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Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence:

 

The Being, the Other, and the Beyond the Same

17 May

The being described in Heidegger’s “dasein” is the only entity capable of understanding existence itself, because it brings within itself the sense of being, it is as a pre-ontological entity because it has in itself an understanding of this meaning even before any theorization , Heidegger calls it pre-theoretical.
It is among the beings the only one to have a sense already in itself capable of creating, desiring, building, destroying and everything happens in relation to one’s existence, is a pre-sein and an ex-sein-tence.
Heidegger describes it thus: “The presence is not only an entity that occurs among other entities. On the contrary, it is ontictically distinguished by the privilege of its being, that is, being, its own being at stake. “(Heidegger, 2013, 48)
Dasein is the only entity capable of understanding itself, and this understanding is given insofar as it is, in which it exercises its existence. He is an ontological being because it carries the sense of being in itself, and it is pre-ontological because it already has a (pre) understanding of that sense, an understanding before it can even be theorized, which Heidegger calls a pre-theoretical understanding .
Its phenomenology does not intend to reveal the “what” are the things, but the “how” they are, their own being, as they “present”, is the possibility of “being” by this I translate their dasein as “Being-there” and in it is inserted the Other.
Heidegger’s phenomenology does not intend to talk about the “what” of things, but the “how”. Heidegger does not intend to say what being is, or what Dasein is, but how they are, as they present themselves in the Presence of the Other, the relation of being outside, and Emmanuel Lévinas development in sense of “infinity”. 
This being outside ultimately means a complete opening to the Other, only the being of realization, and in this case the “how” means how we also love the Other, this is the final lesson of Jesus at the Last Supper, in telling the disciples (John 13:34): “as I have loved you, love one another,” this as it is essential, it is Jesus’ projection of the Others, his disciples, this “how” is very important.
Kael Moffat’s video explores the issue of the Other in a universal perspective, without leaving the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religious view to the side, and explains it in philosophy:

 

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

Philosophy or thought, human essence

15 May

If we investigate the origin of the term philosophy we find “friend” (philos) of wisdom (sophia), but modernity has confined it in the field of all other specialties, that is, queen of the sciences has become a specialty for some without value.
The basis of any specialty, area or field (I prefer this denomination because it is less watertight) has an organized form of thought, thus having a philosophy.
Socrates (469-399 BC) was so important that he divided classical thinking into two epochs, the pre-Socratics and the period of thought formation, Plato (428-348), which is in fact the only reference to Socrates, and the work The republic of Plato has undeniable influence to this day.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) a disciple of Plato, and together with him organized the idea of Polis, from which comes the word Politics, and the city-state, embryonic form of the modern state, from which comes the word “citizen.”
The thought “being is and not being is not,” besides logical principle A or not A, is also an ontological principle, although contemporary thought (or philosophy) also means the contradiction A and Not A as a possibility, breaking with classical thinking.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is important to understand the overcoming of Manichaeism, still present in political and religious thought until today, the abandonment of this theory (good and evil, Manicheanism) was the beginning of his conversion.
The medieval period had Boethius (480-524), which gave rise to the “quarrel of universals”, if we can think of universal and particular concepts today, was the fruit of a long medieval discussion between realists and nominalists.
Realist of this period is Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), with his thesis on the Ens (being) and the Essence, lost in the beginning of modernity, but taken up again by Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl through the question of intentionality, which we described in previous posts.
The renaissance was nothing more than the resumption of the ideas of classical antiquity, without the subsequent period of contractualists Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, we would not have the formation of the modern state.

Descartes’ rationalism and Kant’s idealism, as well as Locke’s empiricism, have built the science of modernity, although today criticized by positivism and the question of neutrality, the thinking of Heisenberg and Einstein helped to question it.

But modernity also went into crisis, the Vienna Circle in the prewar period brought to light a neologicism and the question of intelligent systems through Kurt Gödel, and a new thinking in law through Hans Kelsen .

The Frankfurt school, critical thinking, ontology and hermeneutics compose the framework of current thinking in the midst of a paradigmatic crisis in the West, where we will go. There will be no answer without thought, without philosophy.

The video below presents a thinker of the technological issue seen from a non-Manichean prism, without technophobia and constructive with ethics and social responsibility:

 

Is hard thinking today

09 May

The thinker visited Barcelona where he met with several hundred people in a conversation at the Center for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (CCCB).
Despite his affability and his apparent tranquility, interviewing Sloterdijk, whose pages an ordinary human often needs to read over and over in order to understand them, is a challenge.
With the passages of Spheres still floating on the head – “the inner, consubjective sphere can not possess at all a eucyclic and parmenideal structure: the psychic globe does not have, with the well rounded philosophical, a single center that radiates and encompasses everything, and but two epicenters that interpellate each other by resonance “, Sloterdijk interviewed as if it were in front of Plotinus.
In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, the thinker says that it is difficult to think nowadays, and certainly read a more difficult thinker, especially if he goes to the essential problems.
When asked by the journalist if we lost the ability to think he replied: “It is not capacity as such. But it does not occur the vital circumstances that allow us to distance ourselves and gain distance. For Husserl and his phenomenology it was necessary to leave the impetuous time of life, the most elementary device was always to take a step back”.
This action allows you to become an observer.
Without a certain distance, without a certain disconnection the theoretical attitude is impossible. “Today’s life does not invite thinking. ”
Julia Galef is a writer and speaker on the topics of rationality, science, technology and design.
Julia Galef examines the motivations behind these two mindsets and how they shape the way we interpret information, intertwined with a compelling 19th century history lesson from France, from a torn paper found where military secrets were sold to Germany.
The only Jewish soldier Alfred Dreyfus was convicted without convincing evidence, and sent to a prison on an island, later proven innocent and rehabilitated, what Julia Galef asks is: “Do you yearn to see the world more clearly, or just to defend your beliefs?”, see Julia’s Ted:

https://www.ted.com/talks/julia_galef_why_you_think_you_re_right_even_if_you_re_wrong?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

 

Philosophy: consolation, island and infinite

10 Apr

The section in which he analyzes the philosophy of Boethius, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Warburton shows his lack of appreciation of the religiosity of both, and the aspects analyzed: the consolation of Boethius’ philosophy and Anselm’s theological argument, which is not the same as Thomas Aquinas, and the absence of this analysis is presumed that perhaps it was for Warburton, are private.
Boethius (480-524 AD) is indeed important to be remembered, his discourse on Philosophy, an imaginary person in the period that is imprisoned as a consolation, although important, for it is his main known speech, his contribution through a fragment found of his writings: whether or not they exist universally, is his most important contribution. Important because it is about the issue will be the debate between realists and nominalists, whether the universals are things or merely words (for the nominalists).
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a realist and his argument about rationalism as a complement to faith, is his most strongly theo-ontological argument, and his thesis on the being and the essence, his deeper contribution to philosophy.
But back to a brief History of the Philosophy of Nigel Warburton, when speaking of the ontological argument of Saint Anselm (1033-1109), about the existence of God, he presents as a counterpoint the “perfect island” of the monk Gaunilo de Marmoutier, an imaginary island that would so perfect that we could not imagine that there is a more perfect one than she, although no one was there.
His argument, which proves that such an island would not exist, in contrast to Anselm’s that there is nothing beyond God, for an imagined God cannot be greater than an existing God (Warburg, 2012, 52).
Now the island is finite, and God or the Universe or something that exists as a whole, an therefore ontological argument, “what is,” exists even though we can discuss what kind of being is.
What is the island’s faulty argument, then, is that it being finite may not have perfections of existing islands, and as an island it is “isolated” which is typical of positivist empiricism.
What Boethius, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas did in the long period of maturing of philosophy and science, still remembered the scribes and offices in the monasteries, was the building of the basis for a rationalism that is not opposed to faith but ut complements it.
The vídeo shows ideas about The Consolation of Philosophy of the Boethius:

 

Judge not to be judged

05 Apr

In addition to the resentment that holds the will to change and the renewal of relationships, the most criminal and cruel human sentiment is to judge, these days Hubert Nathan Myers and Uncle Clifford Williams Jr were released after 43 years in prison on charges of a crime.
Today they are 61 and 76, they were 18 and 34 when they were detained, the United States will indemnify them with 1.78 million euros, enough money? even if it were ten times as long as the young people who were still and lost were to be replaced, they hugged each other at the end of the prison.
Judging crimes is necessary, but justice exists precisely for this and to avoid abuses, especially against races, cultures and religions, the idea of conceiving a certain culture, race or creed as inferior or malignant in relation to others is that in fact evil .
Also in human relationships when we are unable to see what is good and positive in certain people make relationships poisoned and even those that are healthy can deteriorate through some hasty judgment.
We rarely know the set of facts, that is, what leads a person to a particular crime or problem, and it is not enough to propose a solution to it, you must give him the means to get out of the web that is often and can not detach itself .
The adulterous woman, who at the time of Jesus could be stoned in public, is saved when the Master asks those who wish to do so if anyone there had not sinned, they all go out and then he asks the woman John 8: 10-11: “Woman, where are they?” No one has condemned you? ” She replied, “No one, Lord.” Then Jesus said to him, “Neither do I condemn you.
You can go, and from now on sin no more, “that is, he acquitted her. That is, a family, a community, a society or a country begins to collapse if the judgment no longer finds a stopping point, and then begins to punish everyone.
Domestic violence is a disgusting type of violence, but violence itself is, there is a TED to show that it exists in many so-called “civilized” countries, but why does it exist?

 

Resentment and sorrow in history

29 Mar

The behavior of the “elder brother” in the Parable of the Prodigal Son is even more serious when we analyze groups, cultures and peoples throughout history whose processes of oppression, war or simply cultural differences mark facts that can lead to violence.
In this scenario the first Great War, the German defeat and submission, the second and extermination of the Jews and the Hiroshima bomb that cannot be forgotten, May 68, the fall of communism, September 11 in the United States, Venezuela and the social issues and the exclusion seen by the American government, the Brazilian polarization and latent corruption.
There are many other facts, such as the yellow jackets in France and Brexit in the UK, an analysis was made by Marc Ferro, a French historian of 95 years, who wrote in 2007 on the problem of Resentment in History, and “Blindness – another story of the world ” (ed. Cavalo de Ferro, 2017), I did not have time to read, but it has already been included in my list, in the figure the woodcut “Country of the blind” of H. Wells (of 1904).
These eternal twists in history may surprise some people, but I realize that Marc Ferro does not, and neither do I, we see crises emerge when journalists, thinkers (not always good) and people who form opinions begin to walk in a dangerous direction, we already write a post by Karl Kraus that claimed this in the 1900s.
Finally, fake news is not new, and different visions and interpretations of history may also have differences and dialogue, withdrawal of resentments and wounds is necessary for an accurate view of history, as a method for this I defend hermeneutics.
The excessive polarization, the incomprehension of the different generates what Byung Chull Han calls “exclusion of the other”, even conscious circles do this systematically and for this is a revision of what the question of “historical consciousness” means.
I think Gadamer initiates this in Truth and Method, but the historical moment demands something profound. As a day-to-day practice I suggest removing poison, harsh language, incitement to violence, at last without dialogue what we always claim, to building the pace in world. 

The video shows and sintetic form and point of view of Marc Ferro on memory data and French resistance:

 

Browser Safely

26 Mar

Avoid entering personal data, personal photos of children, telephones and numbers of documents in the media or in any services in which an unknown person can access your information, if they ask for personal data by telephone, say that they can not give in.
Data theft starts with some confidential personal information, a password or something. In this way, you prevent against the theft of information and personal data Make sure that the site address belongs to the service, especially the banking service and follow all bank-recommended security standards, rarely ask for documents, and never do it on public computers where passwords and addresses can be recorded.
Do not install software when requested by a site, unless it is exactly the service you requested or the sites of the equipment: Androids, Apple, Sun, Microsoft, etc.
Make purchases on reliable sites, public sales services where anyone can register to sell products are not reliable, if you really have to buy check the feedback from other customers and if there is no feedback is not reliable, false feedbacks are very similar and short , for example, very good, recommend it, worth it or something. The trusted site usually has the figure of a padlock.
Requests for online file storage is a common way to install viruses or harmful files to the connection.
Download only trusted sites or secure platform. Doubtful ads with huge advantages are largely responsible for viruses and loss of connection security, which can involve data theft and file contamination.
Banners and pop-up menus that appear at the bottom of the screen, whether on your computer or smartphone, should be ignored, usually malicious processes.
Last but not least, is the use of emails to send false files and reports about false services, may also send a link, which open may have different meanings than indicated.
Payment request of passwords and personal information by email should be spam or malwares.

This TED about cyber crimes is most viewing about Cyber Crimes:

 

Binary and dual

14 Mar

It is not the contemporary world that created binary dualistic logic, it only simplified arithmetic using Boolean Algebra, by the fact that simulating 0 and 1 in a machine is simpler than a decimal arithmetic that Western civilization has adopted.

But the onto-logic of Being that comes from Parmenides that says being is, and non-being is not, and has come to our day by Cartesian rationalism and Kant-Hegelian idealism, we are divided into two worlds: being and not to be, right and wrong, oppressive and oppressed, being and being, which distances objectivism and subjectivism from any ontological discussion. In philosophical terms.

It is difficult, but enlightening, “Because metaphysics interrogates the being, while being, it remains close to the being and does not turn to being as a being” (Heidegger 1983: 55).

It is a misconception to think that Heidegger has imputed metaphysics by destroying it, for it links it in an essential way to Dasein (the being in a simple definition), written clearly in its text: “Metaphysics is the essential event within be-there.

It is the very being-there “(HEIDEGGER 1983: 44). It is by the metaphysical event that the being-there human that establishes relation with the being, but this occurs in the world, it is necessary to be-in-the-world (in the broadest way) and this being demands a non-being relation for being with the Other, who is not the Self, then not-being is also Being.

It can be confused with nothingness, nihilism is an essence of our time, and can lead to the time of emptiness, as Nietzsche thought, and now Lipovetsky (The age of emptiness).

The Trinitarian being demands beyond the Self (which is not the Self because it admits the Other), the Other and the non-Being that is something beyond nothing, as Teilhard de Chardin explains: “nothing-being coincides with fully realized plurality. Pure nothingness is an empty concept, a pseudo-idea “(Chardin, 2006, p. 107).

It is possible for a relationship that goes beyond the level of formal dialogue, this non-being is necessary, an emptiness that admits the Other, different from the Same.

CHARDIN, T. P. Em outras palavras. São Paulo – SP: Martins Fontes, 2006.

HEIDEGGER, E. Que é metafísica. São Paulo – SP: Abril Cultural, 1983. (Coleção Os Pensadores)

This video of Academy of Ideas suggest any questions about Parmenides philosophy: