Arquivo para a ‘Economia’ Categoria

World and the Post 2015´s Agend

11 Jul

When the UN organized its Post 2015 Development Agenda, it appeared that civil society organizations were moving towards a greater focus on poverty and hunger, urban planning and education, nuclear disarmament and women’s empowerment, others subjects related to the person, the struggle for greater perks and powers, the return of nationalism moved in the opposite direction.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in September 2014 “Our world needs more wind and solar energy. But I believe in an even stronger source of energy, people’s power”, the path seemed safe and was not, one can now evaluate the error.
The numbers that preceded the conservative turnaround were still “very unequal” in Latin America, Eduardo Frei affirmed that the Chile that governed from 1994-2000, with several initiatives that promoted democracy and social justice, had reduced poverty by 38.6% to 7.8% of the population, and extreme poverty from 13% to 2.5%, but by 2015 Latin America had another profile, despite GDP growth from 2015 to 2018 (photo above).
It was still a region “more unequal” than another, of its 600 million inhabitants still 167 million lived in poverty and 71 million in extreme poverty, this contrast reveals a dangerous and deep social gap, according to the own Frei in 2015.
Regarding the future, Frei affirms that the struggle against poverty and inequalities demanded another effort on an ethical basis, and at this crossroads, it would be time for governments to give greater impetus to the “moral movement” that did not happen.
Juan Somavia, former Director of the International Labor Organization, said in the post 2015 agenda that a good basis for negotiations would be: “the document reflects an extremely ambitious vision with its 17 goals and 69 indicators centered on the concept of sustainable development focused on people and eradicating poverty, “saying that UN political support was critical.
In 20th birthday of UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which was adopted in 2000, said that the problem of poverty eradication was echoed by the UN’s Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) : productive employment and social integration have been excluded, and it is not mere coincidence. And social integration is a broader concept when we think of global citizenship.


Earth-planetarism, a planetary worldview

09 Jul

We have already mentioned that the worldview depends on a vision of the cosmos and life itself, there is still a citizen worldview, Edgar Morin called the land-fatherland and what I call earth-planetaryism. Seeing the planet as Patria, as “common house” in the religious mystical vision, as Gaia in a mythological view, incorporate this view, for the planet itself, living beings including animals and plants and cultures that are the citizenship of living peoples in the Planet.

Broaden a cosmos-planetary view of the Earth they inhabit. In Edgar Morin’s book he traces in chapters 2 and 3 what this planetary identity would be, and at the same time reveals an exhaustion and planetary agony, there is something that involves beyond the traditions and cultural issues at stake, the worldview depends on how man sees himself as a whole, and this implies an advanced worldview, which admits the new telescopes, which made the Copernican revolution, which are now the new media.

Terraplanism is the most extreme side of this view, but attachment to an earlier view of quantum physics, black holes, the view of a multi-verse implies that the planetary cosmovision is still enlightened and idealistic, stuck to an idea of ​​citizenship , of state and of planet that already is much surpassed, and agonizes in successive crises. In the book by Morin and Anne Brigitte Kern, they point out that the key phenomenon to understand this crisis of planetary proportions is “moral, psychic and intellectual underdevelopment” (Morin and Kern, 2011, 115), including development, and the proliferation of holistic “hollow” ideals and of mutilated visions, the loss of the global, the fundamental and the responsibility “(ibid.).

Broadening this vision requires abandoning pseudo-planetary principles that are Eurocentrists, third-worldists, imperialists and neocolonizers present in the “saviors of the homeland” are left or right, generally unrelated and limited worldview.

A new planetary vision, which respects nature itself, demands a vision of an even wider universe that was thought by Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and the Enlightenment, the eternal dualism materialism x idealism, the imperial religiosity of some religions.

Lack of wisdom to the humble and humility to the wise, it is time to rethink the thought, as Edgar Morin wanted, a time of transdisciplinarity of multi-verse (several universes).

MORIN, E., KERN, A.B. Terra Pátria (Earth homeland.) Trad. Paulo Neves. 6th. edition, Sulina Publishing, Brazil, 2011.

This presentation of the Edgar Morin in SESC in São Paulo Brasil, he talks about this subject:


Pause time: can we

26 Nov

There is still a remnant of November and December already appearing on the horizon, everyone is waiting for something we should always do: pause, wait and meet with friends and family, the question is: do we succeed?
Looking at the world, the dark signs continue, bigger than liquids, because if something were really changed from the solid to the liquid, it would even be desirable because something is moving, but it seems like the sameness, everything is going to look the same.
The protests against Macron and his taxes, is not so different from Portugal or Brazil, the state is huge and weighs on society, who will pay the bills, and the retirees will be the ones who will pay the bill? uncertainties and a single thing really clear: crisis of time.
There are signs of a revival, a word used by the philosopher Martha Nussbaum, I would say yes, but just where the heaviest criticism falls: the globalized world, the internet and the “solid” state that is taking a darker, dangers right.
I participated in a 100 year event of Priest Manuel Antunes, this transdisciplinary man, was the theme of a lecture written with a friend in his work Repensar Portugal, said that it was necessary to seek in politics, the “temperate zones” where human nature is more comfortable, but the 2018 sample is from more radicalized regions, in the bad sense of the term.
It is necessary to pause, even when forced and in discomfort, to look at the future so that it is possible to have hope, peace and a closer approach of the peoples, the national radicalism is perverse, Europe sews a possible agreement for the exit of England from the block , the so-called Brexit.
The US ends the end of the year with the dreamed Trump Wall, and Mexicans pushing across the wall, proving that it was not a solution but the announcement of a crisis.
New governments to the right in Brazil and Colombia, the left in Mexico wins after many years of a party monopolizing power, while Nicaragua and Venezuela parade catastrophic left-wing governments, Bolivia, Ecuador and Uruguay are in temperate zones.
Thinking about a more integrated world, climate issue and income distribution has become more difficult, what can be expected is a vigorous reaction of human thought, man has always been able to face the challenges that have appeared, perhaps the retreat is a resumption


Web Summit in Lisbon

08 Nov

One of the biggest events of the Web was this week, it was a side event, I could only follow videos and news, undoubtedly the biggest star was the founder of the Web Tim-Berners Lee who already has a great new project, although he has spoken between the lines.

He started an interview, which in fact he spoke at will without many questions saying the beginning of the Web and how his growth was also surprising for him, he told technical details like “I wrote the code of the first server and the code of the first browser, it was called “and was on

He then said that his concern is the same as everyone, after 25 years we should deal with: cyberbullying, misinformation, hate speech, privacy issues and said what many are talking about, “What the hell could go wrong?” to the public: “in the first 15 years … great things have happened. We had Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, blogs, we had cats, “he said jokingly, adding:” Connected Humanity should be more constructive, more peaceful, than Humanity disconnected”, but jnt (just not).

“Because we are almost at the point where half of the world will be online”, explained the British engineer was referring to the ’50 / 50′ moment, that is half the connected humanity expected in 50 years, but it should reach this point in May 2019.

After trying to argue the responsibilities of governments and companies, I believe they can happen but they will be slow, he spoke indirectly of his SOLID (Social Linked Data) project, stating that “as individuals we have to hold corporations and governments accountable for what is happening on the internet ” and “the idea is, from now on, everyone is responsible for making the Web a better place, “said encouraging start-ups too to get into this process.

Thinking about the development of interfaces where users know people from different cultures, but above all ensure the universality of the Web, according to Berners-Lee the main aspect should be (speaking indirectly again of SOLID) that the popular intervention at global level and that made the Web “just a platform, without attitude, that should be independent, can be used for any kind of information, any culture, any language, any hardware, software”, linked data may help this.

 Tim Berners-Lee presented the #ForTheWeb movement on the same day that his World Wide Web Foundation released the report “The Case for the Web”, the event had a superaudience, more than 30 thousand people, there are several videos, but the Opening Ceremony is one of the most outstanding and has Tim-Berners Lee as well, see on vídeo:


The will to power and the sacred

19 Oct

It is a fact that Nietzsche’s concepts are strong: in our instincts the ideas of the will for power are always present, while nothing changes we remain in the eternal return (Ewige Wiederkehr) and we imagine a superman (übermensch), however this is a form of emptying, nihilism.
There are other instincts that bind us to the sacred, the idea of serving and respect for the other (which are the limits to our will), and without them any scope of our social relation can fall into what I will call “social nihilism”, or that is, the emptying of social thought.
Limited to the will to power, it is only our instincts that speak, and the attitudes even in politics become emotional, in love in the bad sense, it is possible to fall in love with the Good.
I place Capital well because it should not be confused with the Manichaean good, by imagining that we are fighting against an often symbolic “evil” (read Paul Ricoeur’s The Symbolic of Evil) we return in “eternal return” to our instincts of power and intolerance.
The point that Nietzsche was right about is that such instincts exist, they lead to the false concept of authority as an iron hand, and these lead to totalitarianisms, even in everyday life, that empty the sense of education, of service, what I call of “social nihilism”.
Linked to the sacred this concept is purified, can become generosity, benevolence and even a theological virtue that is “charity”, and without this “social nihilism” is a way. This is what makes even people with good intention fall into the temptation of the blue fly, power for power, even the disciples who walked beside Jesus had this “temptation”, ask Jesus in your kingdom: “let us sit a right and another to your left “(Mc, 10,37).
Jesus will say that they do not know what they are asking, we would say today they do not know what they choose, the idea of a strong power that solves deep social issues, that depend on a new worldview, to leave the eternal return, depends on the mobilization of the popular will and not of a stronger central power.
Is a temptation also for those who defend the social. It was the idea of a strong state, led by leaders with “charisma”, who led the world to a second world war, the networked society, and the network are people, needs to get out of their “social nihilism”.
It know what it takes to go through sacrifices to change, Jesus asked the apostles who wanted to sit beside him: “Can ye drink the cup that I drink?” Mk 10,38.
The great change we need requires a global citizenship, not a return to Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations” time, even though the feeling of nation and people is good


Sustainability and economy

09 Oct

Economic Nobel laureates William Nordhaus of Yale University and Paul Romer of New York University, though the entire press is talking only about the weather aspect, has the technology side as fundamental, Romer has made important theses in this area.
I leave the comments on William Nordhaus on “Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change” for economists and ecologists, I can not assess the scope of their work.
Romer won mainly for his work “Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth” because the joint award is justified by the aspect of sustainability, but his work “Endogenous Technological Change” has equal importance.
Just to get an idea, the technology article has more than 27,000 quotations, because the central thesis that technology helps the development, contradicts the fallacy that technology harms the development and helps the concentration of income, against this also worked Elinor Ostrom (the first woman Nobel laureate in economics), Saskia Sassen and even the Marxist Frederic Jamenson.
The definition requires knowledge of the Solow Grow Growth Model (Jones, 1988), which indicates that exogenous technical progress is understood as external influence, as well as endogenous is what has internal influence, ie central, since the analyzes are endogenously.
This happens for reasons not explained in the model, the endogenous innovation techniques of change assign technical progress to systematic efforts by economic agents, an innovation is clearly not a predicted factor in a system.
The model explains, for example, how many companies could start spending resources by improving technology rather than simply increasing amounts of resources and capital, one might think, but the company will lay off, it is not so.
If the additional costs are only relative to technology they can and are generally smaller than the investments in liabilities and personnel, it is not directly justifying the layoffs, what happens is that the innovation disables some functions, but creates new, often in number equal or even higher and with higher salaries for specialization.
To understand these effects there is a work, what I read for this post, written with Luis A. Rivera-Batiz (pdf), titled. “International trade with endogenous technological change”, in which they use two fundamental sectors in the industry: a research and development sector that produces innovations, and another, manufacturing.

Jones C (1998). Introduction to Economic Growth. W.W. Norton, 1998, 1rst Edition, 2002 Second Edition.


Between ingenuity, innocence and malice

05 Oct

Naïve (ingenus in Latim) comes from ingenuus, that is, free from birth, the naive does not have malice, it is a quality, especially for children, but of these we must say innocence, there is no acquisition of knowledge and experience, yet a capacity to discern between evil in day-to-day attitudes, those who vote are not innocent.

Perhaps some naïve, but without excuse to cooperate with what is confessedly hateful, disrespectful to the human being whatever race, belief or party, what can be seen is that general disbelief can lead to attitudes that do not perceive malice and cunning.

It is important to keep from childhood some purity of feeling, a belief in life and in people, but it is dangerous if maturity does not come and cruelty is not perceived.

Words, behavior, and even people’s gaze can say a great deal, it is unacceptable, so that adults, who are the people who vote, do not perceive malice. It is a fact that we have reached a point of social, moral and even affective imbalance, which cannot admit is that this justifies violence of some kind, which offends everyone.

Let’s make an option, which should last 4 years, the structure of the country will be decided now.

Any violation of fundamental rights, of opinion, of coming and going, of civil rules will be unacceptable, and will certainly be opposed by many Brazilians who have fought for democracy.

We also hope that a probable second round will bring more debate on the proposal and what the program of the candidates for the second round is, and we will overcome the confusing stage of debates in this first round of the Brazilian election.

May we still look upon the innocence of a child and wish him the best future. 


Idealism and the bread of the life

10 Aug

Peter Sloterdijk’s Critique of Cynic Reason of the 80s is a direct allusion to Kant’s classic Critique of Pure Reason, it is impossible to read in one breath, and also difficult to agree on at first reading, but two things strike my eyes the fact that we live in a time of lost innocence, everything is cruel and cynical, and the fact that we have become “accomplices,” academics and scholars in particular, from a general disorientation, from politics to the sacred.

Sloterdijk works alongside Rüdiger Safranski, biographer of Kant and Heidegger, until 2012, is therefore an attentive and accredited reader for the reading of the current world, and especially for Kant’s critique, in our view the most fundamental of our time.

 In a 2016 interview, for Borders of Thought, the philosopher clarifies Feuerbach’s misconception that God is a projection of humanity into heaven, and for Marx, religions would be an erroneous invention of mankind.

Before making a difference between the naive illusion, it exists in the less enlightened layers of society, and the “enlightened false consciousness,” which is its definition of cynicism, makes it clear that religions are part of the more comprehensive (and not the only) which he calls culture.

It is Sloterdijk’s way of explaining that idealism could only do this, I make a shorter way separating subjects from objects is the easiest way to make objects “ideal” including all conceptions of these in cultures (Sloterdijk’s immune systems ) and demand from the subjects an “ideal” behavior of relation to objects.

I make a religious contrast with the bread of life, the concrete food of humanity, for bread is in almost every culture and bread is not a direct food of nature, but wheat “processed” by man, in other words a product human being sacralized as food of life, and that in the pedagogical use of Jesus becomes sacred, without ceasing to be a real object: bread.

In John 6: 49-50 one can read the update of the Manna of the Desert from the time of Moses: Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and yet they died. Here is the bread that comes down from heaven: whoever eats it will never die “, a direct relation between subject and object, which can not even be separated.


The Geopolitics of Artificial Intelligence

06 Aug

Due to overzealousness with distortions of technology use, a delayed entry into the educational and entrepreneurial sectors, some countries and industrialized nations begin to lose the foot of the technological race.

This has become more serious in the last two years, when technologies related to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have become emerging.

Some authors speak of the fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0, where the issue is no longer the simple digital automation of existing jobs, but the total transformation of the model into digital, this means creating models of production, business, innovation and technological convergence in order to allow mass data processing and machine learning, this frightens by the social implications, but can not cause paralysis.

An emergency field that can help job creation is the “collaborative economy,” where Wikipedia and Uber are clearer examples, but there are many others. In the field of geopolitics it is easy to understand why the United States and China are winning this battle with ease, in addition to the economic and school structure for this, their transnational corporations in Europe, Russia and many other countries guarantee sustainable development and insertion in the market, but the the main issue is the non-negative criticism of the use of technologies and the understanding of the social aspects of this option.

A report by the Ecuadorian-British journalist Sally Burch, in the magazine América Latina en Movimento: integración en tempos de incertidumbre, 07-2018, shows the still incipient movement of this scenario in Latin America, without a serious political scenario.



Whatsapp will monetize

02 Aug

According to Facebook information Whatsapp since 2014, the most popular chat in the world will monetize and sell ads, there are curious things about it, like buying ads within Facebook and they circulate in WhatsApp.

To buy ads within Facebook itself will be put a built-in button in WhatsApp embedded, when users click on this element, they will immediately start a conversation by the messenger of the company making the announcement, it is not known if there will be intelligence detecting the conversation, be talking about travel and at the same time arise offers of flight, on Facebook this already happens.

Curiously, if the person is answered within 24 hours, there will be no charge for the deal made when talking to WhatsApp users, if the response is over 24 hours, the “messages due” dialogs will be charged.

A new feature that can greatly explore users will be able to receive company information directly from WhatsApp.

The example again is that of an area company, which may send you boarding passes a few hours before your flight, and Netflix already sends warnings about new seasons and episodes of the series that you have watched in the streaming service.

Strictly speaking WhatsApp Business has existed since January of this year, but did not generate a penny for the company, the company launched on Wednesday a service API.

It remains to be seen what will be the reaction of the users, since this will put a “noise” in conversations that should be private, and the use of personal information is somewhat questionable.