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Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

Philosophy: consolation, island and infinite

10 Apr

The section in which he analyzes the philosophy of Boethius, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Warburton shows his lack of appreciation of the religiosity of both, and the aspects analyzed: the consolation of Boethius’ philosophy and Anselm’s theological argument, which is not the same as Thomas Aquinas, and the absence of this analysis is presumed that perhaps it was for Warburton, are private.
Boethius (480-524 AD) is indeed important to be remembered, his discourse on Philosophy, an imaginary person in the period that is imprisoned as a consolation, although important, for it is his main known speech, his contribution through a fragment found of his writings: whether or not they exist universally, is his most important contribution. Important because it is about the issue will be the debate between realists and nominalists, whether the universals are things or merely words (for the nominalists).
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a realist and his argument about rationalism as a complement to faith, is his most strongly theo-ontological argument, and his thesis on the being and the essence, his deeper contribution to philosophy.
But back to a brief History of the Philosophy of Nigel Warburton, when speaking of the ontological argument of Saint Anselm (1033-1109), about the existence of God, he presents as a counterpoint the “perfect island” of the monk Gaunilo de Marmoutier, an imaginary island that would so perfect that we could not imagine that there is a more perfect one than she, although no one was there.
His argument, which proves that such an island would not exist, in contrast to Anselm’s that there is nothing beyond God, for an imagined God cannot be greater than an existing God (Warburg, 2012, 52).
Now the island is finite, and God or the Universe or something that exists as a whole, an therefore ontological argument, “what is,” exists even though we can discuss what kind of being is.
What is the island’s faulty argument, then, is that it being finite may not have perfections of existing islands, and as an island it is “isolated” which is typical of positivist empiricism.
What Boethius, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas did in the long period of maturing of philosophy and science, still remembered the scribes and offices in the monasteries, was the building of the basis for a rationalism that is not opposed to faith but ut complements it.
The vídeo shows ideas about The Consolation of Philosophy of the Boethius:

 

Judge not to be judged

05 Apr

In addition to the resentment that holds the will to change and the renewal of relationships, the most criminal and cruel human sentiment is to judge, these days Hubert Nathan Myers and Uncle Clifford Williams Jr were released after 43 years in prison on charges of a crime.
Today they are 61 and 76, they were 18 and 34 when they were detained, the United States will indemnify them with 1.78 million euros, enough money? even if it were ten times as long as the young people who were still and lost were to be replaced, they hugged each other at the end of the prison.
Judging crimes is necessary, but justice exists precisely for this and to avoid abuses, especially against races, cultures and religions, the idea of conceiving a certain culture, race or creed as inferior or malignant in relation to others is that in fact evil .
Also in human relationships when we are unable to see what is good and positive in certain people make relationships poisoned and even those that are healthy can deteriorate through some hasty judgment.
We rarely know the set of facts, that is, what leads a person to a particular crime or problem, and it is not enough to propose a solution to it, you must give him the means to get out of the web that is often and can not detach itself .
The adulterous woman, who at the time of Jesus could be stoned in public, is saved when the Master asks those who wish to do so if anyone there had not sinned, they all go out and then he asks the woman John 8: 10-11: “Woman, where are they?” No one has condemned you? ” She replied, “No one, Lord.” Then Jesus said to him, “Neither do I condemn you.
You can go, and from now on sin no more, “that is, he acquitted her. That is, a family, a community, a society or a country begins to collapse if the judgment no longer finds a stopping point, and then begins to punish everyone.
Domestic violence is a disgusting type of violence, but violence itself is, there is a TED to show that it exists in many so-called “civilized” countries, but why does it exist?

 

Resentment and sorrow in history

29 Mar

The behavior of the “elder brother” in the Parable of the Prodigal Son is even more serious when we analyze groups, cultures and peoples throughout history whose processes of oppression, war or simply cultural differences mark facts that can lead to violence.
In this scenario the first Great War, the German defeat and submission, the second and extermination of the Jews and the Hiroshima bomb that cannot be forgotten, May 68, the fall of communism, September 11 in the United States, Venezuela and the social issues and the exclusion seen by the American government, the Brazilian polarization and latent corruption.
There are many other facts, such as the yellow jackets in France and Brexit in the UK, an analysis was made by Marc Ferro, a French historian of 95 years, who wrote in 2007 on the problem of Resentment in History, and “Blindness – another story of the world ” (ed. Cavalo de Ferro, 2017), I did not have time to read, but it has already been included in my list, in the figure the woodcut “Country of the blind” of H. Wells (of 1904).
These eternal twists in history may surprise some people, but I realize that Marc Ferro does not, and neither do I, we see crises emerge when journalists, thinkers (not always good) and people who form opinions begin to walk in a dangerous direction, we already write a post by Karl Kraus that claimed this in the 1900s.
Finally, fake news is not new, and different visions and interpretations of history may also have differences and dialogue, withdrawal of resentments and wounds is necessary for an accurate view of history, as a method for this I defend hermeneutics.
The excessive polarization, the incomprehension of the different generates what Byung Chull Han calls “exclusion of the other”, even conscious circles do this systematically and for this is a revision of what the question of “historical consciousness” means.
I think Gadamer initiates this in Truth and Method, but the historical moment demands something profound. As a day-to-day practice I suggest removing poison, harsh language, incitement to violence, at last without dialogue what we always claim, to building the pace in world. 

The video shows and sintetic form and point of view of Marc Ferro on memory data and French resistance:

 

Browser Safely

26 Mar

Avoid entering personal data, personal photos of children, telephones and numbers of documents in the media or in any services in which an unknown person can access your information, if they ask for personal data by telephone, say that they can not give in.
Data theft starts with some confidential personal information, a password or something. In this way, you prevent against the theft of information and personal data Make sure that the site address belongs to the service, especially the banking service and follow all bank-recommended security standards, rarely ask for documents, and never do it on public computers where passwords and addresses can be recorded.
Do not install software when requested by a site, unless it is exactly the service you requested or the sites of the equipment: Androids, Apple, Sun, Microsoft, etc.
Make purchases on reliable sites, public sales services where anyone can register to sell products are not reliable, if you really have to buy check the feedback from other customers and if there is no feedback is not reliable, false feedbacks are very similar and short , for example, very good, recommend it, worth it or something. The trusted site usually has the figure of a padlock.
Requests for online file storage is a common way to install viruses or harmful files to the connection.
Download only trusted sites or secure platform. Doubtful ads with huge advantages are largely responsible for viruses and loss of connection security, which can involve data theft and file contamination.
Banners and pop-up menus that appear at the bottom of the screen, whether on your computer or smartphone, should be ignored, usually malicious processes.
Last but not least, is the use of emails to send false files and reports about false services, may also send a link, which open may have different meanings than indicated.
Payment request of passwords and personal information by email should be spam or malwares.

This TED about cyber crimes is most viewing about Cyber Crimes:

 

Binary and dual

14 Mar

It is not the contemporary world that created binary dualistic logic, it only simplified arithmetic using Boolean Algebra, by the fact that simulating 0 and 1 in a machine is simpler than a decimal arithmetic that Western civilization has adopted.

But the onto-logic of Being that comes from Parmenides that says being is, and non-being is not, and has come to our day by Cartesian rationalism and Kant-Hegelian idealism, we are divided into two worlds: being and not to be, right and wrong, oppressive and oppressed, being and being, which distances objectivism and subjectivism from any ontological discussion. In philosophical terms.

It is difficult, but enlightening, “Because metaphysics interrogates the being, while being, it remains close to the being and does not turn to being as a being” (Heidegger 1983: 55).

It is a misconception to think that Heidegger has imputed metaphysics by destroying it, for it links it in an essential way to Dasein (the being in a simple definition), written clearly in its text: “Metaphysics is the essential event within be-there.

It is the very being-there “(HEIDEGGER 1983: 44). It is by the metaphysical event that the being-there human that establishes relation with the being, but this occurs in the world, it is necessary to be-in-the-world (in the broadest way) and this being demands a non-being relation for being with the Other, who is not the Self, then not-being is also Being.

It can be confused with nothingness, nihilism is an essence of our time, and can lead to the time of emptiness, as Nietzsche thought, and now Lipovetsky (The age of emptiness).

The Trinitarian being demands beyond the Self (which is not the Self because it admits the Other), the Other and the non-Being that is something beyond nothing, as Teilhard de Chardin explains: “nothing-being coincides with fully realized plurality. Pure nothingness is an empty concept, a pseudo-idea “(Chardin, 2006, p. 107).

It is possible for a relationship that goes beyond the level of formal dialogue, this non-being is necessary, an emptiness that admits the Other, different from the Same.

CHARDIN, T. P. Em outras palavras. São Paulo – SP: Martins Fontes, 2006.

HEIDEGGER, E. Que é metafísica. São Paulo – SP: Abril Cultural, 1983. (Coleção Os Pensadores)

This video of Academy of Ideas suggest any questions about Parmenides philosophy:

 

 

The Web turned 30

13 Mar

Still confuse the Internet, the Web and the Network, although they may be superimposed, they are different aspects that united the world, the pessimists say worse, the optimists say it points to the future, the realists say it is a new time with difficulties and facilities, well used will be promising for the future.
On March 9, at CERN where Tim-Berners Lee worked when he made a proposal for an Internet interpreter called and used the term web (not net), the idea of his original article was an ease of handling scientific texts online that at the very moment they were written were ready to be read, which bloggers and tweeters do today, but that was Web 2.0 in 2005.
In Geneva at CERN Berners-Lee met with Robert Cailliau, a computer science engineer who was not mentioned at all, but it was in fact that he made the first hypertext system, they were joined by other experts to discuss the present and future of the World Wide Web, or Web. 
The event, called Web @ 30, was opened yesterday (12/03) by CERN General Manager Fabiola Gianotti, in collaboration with two organizations founded by Berners-Lee: the World Wide Web Foundation and the World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C), CERN has recently restored the first website and online brower, shown at the Hackathon event (February 11-15, 2019). 
Security issues, free internet maintenance policies, governments and business structures want their control and in some countries it is not a free service, fake news and others were topics for discussion. 
A promising theme for the future is the SOLID project, we have already posted a post on it, it is in full development with the collaboration of MIT researchers, but the expectation is high and there will still be a lot of expert work to give the world a reliable Web.
Suhayl Khan showed how to access the browser in online mode using technology from the 1960s (when there was only internet and with few facilities) (Video: Suhayl Khan):

 

Temperance, virtual, addictions and virtues.

08 Mar

Virtual comes from the same virtue root of the Latin virtus, it means that something is potential and must be actualized (one or more times, being infinite) to be a real “virtue”, something that is good, goodness or beautiful, if deterioration is an addiction that must also be updated, to upgrade must be practiced with an “ascesis”, a way to evolve.
What characterizes contemporaneity is a non-spiritual asceticism, that is, a “life of exercises”, says Sloterdijk, we must do “exercises” to eat, to have a certain way, to change this or that, but without this actually means some evolution spiritual, means to change only material or bodily conditions unrelated to the spiritual, the ancestral wisdom, not only Judeo-Christian, but also Eastern, African, Hindu and Arab knew of this, where was everything lost?
Where all civilizations and societies have been lost, the so-called “intemperance”, or lack of balance: financial, health, work or any aspect of daily life.
One of the four works of Aristotle’s Ethics, disputed as true by some scholars, is The Vices and Virtues, the shortest, which establishes Valid or not, the work must be read.
In it Aristotle establishes that there is no innate virtue, are acquired by the repetition of acts, generating the custom, one should not deviate neither by the lack, nor by the excess, since virtue consists in the just far from both extremes.
In speaking of vices and virtues in Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle clarifies: “And each of them, in a way, opposes the other two, since the extreme dispositions are contrary to both the middle and the middle, , and the middle is contrary to the extreme dispositions, just as the average is greater in relation to the smaller and smaller in relation to the greater, also the median states are excessive in relation to the deficiencies and deficient when compared with the excesses, be it in the passions, or in the action”, in thinking virtue as a means Aristotle thinks of it as temperance, or equilibrium.
The virtues are, however, more than this, in present terms the despiritualization corresponds to the desire to respond to the spiritual appealing only to the material question, when in fact it is in the spiritual that there is this comfort, the temptation when the devil tells Jesus to turn the stone into bread and so forth, Jesus responds: “The scripture says: man not only lives bread”, so it may be in a mystic or an ascesis (an exercise), but without spirituality.
These passages are found in the synoptic Gospels (Matthew 4: 1-11, Mark 1: 12,13, and Luke 4: 1-13), here fixed in Luke 4: 1-13 as the most “Christocentric”, in Botticelli’s painting of 1481-82 which is on the ceiling of the Cistina Chapel there is a picture (figure above).
The second greatest vice is undoubtedly power, of which there are dictators, corrupts and so many abuses that one sees today in a “statocentric” concept (the state is enough), the structures of power can also be religious, ideological or cultural, to the saying that he would give all power to Jesus if he worshiped evil, Jesus answers: “You shall worship the Lord your God and serve Him only.”
Finally the temptation for spiritual excellence, when acquiring certain spirituality or religion judges itself superior to the other people of humanity, the devil tells Jesus to throw himself on the precipice that the angels will save him, Jesus responds: “you will not tempt the Lord your God”, is the final battle because it is actually what the Devil tries to do with Jesus who is God, was tempting him.
It can be summed up in three vices of spirituality: forgetting the spiritual aspect and focusing only on the material (it is important), worshiping structures of power that are nothing but structures and finally judging oneself superior by having spirituality, addiction of many “religious” people, but they should not stand above God and his wisdom.

The music in vídeo of CLARITY speak about it:

 

What characterizes the changes today

07 Mar

In order to change social structures, it was necessary for a long time to mobilize formal structures capable of reacting to structures of power that oppressed the feeling of change in various ways, feeling and emotion were always present, saying that they are emotional now is a mistake, it is due the old idealist separation between objective and subjective motivation.
The virtual is real are coming, not just because of the speed, intensity and quantity of devices able to connect people almost permanently regardless of distances.
The virtual depends on the updating, and therefore is opposite to the current and not the real, even in the space of the imaginary, where the cultural cosmologies are composed, the virtual is close to a cultural real.
What is changing now is that it is possible through the use of communication to establish real (not just virtual) links between people and to mobilize them for a reaction to structures of domination, and those who are unaware that information is available on the net and can being hacked, the last one is the football leaks that shook the world of soccer, by the denunciations of the Portuguese Rui Pinto.
As Manuel Castells explains, social movements have always had at the origin the feelings of shared injustice and indignation, what changes today is that these networked technologies allow a collective subject, but of course this can be negative.
Castells explains that this is not a utopia, but what is happening, and that technology is not decisive, but is influential, as McLuhan says by changing the means and changing communication, change social relations.
The structures of the old state, groups of religious and ideological polarization weaken, and a more real society comes to light than that whose state, for its vices and its virtues appear, the vehicles of communication all controlled by editorial groups and the old ones oligarchies dominated and retained power.
Castells explains this in a 2013 video:

 

Seeing, aiming and vision of World

01 Mar

Seeing, aiming and vision of Citizenship of the world can be limited to the sense of vision only, this means to see, to have vision in the visionary sense means to understand the meanings of what is seen, but also to have a broad view of life, of one’s own culture and that of others, and be capable of going beyond preconceptions, seen also in a positive way, that is, the concepts that we have in a certain field.

“The important thing is not what we look at, but what we see,” recalls American poet, naturalist and philosopher H.D. Thoureau (1817-1867), precursor in the defense of nature.

 In philosophy, the bond to the senses has created a limited world view, where preconceptions can be crystallized to what we feel and accept, and render us incapable of going beyond what we see, surpassing the senses and having a culturally more rich It is the worldview that produces fake news, the need for the Other to have our vision, often limited by the horizons, of how we read the world, often without seeing.

Thus it is written in the Bible Lk. 6:41: “Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, and you do not perceive the beam that is in your own eye?”, Knowing how to hear and speak is also a complement to the vision, but there is a vision beyond the senses.

The pragmatism of these visions has penetrated and consolidated in modern Western thought, deepened as culture and now we live what I call the monarchy of the senses, a similar view on the level of empathy and social relations, to what Martha Nussbaum calls the Monarchy of the Fear, which I have not read yet, but I make the speculation that before the fear we went through a cultural process of acquisition of values ​​and among them the fear of the different.

It is urgent to broaden the world view, to create the citizen of the world, the return of nationalism may represent for some a vision of peace, but it is a dangerous cultural, ethical and religious closure capable of producing new wars and conflicts even more cruel than the two wars It is possible a common civilization, a global citizenship or how I prefer a united world.

Martha Nussbaum who is little known outside the Anglo-Saxon world gives his answer:

 

 

To leave the twentieth century

26 Feb

When many speak of the education of the twenty-first century, we must know if we leave the twentieth century, thinking, paradigms, the form of education are all frozen in the twentieth century, has little to do with digital age, in his 1981 book, the internet was nascent, Morin already said that the future depended on how to educate for the new century.
He said that with all the “progress” he warned that the danger of war continued to prowl humanity, poverty still persists on a large scale and nature is increasingly shaken by the predatory action of man in this transformation.
He affirmed, contrary to today’s confused thoughts, that it was precisely the means of communication, through which we knew what was happening in various parts of the world, through instantaneous communication, social events on the entire planet.
Of course I warned that there are negative points in this communication, that men know the world only by virtual videos and images (which are not unreal), without being in the world, and therefore the hermeneutic-ontological discourse makes sense, it can create a limited consciousness , but it is also limited those based on ideologies and religions, which use a limited and partial worldview (Weltanschauung).
This being in the world, being absent, is well described by the Polish factionalist Jerzy Kosinski in his modern parable O Vidiota, 1979, on the limit of images, videos and reports.
Edgar Morin clarifies that the news since that time (was 1981), already distorted and hid the real, stating “Information in a totalitarian system is not only a government information; it is, above all, a totalitarian governmental information “, and it is important see any ranking for free journalism.

It is happens not only in the known dictatorships, but in present-day Bulgaria, there are numerous complaints that the press is not free, occupies the 111th rank, where Brazil is at 102, Paraguay at 107 , Bolivia at 110, Colombia at 130, Venezuela at 143, China at 176, a point above Syria, and North Korea at 180.
You can notice in the images that are the darkest regions, the closest to conflicts and wars, therefore, it is not necessary to use the fact that there is subinformation to censor the press, because it is that we can through the denunciation of facts to help society to adjust.
Morin’s book may seem conservative, it has never been, although it has been written for a long time, it can still help us out of the twentieth century and enter into the real problems and situations of the 21st century.
Edgar Morin’s book To Come Out of the Twentieth Century, at first glance, may seem full of reactionary theses. However, I read carefully, it is perceived as a series of serious considerations, based on concrete facts, thus contributing to a truly more progressive and current vision of the contemporary world.
Morin, E. Pour sortir du siècle XX, 1981.

See the Morin´s thiking about actual crisis: