 “take care with the leaven of the liars”. Pharisees which is hypocrisy, there is nothing hidden that will not be revealed, and there is nothing hidden that will not be known.”

It is true that Heidegger’s category of “clearing” has a more general meaning, it involves the whole that is hidden within a Being, but for those who believe this whole is hidden in God, what we are in the divine heart, and even not believing this seems proper to modernity that does not see the whole.

The fragmentation of knowledge, the social division, the absence of transdisciplinary thinking led to a new type of occultism, one that specialized only sees the part and does not see the whole, even though quantum physics, the search for the infinite or finite universe ( looking for its edge) seen by James Webb, it is nature and within the Being that this whole inhabits and where the truth is hidden.

How it was hidden was the social fragmentation, the absence of communion, where the Whole is complete, the absence of transcendent Love (not that of idealistic subjectivity), where we are able to see the other.

We thus form a generation (in the sense of several since the last century) that became evil, selfish and individualistic, autophagic and exclusionary and unable to see the whole clearly.

It is true that divine justice is superior to human justice, but it does not ignore it, Jesus told a parable of a widow who goes to an unjust judge who then bothers him so much, he decides to stop having her bothering him anymore and “ don’t come and attack me”.

And Jesus explains the parable to the disciples (Lk 18:6-7): “And the Lord added: “Listen to what this unjust judge says. And will God not do justice to his chosen ones, who cry out to him day and night? Will it make them wait?” so we can also hope for earthly justice.



Referência do site twinkl a nosso post

15 Jul

The site Twinkl is make a reference to our post about friendship in philosophy, in text about the day 30/07, International Day of Frienship , thanks for this reference. 


War can follow an escalation

19 Apr

While humanitarian forces cultivate hope, the escalation of the war seems to follow an ever-increasing course and with “unpredictable” consequences, in Putin’s words in response to the US armament of Ukraine, the voices of peace seem to have little echo among rulers.

The deployment of new Russian troops, now the northern region and the American shipment of more weapons to Ukraine show that the escalation of the war in the region is far from over, negotiations are increasingly difficult as Russia wants to establish new territories within Ukraine, in addition to the Crimea already annexed in the previous conflict of 2014.

According to Russian Defense Minister Igor Konashenkov, the Russian army carried out 315 attacks from Sunday to Monday in the regions of Kharkiv, Zaporizhshia (where there is a nuclear power plant), Donestsk and Dnipropetrovsk and the port of Myloslayv, regions already with Russian advances.

Yesterday several ballistic missile attacks were made, with targets in Kiev and Lviv.

The eyes now turn to other regions, Russian military maneuvers in the North and in the airspace China is also moving, one thing already understood by the president who was an agent of the KGB in the Soviet period, is that he misleads by pointing out false objectives and targets, but not bluff.

So it is true that while talking about the problem of Bosnia (part of the former Yugoslavia that broke up into several countries, and had a recent bloody war with Serbia), he turns his eyes (and possible targets) to Finland and Norway, while trying to keep the control of the Kuril Islands claimed by Japan, which lost them in the partition between the allies in World War II.

China began to patrol its Pacific coast with its military fighter jets while Russia maintains anti-aircraft missiles on the islands, which had an extension of possession in 1855 (Treaty of Shimoda) and 1945 (World War II) (see map above)




(Português) Knowledge and a new Paideia

10 Aug

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Between spirit and spirituality

28 Jul

Henri Bergson was looking for a new philosophy of life, one that goes beyond what intelligence can meet, the psychological and creative dimension of evolution, complementing this philosophy with Teilhard Chardin’s idea of ​​the noosphere, it is not a simple collage, but convergence between philosophy, religion and a spirituality that fosters a dialogue with cultural worldviews.

The different theories of life intend to reach knowledge through categories developed by intelligence, wisdom and intuition can go further, what Bergson says, intelligence itself is a product of evolution, we know more than primitive man knew.

The intelligence created by the needs of life to act on objects, nature, acting itself and the wisdom necessary for this, was initially based on matter, but when replacing the whole with the part, it became illegitimate, to understand life and the direction of evolution, a new method of thinking is needed that understands the natural sense of intelligence, with the help of intuition, is not contradictory with the wisdom present in various worldviews.

For Bergson, what characterizes intelligence is what he calls “duration”, starting from their own existence as living beings, to learn what life is as a perpetual and continuous variation of our spirit, then raises the duration of the universe that is formed incessantly, and in every minimal form that he reveals his creative impulse, this state of change goes beyond mathematics and physics that can only model each change in a short “duration”.

Teilhard de Chardin, when characterizing the “human phenomenon” sees it as a complexification of matter, then unlike Bergson he will not separate what he calls inert “matter”, and for Teilhard de Chardin it is a “living” body of everything that exists , for which he was accused of pantheism, and sees in the existence of the Universe like Bergson something that cannot be separated from a creative evolution, which changes forms and mechanisms of interaction, “wisdom” also evolves.

Also the problem of duration here Bergson distances himself from science, at least from the current one that sees time not as a “duration” but as a “fold”, Chardin is closer to Science when he sees in evolution the approximation of creation and the complexity of the universe, nature and man the approximation of the Creator and eternity.

Bergson’s evolution then moves towards the evolution of the life of consciousness, thus returning to subjectivism and the abstract consciousness of the idealists, for Chardin, when he called man a “human phenomenon” (it is not contradictory with the fact that the “likeness” of God goes along for eternity), says what kind of consciousness is the human, the consciousness of its physical existence that does not separate from the spiritual.

BERGSON, Henri. (2005) A evolução criativa (The Creative Evolution). Brazil: SP: Martins Fontes.

CHARDIN, Teilhard. (2001) O fenômeno humano (The human phenomenon). Trans. Armando Pereira da Silva. Brazil,SP: Cultrix.



Dialogue is the essential

09 Jul

The essential is far from modern society because it is required of every human being, even those who have some physical limitation or social difference, the maximum performance, Byung-Chul Han in his book Society of Tiredness (Brazil, Vozes, 2015), defines also as a performance society.

It projects us out of the essential, unlike an “immunological epoch” it is a “neuronal epoch”, the division between “inside and outside, friend and enemy or between self and stranger”, is defined as “attack and defense ” (HAN, 2015, p. 8) that is why it tends towards confrontation and not peace.

Peace requires dialogue, and the essential requires inner choices that move us to the outer essential.

This exhaustion of performance is what “disables us to do anything” (Han, 2015, p. 76) and dialogue becomes difficult, proselytizing or even mere rhetoric, but only it can lead to peace. Edgar Morin, who turned 100 (see previous post), established as a dialogical operator that capable of operator: reason and emotion, the sensitive and the intelligible, the real and the imaginary, reason and myths, and, science and art.

It can be seen that polarization is always on one side, it does not articulate “inside and outside” as proposed by Chul Han, so dialogizing is to admit the connection between these poles and not their mutual exclusion.

Due to the identity issue, strong in our times involving cultures, religions and nationalities, the pole between reason and myths becomes exacerbated where dialogue is difficult.

It is necessary to respect the different when dialoguing, also allowing the word and not excluding it with only rational arguments, there are ontological, historical, cultural, and social reasons for their arguments, and if we are not “disarmed” the dialogue does not take place.

When sending the disciples to bring the “good news”, the instructions given to the apostles are interesting, in Mk 6:8-10 he asks them not to take anything, not even purses or bags, and when they enter a house they wish for peace, and stay there until your departure, and the reading says that you cured the sick and cast out demons, the essentials and dialogue have this potential.

The unbalanced performance, tiredness and frivolity lead society to exhaustion and the difficulty of dialogue, because we are also full of convictions and reasons.

HAN, B.-C. (2015) Sociedade do Cansaço (Society of Burnout). Translation by Enio Paulo Giachini. Brazil, Petrópolis: Vozes.


O que é amizade na filosofia

04 May

The philosopher Plato defined friendship as “the reciprocal predisposition that makes two beings equally jealous of each other’s happiness”, Augustine of Hippo affirmed that “being a friend merges us in the friendship of being; friends are one soul” and Aristotle seems to merge the two thoughts: “friendship is a soul with two bodies”.

It was Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics dedicated two books to the study of philia and friendship, who defined friendship in three types: for interest, that for pleasure, for interest and true friendship, the first is easy to identify because it is the pursuit of mutual pleasure, the second because they are useful to each other, and the third, it is possible between good men because they desire good for its own sake and do not place pleasure or interest above friendship.

In chapter IXI the Peripatetic philosopher states:

“Perhaps we can say that there is nothing strange about breaking a friendship based on interest or pleasure when our friends no longer possess the attributes of being useful and pleasant; in fact we were friends with those attributes, and when they disappear it is reasonable not to continue in love. ” (Aristotle, IX, 3, 1165b)    .

In the chapter “The partner and the neighbor” of the book “History and Truth” by Paul Ricoeur he will talk about the difference between these relationships, he talks about charity: “Charity doesn’t need to be where it appears; it is also hidden in the humble and abstract post office, the social security; it is often the hidden part of the social”, Paul Ricoeur, Le socius et le Prochain (1954).

We are reminded by the philosopher that just as institutions can only have corporate relationships, they can also have interpersonal relationships, of affection and solidarity and that make them less cold and less bureaucratic, where one sees not a client or a service more, but a neighbor in which one may be interested.

It is not by chance that it is a chapter of History and Truth, because the truth is only established between true and close friends, and if they are partners, it will only be to be closer.

The Twinkl website referenced this post in fun