Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

Democracy or identity politics

01 Jul

As soon as the term, initially identity politics, that of the genres, races and cultures that seek some respect and rights was popularized, there was not lacking those who hurriedly already throw themselves on the subject and did not deepen the question Among those who deepen the subject is the American political scientist and thinker.
Mark Lilla, whose specialty is the history of intellectuality, since speaking in philosophy is no more common, a professor at New York University, has one of the most read articles on theme, and has a video of his participation in the Frontiers of Thought.
asks three essential questions: What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality?
The latter seems strange but it is not, we post countless comments on idealism and its profound influence on contemporary culture, the intellectual history of Mark Lilla goes another way, but does not stop touching this essential issue: individualism. struggle for equality has won rights and has transformed society in a commendable and unquestionable way.
Until something changed. The search for a better world became the struggle for the world to recognize me. Mark Lilla explains the changes generated by this new paradigm.
What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality? His most read article last year in the New York Times, emphasizes that identities and flags of minority groups, the so-called identity politics embraced by the Demortal Party, are the primary responsible for the continued defeats of the left in the United States, would it be right? if we look at the Brazilian elections, I think that’s right.
First and foremost, it is not a question of abandoning these just flags, but of rethinking them to make the progress of humanity possible again and to avoid a setback. Follow the video of Mark Lilla, remembering that subtitles can be activated:


The crisis of religion and ignorance

26 Jun

In the foreword to the Brazilian edition of the book “The Essence of Christianity” (Feuerbach, 2007), the translator José da Silva Brandão presents a good synthesis of German thought and the root of the crisis of Western thought can be inserted in this context.
When Marx criticized religion, he did not criticize any religion, he criticized the synthesis of his time that hovered in the idealistic German thought, coming all practically from Kant, although later Schopenhauer and Nietzsche came to disrupt this, but also his thought can only be thought of From this crisis, Kierkegaard may perhaps be thought of, but his criticism is exactly the German philosophy of the time.
In the preface says the Brazilian translator: “after Kant, there were only two exits: either to legitimize human thought as something that only finds its element elaborable in the ideal and phenomenological field (Fichte, Shcelling and Hegel), or to recognize conscious knowledge is only an effect or superficial manifestation or even a representation of the most profound unconscious causes, such as instincts, desires, etc. (Schopenhauer, Eduard von Hartmann). “(Feuerbach, 2007, p.7), which is the presentation of the translator José da Silva Brandão.
It presents, in our view, Schleiermacher as a disciple of Hegel, he was a his reader, but his reintroduction of hermeneutics is fundamental to a critique of contemporary thought, by reducing God to what can be known by feeling.
For him as for many Hegelians “religion is anthropology” and not culture, this introduces religion into historical analysis and denies the existence of an essential and eternal Being. It is in this context that the so-called Hegelian Left appears, Marx calls them old Hegelians (Feuerbach, Strauss, Bruno Bauer, Max Stimer and Karl Marx who will break them), while the margin with two criticisms are Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Marx’s criticism of Feuerbach in the book Theses on Feuerbach is in fact theses against idealism and the old German idealism, in addition to the “idea” Feuerbach is an atheist theologian.
For Feuerbach, “man’s knowledge of God is only the self-knowledge of man and his own essence.”
He brings about a total reduction of theology and of all philosophy to anthropology since “the absolute being, the God of man, is his own essence” and it is in this anthropology that much of contemporary Christian thought is based, religious life continues.
This is religious alienation: to make as God something that, in fact, is unique and only the expression of man himself. Nietzsche will call this “death of God”, but its context will be different.
FEUERBACH, Ludwig. A essencia da cristandade (The essence of Christianity). Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2007.
EdgarMorin says that the education system does not only produce knowledge, it produces ignorance and blindness, here is a video in the Roda Viva Program of the year 2000:.


Consciousness and Freedom in Morin

25 Jun

Freedom, liberalism, autonomy of reason, possibilities of countless experiences this was the fascination of the man of modernity, however he forgot his being. In his works almost always functional, Edgar Morin says in Freedom Anthropology: “Freedom is a possibility of choice”, therefore, between real and possible possibilities, without leaving aside, of course, the possibility of exploring and understanding what is imaginary.
Modern man with rationalism and the exploitation of knowledge: “Sapere aude,” cried Kant, he wanted to get rid of the constraints of the environment, and with the possibilities of ample use of intelligence and conscience he found himself subject to norms, taboos, myths, ideas, beliefs and ultimately to society, which imposes laws and prohibitions.
But Morin warns that we are also possessed by our ideas, and not only him but a whole group of thinkers affirm that we walk towards uniformity.
He described his method of the empire of environments, with this it is necessary to replace the concept of external environment that imposes fatalities on living beings by the “idea” of dependent antonomy [1], we are subject to the physicochemical environment, for example, but these are integrated into a living self-organization [2].
The third point is to understand what autonomy means, a more concrete form of freedom, it is dependent on the external environment from which it withdraws energy and organization, all living autonomy is dependent [3].
Before we are born, we have already posed with respect to the fetus inside the mother, we have inherited genes from the parents, then in the external environment the forms of accidents, losses, encounters intervene, and within each one there are several decisions that cannot be taken as the logic of decision of a machine, this involves aspects of changes of values and even of states of the soul, a conversion to a faith or a deconversion with new effects.
In a recent talk, Morin said that we walked like sleepwalkers to disaster, this is not the direction of an autonomy of freedom, but rather the idea of a greater restriction, what Martha Nussbaum called the “empire of fear.”
We return to becoming automata, and as we walk as somnambulists, possessed of a certain automatism, a certain possession, but even being machines, we are non-trivial machines, but the ideal is to overcome the machine state and acquire true consciousness: consciousness of Being.
In consciousness is the act of self-affirmation of the subject and in the act of self-affirmation of the subject is the act of self-affirmation of consciousness.
With all the criticism of the current conditions, Morin says that it is possible to live the poetry, see the video:

[1] E. MORIN, La Méthode 1. Paris, Seuil, 1977; idem, La Méthode 2, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
[2] Idem, La Méthode 2, págs. 108-110.
[3] Its dependence on the ecosystem is circular. The living portion of the ecosystem (biocenosis) consists of the interaction between living beings and depends on them, which in turn depend on it.


The Spirit of Truth

14 Jun

The fact that truth is not logical but ontological returns the idea of Being, when penetrating this question, modernity finds a new course, in this way I encounter the Other, which is not the same and its rupture with idealism is inevitable, even if idealist pragmatism does.
Against the logical truth of Being of the Greek Parmendes, being is and non-Being is not, in the world that judges itself sensible, eternal and unchanging, there being no contradiction, there is no plurality, no distinction (which is not difference); only an inhuman and legalistic perfectionism.
The original truth, as Heidegger and his followers think, is the truth of Being, the clearing * die Lichtung), which makes possible the unfolding, the originality of creation founded on the common-belonging of Being and Man, it is Being between beings.
It lies in the direction of the Greek interpretation of truth as Alétheia, a-lethe, that is, non-forgetting and at the same time truth and not closed dogma, but in the sense of “discovery of reality”, ” , in the sense of presentation.
The question of truth is problematized by Heidegger in the context of what might be called an ontological hermeneutics, it is available to every person who wants to find it, and therefore opens himself to dialogue with all, openness to the Other to unveil plural truth.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In Christian reading of the truth, after the resurrection of Jesus and the manifestation of Pentecost, he announces to the disciples the coming “Spirit of Truth” (John 16:13): “When the Spirit of Truth comes, it will lead you to the full truth.
For he will not speak of himself, but he will speak all that he has heard; and he shall declare unto you the future things. ”
He will not speak for himself, this is the ontological sleep of some religious, which leads them to a false moral and legalism, this is the Christian clearing, forgotten along with the forgetfulness of Being.
Without dialogue with the distinguished (the different can be litigious), is dead word, idealism.


Lessons from Kant and his view of metaphysics

13 Jun

There is no doubt that everything referring to the spirit and subjectivity in Kant is intrinsically linked to the laws in the sense of modern laws, although they were only consolidated later, and this was his contribution, can read his book on logic , and what he thought as an idealistic philosophy for modernity.
Kant facilitates this view by expressing the scholastic meaning of the word, Philosophy would aim only at ability; on the contrary, his philosophy “within the limits of reason” would be true wisdom, not that which comes from above, but the rational-enlightenment: “In this scholastic meaning of the word, Philosophy aims only at ability; with respect to the concept of the world, on the contrary, it aims at utility.
From the first point of view it is, therefore, a doctrine of ability; of the latter, a doctrine of wisdom: – the lawmaker of reason, and to this extent the philosopher is not an artist of reason, but a legislator. “(Kant, 1992, p. 41).
What was constructed was to try to overcome a “philosophical dogma”, which aimed to elevate philosophy in a kind of “pure theory”, for him the dogmatic philosophies led to metaphysics, while knowledge in the “limits of reason” imposed cognitive borders. Kant contrasts his philosophy with scholasticism because of his clear separation between dogmatic philosophies descended from metaphysics of his own which has the main characteristic of knowing its limits and its cognitive frontiers.
Not by chance, near to this time did good philosophers also be scientists (in the modern sense), Hobbes, Kant himself, Descartes, Leibniz, and others, each with a specificity, but all with a view centered on reason and “laws” of State.
What happened was that the concept of dogma gradually gave way to the observation of empirical phenomena and a new way of dealing and a world view, the truth hitherto shrouded in metaphysics and philosophy as the first science gives way to scientism. This new mentality could already be noticed in Nicholas of Cusa, it cost the life of Giordano Bruno, that is, the change of the Greek conception of a world closed in a Being in the molds parmendians, thus the Being is, and the non-Being is not, without possibility of third hypothesis.
This new mentality could already be noticed in Nicholas of Cusa, it cost the life of Giordano Bruno, that is, the change of the Greek conception of a world closed in a Being in the molds parmendians, thus the Being is, and the non-Being is not, without possibility of third hypothesis.
The reason we attach this to the Christian idea of the Holy Spirit is exactly where the misunderstanding of Christian ideals for Enlightenment, the action of the spirit outside reason, was metaphysical, and the idea of transcendence was linked only to the objects of study, then came the empiricism.
Thus Kant’s general framework is to make epistemology, logic, and ethics central to philosophy, with Cosmology, Psychology, and Theology attached to a “special” metaphysics, and Ontology confined to a general, almost dead, ontology in your thinking.

KANT, I. Lógica (Tradução do texto original estabelecido por Gottlob Benjamin Jäsche de Guido Antônio de Almeida). Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Tempo Brasileiro: 1992. 


Morality and Moral of State

12 Jun

Like all idealist constructs, the principles of law, which I prefer to call state morality, are conceived by Kant both as subordinate to the moral imperative and as derived from it, though it is not so clear in its texts.
Making moral laws, or what we can call the minimum moral: respect and dignity of the person, right to opinion and other basic rights (health, food and housing), make them legal laws have an obvious difficulty if the desire is to become the legal laws a kind of particular law of moral laws, mainly from of the categorical imperative that is to become a model for the others, which individual would be this model is a problem.
The two fundamental points of Kant’s categorical imperative were the assertion that legal laws (laws of law) are moral laws, that they are not only subordinate to moral laws, but constitute a subclass of laws moral, and in the second there is a “moral concept” of that of a moral authority or faculty (Befugnis, moral faculties) to do all that is morally possible and to resist by force whoever tries to prevent someone from doing it.
The two points of questions that arise from this are how to admit that the categorical imperative as the principle of the laws of law that require only “legality”, that is, the conformity of external actions to universal laws?
The second is that it makes sense to admit the categorical imperative as the principle of laws that require only “legality,” that is, the conformity of external actions to universal laws?
The idea that the categorical imperative belongs, however, not only to conformity with universal laws, but also to unconditional, out of respect for these laws, leads to think of the legal laws as particular of moral laws, but as if they exclude an essential note to the concept of the latter (ie, unconditional conformity to laws)?
The principle of free will, which is fundamental in Christian freedom, is not the same as that of state liberalism, of the categorical imperative founded ultimately on individual liberty and not on the social limits of individual liberty.
This philosophy of idealistic morality, which is deontological, complements the teleological principle of “religion within the limits of simple reason”, builds a theological trap in which many have fallen, an idealistic religion is no different from atheism.


The teleology of Kant

11 Jun

Since Kant clearly has principles and reasonings different from religious, at least as far as Christianity is concerned, one can then analyze whether his teleology is consistent, in terms of what he calls the “moral law” and the “limits of reason. ”
Moral law is indissociable from the religious idea, it can even be said that this would be its argument in defense of the existence of God, and is in the first part of his writing: “Religion on the Limits of Simple Reason” (2008), but it is also in the beginning of the Critique of Practical Reason, for him a “fact” of reason.
The book on religion came in the years 1793 and 1794, ie Kant (1724-1804) was in his maturity of the 70 years, and thus was at the same time his intellectual maturity and his anguish before the religion, Nietszche even says in his “Death of God” and affirms that he even wanted to erect a new religion, or a new thought about it or a teleology.
Kant re-read the doctrine of original sin, somewhat outside of Enlightenment thinking and its own root and against its belief in the congenital abounding of the human being.
He interprets this “sin” as the radical evil in us, and according to his thought are the actions that impel us to deviate from the moral law, which by a “revolution in the mood” and a “transformation of the mode of thinking “(A VI, 47s) we can in freedom, overcome the basic inclination by recovering the moral law within us.
In the second part of the book he clarifies the struggle of the good principle with the bad in the heart of man (see that it is not the superior theological good), the conquest of virtue, the need to promote purity of intention and obedience to the moral law, where Christ is a kind of archetype for which we must tend as personification of the good (this theological yes).
But what he understands as “perfection” is “the suitability of the conduct of life with the sanctity of the law, it is not attainable at any time,” and from here one may better understand its maxim in the Metaphysics of the Customs: “Acts externally in such a manner that the free use of your agency may coexist with the freedom of all according to a universal law.”
In the third part, if the foundation of a kingdom of God on earth is rediscovered, the theme of community or society and ethics, which is erected by the simple laws of the virtues as a regulating principle of action, is man constitutes the genuine end of all rational religion, “built on teleological principles though with references to Christianity.
The fourth part is a critique of religion, this can best be understood in connection with an “anthropological reduction” that he wrote at the end of his life: “Anthropology from the pragmatic point of view” (1798), lived another 6 years but with little intellectual production.

KANT, I. A religião nos limites da simples razão. Tradução: Arthur Mourão. Lisboa: Edições 70, [1793] 2008.


Idealism and morality

10 Jun

Dogmas and temporal truths seem to be the easiest and simplest answers at the height of the culture of reason, not the reason for reasoning and reflection, that reason which sought to abolish creative thinking, spirituality and the subjective taste of things: art, culture and religion.
Before penetrating the questions of ethics and aesthetics, Kant in his Work “Religion in the Limits of Simple Reason” will speak of Hercules and his works: “It is only after the defeat of the monsters that Hercules becomes a musician; before such work those good sisters retreat! (Kant, 2008).
One can read in the lucid preface to the Portuguese edition of Lusofonia (available in pdf) the reason why many theologians appealed to Kant, even though some felt that their demarcation of religion was too restricted to practical reason, they opened up and were enchanted with Kant.
Kant’s demand for a priori knowledge, in the case of religion, would become “a third form of human consciousness, feeling (FDE Schleiermacher, R. Otto) and still in the twentieth century, Catholic theology, the Jesuits Joseph Maréchal († 1944 ), Karl Rahner (1984) and Bernard Lonergan (1984) used Kant’s ‘transcendental’ elements to develop the notion of the dynamism of human intelligence, in synergy with the doctrine of being haurida in Thomas Aquinas to the totality of being and, consequently, to the problem of God “(Kant, 2008, p.5), of course this is a preface and not Kant himself.
The question of evil and morality are not in Kant any a priori as one might expect, since what is a priori are concepts more related to reason, mathematics and what he thinks as empirical.
What makes him a morally reprobate action is the maximum he takes for himself as subjective inclinations, as the basis of action.
Thus a decision taken according to the moral law (or not) is not a natural act, so an intelligible action can decide against the moral law, and so what it takes as moral law is the freedom to decide, the free will, said thus: “… therefore, the judgment that the author is an evil man cannot safely be based on experience (KANT, 2008, 26)
What moves idealism as a religion, and much of contemporary thought, while retaining religious and theologians, is a notion of the essential dynamism of human intelligence, its openness to the totality of being, and therefore to the problem of God.
For the idealists the opposite would be the abandonment of the concept of lierdade, then for morality, freedom is necessary as one of the predicates of the “morally good” and therefore also of the “morally bad.”
Necessary foundations are the construction of great modern institutions: the individual, the state and in some ways even what is thought of as “family.”
KANT, I. Religion on the Limits of Reason. Translation: Arthur Mourão. Lisbon: Editions 70, [1793] 2008.


A humanitarian Pentecost

07 Jun

It was celebrated this week the landing of the Allied forces in Normandy, the end of a war that showed the limits of the human barbarism, but it is necessary not to forget the pump of Hiroshima that Michel Serres, died to a week, said to be his philosophy.
The crisis of humanitarian thought (and of practical actions of course) is evident not only by the return of old ideologies or by the emergence of authoritarian governments, this is a visible face of a failure of a form of humanism that has in its foundations the enlightenment and its resulting postulates: of man, of the state and of social equilibrium. Sloterdijk re-relays Heidegger’s Letters on Humanism to say that the project of “human pacification” has spoken, it is necessary to rethink it, and old scientific, religious, and cultural dogmas may seem like answers, but in a careful analysis they are not, they have already been tested .
Pentecost is a Christian feast that speaks of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, this metaphor is interesting for a “humanitarian turn” that can give a new breath to the human spirit, a look beyond prejudices, false prophets or skepticism.
A new spirit, really open to the dialogue of distinction, of all cultures and peoples, as well as group and collective dogmas, can give humanity a new breath.
Where can this come from, not from isolated actions, prophetic groups and “enlightened” but from a new way of thinking humanity, with a renewed spirit, coming from above. In the field of thought is undoubtedly the overcoming of idealism on one side and also the pragmatism of the other, the idea of the excluded third besides the A and the non-A, dualistic logic, or the third instructed as wanted by Michel Serres can lead to a third spirit in which contradiction is not a problem, but a solution.
In the biblical passage, 40 days after being cruxified and appearing resurrected always leaving peace, appears to the assembled disciples and says (Jn 20,21): “Again Jesus said:” Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you. ”
The ideas and mechanisms, including the technological ones, available for peacebuilding are already there, the amount of wealth produced would be sufficient for all peoples not to greed, what happens is the igorance of these mechanisms on the one hand, and on the other a certain abandonment of those proposals that initially seemed clear, here is the “sending”.
A new spirit on the actions for greater social justice, rebalancing the forces of nature (now will be necessary technology, the process is almost irreversible destruction) and a new impetus in actions against corruption, violence and disrespect to diversity are part of a new Pentecost for humanity, a renewed spirit is needed.
Organized cheering only favors A and not-A, it takes a third force, Maslow’s name in psychology, but here it means a broader, cultural sense.


Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence: