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Arquivo para a ‘Economia’ Categoria

The gap between rich and poor

23 Sep

The most varied studies, we commented on some in this week’s posts, point to a practically stable separation between rich and poor when not growing in some countries, this model can never guarantee sustainable social human development, wars and pandemics increase this gap even more.

The most serious problem that is extreme poverty, we have already analyzed and published in February this year an analysis of global poverty, and also, in another post, the social problem after covid 19.

The sustainability of human economic and social development depends not only on increasing wealth and social production, it is necessary to find a balance where both social mobility of classes and ethnic mobility provide sustainability and overcome inequalities.

The problem of sustainability is not secondary, many models distribute wealth but impoverish the country as a whole, this is because the investment aspects and safer strategies of economic models are only thought of around income distribution, the opposite where there is only an increase without distribution is less sustainable.

For this model, the biblical parable of Lazarus and the Rich man, the poor man who lived on the margins and when the rich see himself condemned, here the parable is valid both personally and socially, asks that he be allowed to warn his relatives of this risk, but says the biblical prophets already said and you didn’t listen, how many people and political actions have already denounced the serious social gap.

For those who don’t know, the biblical parable says (Lk 16:19-24): “At that time, Jesus said to the Pharisees: 19 “There was a rich man, who dressed in fine and elegant clothes and held splendid parties every day. A poor man named Lazarus, full of wounds, was on the ground, at the rich man’s door. He wanted to satisfy his hunger with the leftovers that fell from the rich man’s table. And besides, the dogs came to lick their wounds. When the poor man died, the angels took him to Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried. In the region of the dead, in the midst of torments, the rich man lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham from afar, with Lazarus by his side. Then he cried out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me! Tell Lazarus to wet the tip of his finger to cool my tongue, because I suffer a lot in these flames”. 

The rich man also asked to warn the living relatives, and he was reminded that they had (and have) the prophets.

 

For a sustainable social democracy

22 Sep

The Brazilian magazine Exame brought an interesting interview with Argentine Pablo Acosta, Human Development leader at the World Bank in Brazil and Brazilian Ildo Lautharte Junior Economist of Global Education Practice, although the focus is on “human capital”, the data presented and the discussion around income growth and distribution is important.

The analysis is optimistic about the country, but looking at the data on unshared prosperity, and the data must be validated and checked for an analysis, it shows what is on the agenda in the social discussion, the social inclusion of blacks and indigenous people.

Acosta did not fail to point out regional disparities and stated that “in particular, I would say that the differences by racial groups are quite noticeable, not only at current levels, but in progress over the last decade”, as shown in the chart above.

The graph indicates the HCI (Human Capital Index) and the interviews see the underutilization of human social development potential, seen only from the economic perspective, which only values ​​the aspect of this “human capital”, with the only economic focus being notorious.

In terms of democratic sustainability, not only economic and social development is important, but also the overcoming of inequalities and prejudices, they are vectors that prevent greater mobility and concentrate wealth and, consequently, power in the hands of a few.

The aspect of social vulnerability of layers below the poverty line is not touched either, these indices not only prevent these layers from any social progress, but also compromise future generations in terms of human development, or as economists want, the “human capital”. ”.

The report also brings the strong impact of the Pandemic on the economy, called by the Brazilian Lautharte the lost decade, he highlights: “The main objective of the report is to put people at the center of the debate. Bringing the child to the center of the development process, in an idea of recomposing the impacts of the pandemic”.

Affirmative post-pandemic policies that point to a little or nothing resumption are being discussed, on the eve of an election in the country, it is necessary to understand these lost years.

Reference:

Banco Mundial: por que o Brasil desperdiça 40% de seus talentos — e o que fazer para mudar o cenário | Exame

 

Democracy and the poor

21 Sep

The serious democratic crisis that affects almost all Western and some Eastern countries has a clear and decisive aspect: the forgetfulness of the most unprotected sections of the population.

Governments were not able to effectively solve the problem of income distribution and where hopes were greater, economic errors and misguided allies among the powerful contributed to a greater distrust of the population.

Politics is driven by money, even spending limits find ways to be circumvented and for this, allies are needed among the rich, most of the time the most dishonest and according to corruption and the use of public money, one enters in a vicious circle.

With the wider dissemination in social media (“networks”), ideologically directed information does not work and amidst fake news, there are those news that everyone knows: the allies among the powerful that feed corruption and misuse of public resources.

The gigantism of the state helps this, it controls capital flows, of course when well managed and when it doesn’t, it throws nations into pits of misery and lack of investment, many countries are on this path.

What is left for politics is not to do well-crafted social justice, without demagoguery and with sustainable long-term planning, on a social populism that the people themselves distrust, and often leads to the option of authoritarian governments and even worse, or else leads to social populism: it promises what it doesn’t deliver.

It is necessary to reflect for a conscious vote, without a fair and balanced society, a sustainable and healthy democracy is not possible, we are taken to dangerous extremes and an uncertain future.

It is necessary to rethink the democratic society in social parameters sustainable.

 

End of the pandemic in sight

19 Sep

This was the statement of WHO´s Director General Tedros Adhanom on September 14, last Wednesday, but then he asked that the pandemic continue to be monitored.

Consultant Sylvia Lemos from the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases also told CNN: “It is something that encourages the prospect that something may be ending the end of the pandemic, but it does not mean that the world is free of surprises”, and she also asks for caution. stating that “more sustainable data is still needed”.

The protocols are that in general the use of masks is optional, but hygiene and ventilation care are not expendable, also environments where the use of mask is imperative, as there are still sanitary environments such as hospitals and places of greater danger. .

According to the infectologist, in addition to the fact that every viral infection is cyclic, the last strain must also have lost strength and not have new stronger variants, and it is obvious that vaccination helped.

The country has the lowest rates since 2020, and the downward trend in deaths and cases remains.

It is necessary to understand how the infectious disease specialist reminds us that the action of the virus “does not end” and that science will dictate the new measures to be taken from now on, such as whether there will be annual vaccinations and the prevention of risk groups.

Unless new facts occur, our weekly monitoring of the pandemic will be more sporadic.

 

 

Be fair in the little things

16 Sep

Money is in history and in life just a symbol of exchanges and goods that must circulate socially so that everyone has a dignified and fair life, dealing with it is something that should be treated with the same respect that people socially deserve.

A fair person is also fair in small things, social injustice does not start with big robberies, they are an indication that those people do or will one day do greater social injustices.

The public sphere is corrupted when those who determine social justice: rulers, judges and legislators have lost the notion and values ​​that small thefts and injustices can lead to big ones and make the whole society corrupt, then everyone will say this is normal.

When these values ​​start to become dubious, it means that morally society as a whole is shrouded in corruption, immorality and a great lack of ethics, everything that is public begins to fall apart and there appear profiteers and opportunists who will make use of public corruption.

The biblical reading (Lk 16,1-13) which speaks of a manager who, seeing that he was going to be fired, starts to negotiate with the debtors of a rich man, and calls the debtors and begins to reduce the debts, so it is not a smart but dishonest administrator.

The parable seems strange if it has not been read to the end, because when he begins to relieve his debts to save himself, he reveals his true character, which was to squander the master’s goods, says the reading in verses Lk 16, 10-11: “Whoever is not faithful in small things will not be faithful in great things either, and if you are not faithful in the use of unjust money, who will entrust you with true good?”.

The true good is nothing other than a full life, not only eternal life for those who believe, but also an earthly life, difficult perhaps, but serene for those who have not included in their daily life, in the “little things”, deviation, the theft and corruption of other people’s things or public goods.

Small vices lead to big ones, and they cannot lead to a full life, but increasingly troubled, more greed and lack of control of consumption and of life itself, it is the bad administrator who squandered the rich man’s goods, that is, we throw the real riches of life outside because of greed and consumerism.

 

 

 

 

Money, morals and ethics

15 Sep

As we established in the previous post, whatever the form of exchanges, in our current context bank cards, although bitcoin digital money has appeared in this scenario, which is controversial, at the basis of every relationship is the exchange of goods in markets.

So it is not money, but markets that can be corrupted by the practices of setting prices for products, and this is what can be ethical and moral or not, including practices that lead to corruption, favoring exchanges and market positions with some illegal rewards that are paid to people in decision-making positions.

Thus, markets are not limited to distributing goods, they also express and promote certain attitudes in relation to exchanged products: favoring reading in children, auctioning vacancies in educational institutions that are key to high positions and even hiring foreign mercenaries in wars.

Also the payment of professionals for fair values ​​and consistent with the minimum standard of living and what is already a practically global issue: the levels of social security that guarantee everyone a minimum level of income for a healthy and dignified life.

As for moral values, countless examples can also be given, perhaps the clearest is a friend for whom you pay is not the same as a friend for whom you have a free friendship.

The relations of friendship and respect that we maintain towards all other people, whether in our circle or not, whether our political, religious or ethnic preference or not, signify a higher moral value than those values, that money “pays for”.  and for which one has “respect”.

Byung Chul Han explains that where respect is gone, the public sphere goes into decline, and this is the root of the deep civilizational crisis they are experiencing, the social, economic and political effects are just a consequence, when laws must prevent disrespect is sign of decadence and serious crisis in the public sphere.

 

What is money

14 Sep

Until arriving at the form we know today, money went through several changes, at the beginning, historians say that around the 7th century BC. coins in gold and silver appeared, which had an equivalent value to the goods that were purchased, thus avoiding the difficult direct exchange of goods, a rudimentary economy called barter.

In the Medical Age, the custom of keeping coins with goldsmiths arose and, as a guarantee, a receipt was given, this is the origin of “paper money” or paper money as we know it today, to avoid counterfeiting the type of paper and printing. It got more sophisticated.

Gold keepers are the origin of modern banks, so they had the “ballast”, the gold equivalent of the value of the commodity, and indebted people could deliver their goods in jewelry, other and silver for pledge, a kind of guarantee they would pay. debt in the future.

The equivalent in commodities was called ballast, and the value that each commodity had depends on its price. Initially, trades were carried out in ports or in places where commodity buyers went to trade, the modern form is the stock exchanges.

With the banks having the real values ​​in gold and silver, they could offer credit to buyers and investors both to produce goods and to pay debts or make some type of investment in markets that they believe to be promising, with the electronic and digital universe credit cards emerged, modern version of borrowers’ letters of credit in banks.

The financial market has become more sophisticated and today it is itself a type of “commodity”, stronger nations start to have a stronger “currency”, in practice however this does not have an equivalent or an exactly corresponding value in goods and this leads to a financialization from the market.

Currency itself, or its equivalent, takes on a value that is often artificial and this comes into play in trade wars around the world, so, for example, Russia wants to receive for the sale of its gas and oil the equivalent in rubles (Russian currency) and not in dollars or euros (US and European currencies, respectively) and this is commoditization.

It would be a return to the initial values ​​of barter equivalents, a reorganization of the entire world economy into equivalent commodity values, and this would remain free trade.

 

 

Doctors are for the sick

12 Sep

Number of cases and studies of studies falling for a perception that the pandemic would have come to an end, it is from a certain number of studies as in cases, but as much as studies of studies scientists continue to advance in future treatments

Diseases were little known and medicine at the time was too expensive to have no purchasing power, even the fact that a paralytic was placed in the presence of Jesus descending through the ceiling, has a mistaken interpretation, they would not let him pass.

It is a fact that we already have chairs and seats in the queues for elders, pregnant women and the sick, but there is still a mentality of the community of the pure, the saints or the perfect, after all, efficiency cannot come from those who are not physically prepared for it.

This was how the pandemic was dealt with, many said that the sick isolate themselves and society will continue its rhythm, but what we saw was society as a whole losing its rhythm, and the result of this pressure gradually turned into many psychic diseases. , even for those who made them.

Treating and working with imperfection, illness and purity is only to promote the social integration of people, the idea of ​​being a “model” for others is a Kantian idea of ​​ethics, which can lead to an ethics and a partial view of sociability and what is imperfect.

In terms of religious culture, it leads to isolation, the formation of a bubble in which values ​​are reaffirmed, but many are excluded and are not invited to participate and live with differences, this is one of the main religious paradigms that Jesus broke in his time.

Talking to women, leaving space for children, healing lepers and cripples broke the Pharisaic concept of what was considered “unclean”, went against sinners and the sick.

It is true that the blind cannot guide the blind, but doctors are for the sick, says the biblical passage (Lk 15:1-3): “At that time, publicans and sinners came to Jesus to listen to him. The Pharisees, however, and the teachers of the Law criticized Jesus. “This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.” , then Jesus tells the parable of the lost sheep and then the prodigal son.

The Pharisaic mentality not only does not cure the sick, it becomes a social disease itself.

 

 

Doctors are for the sick

09 Sep

The society of the beginnings of Christianity, not only religious Pharisaism but also the whole culture was that society was for the healthy, the Greek saying “healthy mind in healthy body” is a way of expressing this, the sick should live on the margins society, often outside the city walls.

Diseases were little known and medicine at the time was too expensive to have no purchasing power, even the fact that a paralytic was placed in the presence of Jesus descending through the ceiling, has a mistaken interpretation, they would not let him pass.

It is a fact that we already have chairs and seats in the queues for elders, pregnant women and the sick, but there is still a mentality of the community of the pure, the saints or the perfect, after all, efficiency cannot come from those who are not physically prepared for it.

This was how the pandemic was dealt with, many said that the sick isolate themselves and society will continue its rhythm, but what we saw was society as a whole losing its rhythm, and the result of this pressure gradually turned into many psychic diseases. , even for those who made them.

Treating and working with imperfection, illness and purity is only to promote the social integration of people, the idea of ​​being a “model” for others is a Kantian idea of ​​ethics, which can lead to an ethics and a partial view of sociability and what is imperfect.

In terms of religious culture, it leads to isolation, the formation of a bubble in which values ​​are reaffirmed, but many are excluded and are not invited to participate and live with differences, this is one of the main religious paradigms that Jesus broke in his time.

Talking to women, leaving space for children, healing lepers and cripples broke the Pharisaic concept of what was considered “unclean”, went against sinners and the sick.

It is true that the blind cannot guide the blind, but doctors are for the sick, says the biblical passage (Lk 15:1-3): “At that time, publicans and sinners came to Jesus to listen to him. The Pharisees, however, and the teachers of the Law criticized Jesus. “This man welcomes sinners and eats with them.” , then Jesus tells the parable of the lost sheep and then the prodigal son.

The Pharisaic mentality not only does not cure the sick, it becomes a social disease itself.

 

 

The resilient pandemic and the possible future

05 Sep

The Covid 19 pandemic continues in declines followed by stability, as in Brazil in the last week, around 120 deaths and 10,000 known cases of virus infection.

Last week we highlighted the alert of several scientists that the next pandemic could be that of fungi, one of the biggest reports on this subject, which collects data, cases and several researchers in many countries, was published on August 6 by National Geographic.

It begins with a case of a 48-year-old smoker who went to Johns Hopkins Medicine hospital in Maryland (USA) where infectious disease specialist Shmauel Shoham, while investigating a possibility of cancer, detected a common Aspergillus fungus in the infection.

Then he cites India, where at a certain moment of Covid 19 a large number of invasive and quite deadly fungal infections, with a black mold caused a violent wave of deaths, which was reported worldwide, there is also the case of Candida auris, infection virulent fungus that transmits through the blood and came out of nowhere, as are fungi that depend on other organisms and infections for food.

According to the magazine of the five million species of existing fungi, only 120 thousand are known and studied, and of these only a few hundred can harm human beings.

With fungicides used in extensive agriculture, mortality rates from invasive fungal infections are estimated to grow by up to 50%, which translates, according to the magazine, to up to 1.6 million deaths and $7.2 million of medical costs per year, and given the challenge of accurate diagnoses is certainly an underestimated number.

Experts caution is the ability of fungi to evolve into microbes with increasing selective pressures that force them to adapt and a growing population of susceptible humans.

The fungi primarily attack agricultural production, but the liberal use of the medicinal equivalent for humans also poses unintended threats, warn experts in the report.

The report ends by stating that the threat of fungal pathogens has historically been underestimated and calls for greater study and preventive control in the area.

Reference:

Humans are not prepared for a pandemic caused by fungal infections (nationalgeographic.com)