Arquivo para a ‘Economia’ Categoria

What characterizes the changes today

07 Mar

In order to change social structures, it was necessary for a long time to mobilize formal structures capable of reacting to structures of power that oppressed the feeling of change in various ways, feeling and emotion were always present, saying that they are emotional now is a mistake, it is due the old idealist separation between objective and subjective motivation.
The virtual is real are coming, not just because of the speed, intensity and quantity of devices able to connect people almost permanently regardless of distances.
The virtual depends on the updating, and therefore is opposite to the current and not the real, even in the space of the imaginary, where the cultural cosmologies are composed, the virtual is close to a cultural real.
What is changing now is that it is possible through the use of communication to establish real (not just virtual) links between people and to mobilize them for a reaction to structures of domination, and those who are unaware that information is available on the net and can being hacked, the last one is the football leaks that shook the world of soccer, by the denunciations of the Portuguese Rui Pinto.
As Manuel Castells explains, social movements have always had at the origin the feelings of shared injustice and indignation, what changes today is that these networked technologies allow a collective subject, but of course this can be negative.
Castells explains that this is not a utopia, but what is happening, and that technology is not decisive, but is influential, as McLuhan says by changing the means and changing communication, change social relations.
The structures of the old state, groups of religious and ideological polarization weaken, and a more real society comes to light than that whose state, for its vices and its virtues appear, the vehicles of communication all controlled by editorial groups and the old ones oligarchies dominated and retained power.
Castells explains this in a 2013 video:


Good trip! Passengers to space

04 Mar

Elon Musk after revolutionizing the Tesla car, here in Lisbon I got in and I’m trying to test drive, after the revolutionary solar battery (do not adopt because of the electric and diesel trusts), now the first space travel with passenger was made. 
The SpaceX spacecraft, the first of a private project whose $ 250 million cost is a quarter of NASA’s cost, and has already docked at the orbital station on a quiet trip, still no passengers.
The tourist who paid part of the project is Yusaku Maezawa, a businessman who sold some in the mail and today has a clothing sales site called Zozotown, his identity was a long time in secret, Tesla’s BRF (Big Falcon Rocket) ship is reusable and was propelled by the Falcon 9 rocket, and should return to Earth in a week.
Maezawa’s project called DearMoon involves artist he enjoys and it’s a futuristic poetry without fail to have a business side.
SpaceX plans to reach Mars in 2022.
The details of the 8 tickets bought by Maezawa and her artistic dream are:



Disenchantment and hope

15 Feb

Not only a conservatism that returns in the US, Brazil, now in Europe as well, but also na impotence of change expressed in outdated speeches, without any appeal although there are fanatics, as in Venezuela or even in Russia, everything seems stagnant.
There is little hope for those who are hungry, who live in inequality or social intolerance, it is also the cry of minorities, it is worth remembering that no dictatorship gives them rights, where can come hopes and paths?
Mia Couto: “The greatest misfortune of a poor nation is that instead of producing wealth, it produces riches,” he and the French sociologist Michel Maffesoli speak and insist on re-enchantment, it is possible amid setbacks looking to the future.
Both talk about looking at what is already young again, it is disenchantment to perceive only the negative, we repeat what we did not accept in our parents: not accept the new of the young.
I remember the long hair, the faded pants, the “loud music” at the beginning of the Rolling Stones, then Black Sabbath when I was young I watched the movie The Last Waltz (picture) I thought: will I start to grow old.
The film included Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Ronnie Wood, Muddy Waters, Neil Young, Neil Diamond, Van Morrison,
Bobby Charles, Dr. John, Paul Butterfield, and others, spoke of a Canadian band, which ended in a good, no-nonsense and
no-scandal, made this last concert, in a film directed by Martin Scorcese (1978), but I was still very young, what then?
It began a disenchantment, yes, he saw that the thought he thought revolutionary was not so much, and that the changes he anticipated would not happen, in the middle of 90 begins Grasnost (transparency in Russian) and then the Perestroika, the world of fact has changed.
But there is still the concentration of income, violence against nature and a society more and more tiredness, will there be in re-enchantment?
We must have hope, says the Bible reading (Luke 6:21): “Blessed are you who are hungry now, because you will be satisfied! Blessed are you who now weep, for you shall laugh! “. 

There will be a restructuration and the forces of change will reappear, is possible a pacific changing of world. 




Where does Europe go?

22 Jan

Three issues take over the European news: the upcoming European parliamentary elections in late May, the UK exit in March and the yellow jackets in France.
While this is the conference in Davos that does not seem to bother with these issues, the absences of France, the United Kingdom and the United States show something strange.
With regard to the European elections, Makron’s fragile situation in France and Merkel’s term come to an end, less so in Germany where a new leader seems to have emerged, the new leader of the newly elected Christian Democratic Union Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (AKK) with 99% of the votes and could become the next German chancellor in 2021.
“I learned that leadership has more to do with inner strength than with outside noise,” says AKK (pictured with Merkel) who rejects the title of “mini Merkel” that says they would not say this from a man, is more docile and more determined than Merkel, has 3 children and her husband always accompanies her.
Two European parties lead the bloc the EPP (European People’s Party which are in the Christian Democrats) which has 265 deputies and the S & D (Socialist and Progressive Democrats) with 184 deputies, but the right with liberals and reformists promises to grow, just look the scenario of the countries and the exit of the United Kingdom, that will be in March.
France and Germany lead in number of deputies, have respectively 96 and 74 deputies out of a total of 751, in addition the German leader AKK speaks French well, and this block is fundamental to fight the nationalist wave that can weaken the European Union. Brexit, leaving the UK less and less united and more fragmented because of leaving the European Union, affects the European bloc in the sense that it can create a wave and also because it has a significant number of left-center deputies due to its still very strong in a UK divided by Brexit itself.
The yellow jackets seem too organized to actually represent any social contestation, to some analysts it seems somewhat orchestrated to strengthen a new kind of nationalism that has little or nothing to do with the actual population, kept to the right proportions, somewhat reminiscent of the demonstrations of 2013 in Brazil.


Pause time: can we

26 Nov

There is still a remnant of November and December already appearing on the horizon, everyone is waiting for something we should always do: pause, wait and meet with friends and family, the question is: do we succeed?
Looking at the world, the dark signs continue, bigger than liquids, because if something were really changed from the solid to the liquid, it would even be desirable because something is moving, but it seems like the sameness, everything is going to look the same.
The protests against Macron and his taxes, is not so different from Portugal or Brazil, the state is huge and weighs on society, who will pay the bills, and the retirees will be the ones who will pay the bill? uncertainties and a single thing really clear: crisis of time.
There are signs of a revival, a word used by the philosopher Martha Nussbaum, I would say yes, but just where the heaviest criticism falls: the globalized world, the internet and the “solid” state that is taking a darker, dangers right.
I participated in a 100 year event of Priest Manuel Antunes, this transdisciplinary man, was the theme of a lecture written with a friend in his work Repensar Portugal, said that it was necessary to seek in politics, the “temperate zones” where human nature is more comfortable, but the 2018 sample is from more radicalized regions, in the bad sense of the term.
It is necessary to pause, even when forced and in discomfort, to look at the future so that it is possible to have hope, peace and a closer approach of the peoples, the national radicalism is perverse, Europe sews a possible agreement for the exit of England from the block , the so-called Brexit.
The US ends the end of the year with the dreamed Trump Wall, and Mexicans pushing across the wall, proving that it was not a solution but the announcement of a crisis.
New governments to the right in Brazil and Colombia, the left in Mexico wins after many years of a party monopolizing power, while Nicaragua and Venezuela parade catastrophic left-wing governments, Bolivia, Ecuador and Uruguay are in temperate zones.
Thinking about a more integrated world, climate issue and income distribution has become more difficult, what can be expected is a vigorous reaction of human thought, man has always been able to face the challenges that have appeared, perhaps the retreat is a resumption


Web Summit in Lisbon

08 Nov

One of the biggest events of the Web was this week, it was a side event, I could only follow videos and news, undoubtedly the biggest star was the founder of the Web Tim-Berners Lee who already has a great new project, although he has spoken between the lines.

He started an interview, which in fact he spoke at will without many questions saying the beginning of the Web and how his growth was also surprising for him, he told technical details like “I wrote the code of the first server and the code of the first browser, it was called “and was on

He then said that his concern is the same as everyone, after 25 years we should deal with: cyberbullying, misinformation, hate speech, privacy issues and said what many are talking about, “What the hell could go wrong?” to the public: “in the first 15 years … great things have happened. We had Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, blogs, we had cats, “he said jokingly, adding:” Connected Humanity should be more constructive, more peaceful, than Humanity disconnected”, but jnt (just not).

“Because we are almost at the point where half of the world will be online”, explained the British engineer was referring to the ’50 / 50′ moment, that is half the connected humanity expected in 50 years, but it should reach this point in May 2019.

After trying to argue the responsibilities of governments and companies, I believe they can happen but they will be slow, he spoke indirectly of his SOLID (Social Linked Data) project, stating that “as individuals we have to hold corporations and governments accountable for what is happening on the internet ” and “the idea is, from now on, everyone is responsible for making the Web a better place, “said encouraging start-ups too to get into this process.

Thinking about the development of interfaces where users know people from different cultures, but above all ensure the universality of the Web, according to Berners-Lee the main aspect should be (speaking indirectly again of SOLID) that the popular intervention at global level and that made the Web “just a platform, without attitude, that should be independent, can be used for any kind of information, any culture, any language, any hardware, software”, linked data may help this.

 Tim Berners-Lee presented the #ForTheWeb movement on the same day that his World Wide Web Foundation released the report “The Case for the Web”, the event had a superaudience, more than 30 thousand people, there are several videos, but the Opening Ceremony is one of the most outstanding and has Tim-Berners Lee as well, see on vídeo:


The will to power and the sacred

19 Oct

It is a fact that Nietzsche’s concepts are strong: in our instincts the ideas of the will for power are always present, while nothing changes we remain in the eternal return (Ewige Wiederkehr) and we imagine a superman (übermensch), however this is a form of emptying, nihilism.
There are other instincts that bind us to the sacred, the idea of serving and respect for the other (which are the limits to our will), and without them any scope of our social relation can fall into what I will call “social nihilism”, or that is, the emptying of social thought.
Limited to the will to power, it is only our instincts that speak, and the attitudes even in politics become emotional, in love in the bad sense, it is possible to fall in love with the Good.
I place Capital well because it should not be confused with the Manichaean good, by imagining that we are fighting against an often symbolic “evil” (read Paul Ricoeur’s The Symbolic of Evil) we return in “eternal return” to our instincts of power and intolerance.
The point that Nietzsche was right about is that such instincts exist, they lead to the false concept of authority as an iron hand, and these lead to totalitarianisms, even in everyday life, that empty the sense of education, of service, what I call of “social nihilism”.
Linked to the sacred this concept is purified, can become generosity, benevolence and even a theological virtue that is “charity”, and without this “social nihilism” is a way. This is what makes even people with good intention fall into the temptation of the blue fly, power for power, even the disciples who walked beside Jesus had this “temptation”, ask Jesus in your kingdom: “let us sit a right and another to your left “(Mc, 10,37).
Jesus will say that they do not know what they are asking, we would say today they do not know what they choose, the idea of a strong power that solves deep social issues, that depend on a new worldview, to leave the eternal return, depends on the mobilization of the popular will and not of a stronger central power.
Is a temptation also for those who defend the social. It was the idea of a strong state, led by leaders with “charisma”, who led the world to a second world war, the networked society, and the network are people, needs to get out of their “social nihilism”.
It know what it takes to go through sacrifices to change, Jesus asked the apostles who wanted to sit beside him: “Can ye drink the cup that I drink?” Mk 10,38.
The great change we need requires a global citizenship, not a return to Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations” time, even though the feeling of nation and people is good


Sustainability and economy

09 Oct

Economic Nobel laureates William Nordhaus of Yale University and Paul Romer of New York University, though the entire press is talking only about the weather aspect, has the technology side as fundamental, Romer has made important theses in this area.
I leave the comments on William Nordhaus on “Economics and Policy Issues in Climate Change” for economists and ecologists, I can not assess the scope of their work.
Romer won mainly for his work “Increasing Returns and Long Run Growth” because the joint award is justified by the aspect of sustainability, but his work “Endogenous Technological Change” has equal importance.
Just to get an idea, the technology article has more than 27,000 quotations, because the central thesis that technology helps the development, contradicts the fallacy that technology harms the development and helps the concentration of income, against this also worked Elinor Ostrom (the first woman Nobel laureate in economics), Saskia Sassen and even the Marxist Frederic Jamenson.
The definition requires knowledge of the Solow Grow Growth Model (Jones, 1988), which indicates that exogenous technical progress is understood as external influence, as well as endogenous is what has internal influence, ie central, since the analyzes are endogenously.
This happens for reasons not explained in the model, the endogenous innovation techniques of change assign technical progress to systematic efforts by economic agents, an innovation is clearly not a predicted factor in a system.
The model explains, for example, how many companies could start spending resources by improving technology rather than simply increasing amounts of resources and capital, one might think, but the company will lay off, it is not so.
If the additional costs are only relative to technology they can and are generally smaller than the investments in liabilities and personnel, it is not directly justifying the layoffs, what happens is that the innovation disables some functions, but creates new, often in number equal or even higher and with higher salaries for specialization.
To understand these effects there is a work, what I read for this post, written with Luis A. Rivera-Batiz (pdf), titled. “International trade with endogenous technological change”, in which they use two fundamental sectors in the industry: a research and development sector that produces innovations, and another, manufacturing.

Jones C (1998). Introduction to Economic Growth. W.W. Norton, 1998, 1rst Edition, 2002 Second Edition.


Between ingenuity, innocence and malice

05 Oct

Naïve (ingenus in Latim) comes from ingenuus, that is, free from birth, the naive does not have malice, it is a quality, especially for children, but of these we must say innocence, there is no acquisition of knowledge and experience, yet a capacity to discern between evil in day-to-day attitudes, those who vote are not innocent.

Perhaps some naïve, but without excuse to cooperate with what is confessedly hateful, disrespectful to the human being whatever race, belief or party, what can be seen is that general disbelief can lead to attitudes that do not perceive malice and cunning.

It is important to keep from childhood some purity of feeling, a belief in life and in people, but it is dangerous if maturity does not come and cruelty is not perceived.

Words, behavior, and even people’s gaze can say a great deal, it is unacceptable, so that adults, who are the people who vote, do not perceive malice. It is a fact that we have reached a point of social, moral and even affective imbalance, which cannot admit is that this justifies violence of some kind, which offends everyone.

Let’s make an option, which should last 4 years, the structure of the country will be decided now.

Any violation of fundamental rights, of opinion, of coming and going, of civil rules will be unacceptable, and will certainly be opposed by many Brazilians who have fought for democracy.

We also hope that a probable second round will bring more debate on the proposal and what the program of the candidates for the second round is, and we will overcome the confusing stage of debates in this first round of the Brazilian election.

May we still look upon the innocence of a child and wish him the best future. 


Idealism and the bread of the life

10 Aug

Peter Sloterdijk’s Critique of Cynic Reason of the 80s is a direct allusion to Kant’s classic Critique of Pure Reason, it is impossible to read in one breath, and also difficult to agree on at first reading, but two things strike my eyes the fact that we live in a time of lost innocence, everything is cruel and cynical, and the fact that we have become “accomplices,” academics and scholars in particular, from a general disorientation, from politics to the sacred.

Sloterdijk works alongside Rüdiger Safranski, biographer of Kant and Heidegger, until 2012, is therefore an attentive and accredited reader for the reading of the current world, and especially for Kant’s critique, in our view the most fundamental of our time.

 In a 2016 interview, for Borders of Thought, the philosopher clarifies Feuerbach’s misconception that God is a projection of humanity into heaven, and for Marx, religions would be an erroneous invention of mankind.

Before making a difference between the naive illusion, it exists in the less enlightened layers of society, and the “enlightened false consciousness,” which is its definition of cynicism, makes it clear that religions are part of the more comprehensive (and not the only) which he calls culture.

It is Sloterdijk’s way of explaining that idealism could only do this, I make a shorter way separating subjects from objects is the easiest way to make objects “ideal” including all conceptions of these in cultures (Sloterdijk’s immune systems ) and demand from the subjects an “ideal” behavior of relation to objects.

I make a religious contrast with the bread of life, the concrete food of humanity, for bread is in almost every culture and bread is not a direct food of nature, but wheat “processed” by man, in other words a product human being sacralized as food of life, and that in the pedagogical use of Jesus becomes sacred, without ceasing to be a real object: bread.

In John 6: 49-50 one can read the update of the Manna of the Desert from the time of Moses: Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and yet they died. Here is the bread that comes down from heaven: whoever eats it will never die “, a direct relation between subject and object, which can not even be separated.