Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

The cultural and spiritual crisis

23 Jan

A modernity divided into objective and subjective questions that no man is inseparable, the first because he must have concrete relations with the same objects that are intangible, or object of a form of thought that is also subjective, as or thought about a concrete object, being thought is subjective.
The fundamental problem is that every form of thinking must clearly define or think about that object and is accepted as established knowledge, an epistle and not an opinion anymore (the doxa of games) and what is possible to think again, that is , epicenter of the current crisis.
It does not know what is right or what is the established thought about a given object, or if it is an epistemic tradition about it, nor is it known what is the fact of new possibilities of thinking about it, it is a crisis in general , like any attempt at a spiritual or meditative tone on a subject, appears only as an escape from reality and there is nothing new.
Change as a basis for thought or voluntary attitude, we will change because it is not good, neither the attitude or dox, creating a word for the epistemic dialogue that must be one or the other episteme, this is a relationship with tradition, but that allows change, finally the new.
No spiritual aspect means knowing what you have done until today, as a religion and relationship with what is natural, or super-natural and what contemporary reality exists, a concrete relationship (erroneously called exposure, as it is spiritual) with needs and contemporary thought itself with threats of change.
There is nothing new, nor realistic pragmatism, nor spiritual escape, it produces neither true action nor contemplation.


Identity in the view of a mystic

22 Jan
Chiara Lubich, born in Italy on January 22, 1920, would be 100 years old today, among many teachings I found in her philosophy, 
this one is still little known and seems appropriate to the moment of humanity, because it speaks of 
identity, and begins by commenting on Hegel, this writing it was almost burned were it not for a 
person who hid it in a safe.

October 24, 1974
... (original text in Italian)

egel: non é vero che l´essere che existe é statico, ma dinamico. Tra l´essere e il il non essere, viene fuori il divenire. Tesi, antitesi, sintesi. Il nulla serve, perché se non serebbe l divenire. Il nulla adquista um valoe filosófico, um ruolo particolare. Aplicando uma “concezione trinitária” (cóse disse lui), c´é l´essere, il non essere ed il divenire. Il divenire non é qualcose imperfetta, ma la sintesi ta l´essere ed il non essere. Non si puó sostenere completamente il princípio di identitá perché essere e non essere non si appongono assolutament, perché trovano la síntese nel divenire.

… (free translate)

It is not true that the being that exists is static, but dynamic. Between being and non-being, becoming arises. 
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. None of this is necessary, because it would not be possible to do so. None of this has a 
philosophical value, a particular role. 
When applying a "Trinitarian conception" (as he said), there is being, not being and becoming. 
Becoming (becoming) is not imperfect, but the synthesis of being and non-being. 
The principle of identity cannot be fully supported, because being and non-being are not at all opposed (they cannot be fixed), 
because they find meaning in the synthesis in becoming.
This not only overturns the theses that seek fixed identities and call them liquid or corrupt identities that admit a non-being of dialogue, in fact they are the inspiring source for a more integrated world.

Humility and Authority

10 Jan

Nietzsche’s stereotype about contemporary morality by establishing the difference between that of slaves/flock sage ness, humility and piety and that of the lords that is that of joy, inventiveness and life, may seem exaggerated but it is that idealism created, and was strengthened by the statutes of the state, the Individual and reductionist scientificism.

The Kant philosopher of idealism proclaimed two ideas about humility, the first about moral humility that “is the feeling of smallness of our value, compared to the law” and the second that is “the claim that, through renunciation, acquire some moral value, hidden moral value”, with a little analysis it is clear that it is a false humility, used for power.

It is possible to establish a fair relationship of authority with humility, although this relationship is not simple, it is possible when done as a service, detachment and potential for it to exercise, so it is not a mushy humility, since it is not necessary to be aware of authority.

The biblical example is very illustrative for this, Jesus’ authority before the people and the disciples was never made as a power structure, but with the authority of those who know the value and “potential” he has to exercise it, but by asking to be baptized by John the Baptist and washing the feet of the apostles exercised a humility of true authority.

Contemporary society needs less authoritarianism and more authority with humility.


Democracy or identity politics

01 Jul

As soon as the term, initially identity politics, that of the genres, races and cultures that seek some respect and rights was popularized, there was not lacking those who hurriedly already throw themselves on the subject and did not deepen the question Among those who deepen the subject is the American political scientist and thinker.
Mark Lilla, whose specialty is the history of intellectuality, since speaking in philosophy is no more common, a professor at New York University, has one of the most read articles on theme, and has a video of his participation in the Frontiers of Thought.
asks three essential questions: What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality?
The latter seems strange but it is not, we post countless comments on idealism and its profound influence on contemporary culture, the intellectual history of Mark Lilla goes another way, but does not stop touching this essential issue: individualism. struggle for equality has won rights and has transformed society in a commendable and unquestionable way.
Until something changed. The search for a better world became the struggle for the world to recognize me. Mark Lilla explains the changes generated by this new paradigm.
What is democracy today? How do young people see their ideals? How did solidarity become a radical defense of individuality? His most read article last year in the New York Times, emphasizes that identities and flags of minority groups, the so-called identity politics embraced by the Demortal Party, are the primary responsible for the continued defeats of the left in the United States, would it be right? if we look at the Brazilian elections, I think that’s right.
First and foremost, it is not a question of abandoning these just flags, but of rethinking them to make the progress of humanity possible again and to avoid a setback. Follow the video of Mark Lilla, remembering that subtitles can be activated:


Digital´s aporetic and maieutic

10 Dec

 In the time of the pre-Socratics, philosophy called the sophist had as a presupposition to create discourses to favor the rulers and this soon led to Greek democracy to languish and a moral relativism, Socrates who lived in the century. IV a.C. proposed a method to address this which was to develop the maieutic, a method of asking which developed the logos.

But the aporetic state that lived was necessary more than to ask, an interlocutor had to abandon its preconceptions and the relativism of the opinions demanded something more than just to ask, something that would make a birth in the new thought, hence the maiuêutica name that was the the art of giving birth, so it was not a matter of “creating” knowledge, but of giving birth.
There is no doubt that the digital medium became twisted of “opinions”, the doxa as the Greeks called them, but can one parturize and inquire in the digital medium? a digital maieutic is possible, the case is not just how twisted (claques in Portugal) are organized, but how they are manipulated by sophisms, now updated as”fake news”.
The sophistry exists in history, never left or will cease to exist, in digital times the problem is the viral process, but the publishing groups through newspapers and TV channels have already done this and there has always been a maieutic that opposed manipulation to the facts.
Let us return to the method of Socrates, he did not initially know any, did not make his judgments according to tradition, customs, opinions, nor had an episteme, or an elaborate method, just asked, the problem today is that the questions are and  modernity has already created “organized” knowledge (in the systematic sense rather than the truth), but we can use this for a  new digital maieutic, repelling wrong speeches.
I think it’s not by chance that Artificial Intelligence is evolving, but practical intelligence, phronesis coupled with techné and praxis itself (which is therefore a part of the practice) may help, so Martha Nussbaum’s speech makes a lot of sense.
Many people talk aboutmaintaining “focus” (but it may be wrong) or emotional intelligence, which, disconnected from practical wisdom (phronesis), can fall into paralysis or alienation.

All we have today is not due to the digital world, it affect its, is a means and so it is incorret to see it as the final or initial cause, not even was the industrial revolution that caused it, but the set of values and feelings built in modern society, which is nothing more than a forma of being-in-the-world, a Dasein as Heidegger writed and explained.

Digital resources seem welcome, but we still have the barrier of preconceptions, an elaborate human hermeneutics is necessary



Disruption, do you know the most used words?

04 Dec

The year 2018 will be marked by several disruptions, among them the artificial intelligence that has come to stay, you may think that it is long, but where there is more code is neither on the phone in facebook, but in the car, so it is a disruption.

The second is the use of words in Instagram that have become common and not everyone knows, the hashtag #instagood should be used only for the best photos, but users ended up using it so much that it is the second most used word in Instagram (with number of use of 574.190.28, below just #love that went from 1 billion.

The third one in Instagram is also little known and long: #photooftheday, but if you read it correctly you will see that it is simple: the photo of the day, more than 407 million if it is joined to another word used in the same way # picoftheday would probably be the second .

It will be a bit difficult to know what the word “fashionable” was in 2018, but in Portugal because of a humorous program “Gato Fedorento”, the word “esmiuçar” known to Brazilians, here it came into fashion in 2009, because of excellent mood Ricardo de Araújo Pereira, I promised to read it last year (see my post) and I did not regret it.

There is still no elected word, the initiative in Portugal is from Porto Editora, there are polls on the site until December 31, so only in the new year will we know.

In English I read on websites that fit the perfect “perf” and “lineswoman”, our English line judge would be the referee of American football, I think it can mean women decided or make a decision.

In Brazil, fake news was widely used, besides the electoral uses of # elenão and #mito, nothing more depoliticized, gave in what gave, not even the future government has a clear future ahead.

The evolution of situations of religious fundamentalism throughout the world, and perhaps now also in Brazil, may create a new word, but there is undoubtedly a return to nationalism and religious foundations unprecedented in history, until peaceful Buddhism is affected.

What word was used for this other than fundamentalism? Not yet. What word was used for the return to nationalism, even in Europe? None, so my conclusion in my posts, there is a diagnostic problem, the word would be thought night, then use a Greek word: APORIA.


The case of the birth of Jesus

03 Dec

It is Christian dogma that Jesus was God, and indeed he was resurrected the era, but the fact that was born is not dogma, although controversial in the biblical text of Luke (2: 1-5):
“In those days there appeared an edict of Caesar Augustus, and ordered a census of the whole inhabited world.” This census was the first while Quirinus was Governor of Syria, and they were all enrolled, each in his own city. Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, in the city of David, called Bethlehem, for being of the house and of the family of David, to sign up with his wife Mary, who was with child.
But the controversy is not the Census and the birth of a boy named Jesus, but the fact that when Quirinus was prefect of Syria and Herod king of Judea, remember that Herod wanted to kill the boy who would be “king” thinking that he would steal his throne, and then he does a very infantile one, it happens that this is not simultaneous with Quirino in Syria, but it is only a quarrel.
The fact is that it was not easy either, first they had to go to Bethlehem, José’s homeland a census imposition, and they did not find a house, then they had to flee to Egypt due to the death of the children that Herod sent for not knowing who it was the boy-king.
At last the times were not easy, compared to our time we can say that it is Christmas Yes, although the date is imprecise, for us Christians, those who do not believe also celebrate, it is a time to have hope, to want the “clearing” and to fight for a better future.
False Christianity forgives us, but those who persecuted, who killed and tortured were the Roman empire, the Christians and the simple people, the children killed by Herod, were innocent.


Pause time: can we

26 Nov

There is still a remnant of November and December already appearing on the horizon, everyone is waiting for something we should always do: pause, wait and meet with friends and family, the question is: do we succeed?
Looking at the world, the dark signs continue, bigger than liquids, because if something were really changed from the solid to the liquid, it would even be desirable because something is moving, but it seems like the sameness, everything is going to look the same.
The protests against Macron and his taxes, is not so different from Portugal or Brazil, the state is huge and weighs on society, who will pay the bills, and the retirees will be the ones who will pay the bill? uncertainties and a single thing really clear: crisis of time.
There are signs of a revival, a word used by the philosopher Martha Nussbaum, I would say yes, but just where the heaviest criticism falls: the globalized world, the internet and the “solid” state that is taking a darker, dangers right.
I participated in a 100 year event of Priest Manuel Antunes, this transdisciplinary man, was the theme of a lecture written with a friend in his work Repensar Portugal, said that it was necessary to seek in politics, the “temperate zones” where human nature is more comfortable, but the 2018 sample is from more radicalized regions, in the bad sense of the term.
It is necessary to pause, even when forced and in discomfort, to look at the future so that it is possible to have hope, peace and a closer approach of the peoples, the national radicalism is perverse, Europe sews a possible agreement for the exit of England from the block , the so-called Brexit.
The US ends the end of the year with the dreamed Trump Wall, and Mexicans pushing across the wall, proving that it was not a solution but the announcement of a crisis.
New governments to the right in Brazil and Colombia, the left in Mexico wins after many years of a party monopolizing power, while Nicaragua and Venezuela parade catastrophic left-wing governments, Bolivia, Ecuador and Uruguay are in temperate zones.
Thinking about a more integrated world, climate issue and income distribution has become more difficult, what can be expected is a vigorous reaction of human thought, man has always been able to face the challenges that have appeared, perhaps the retreat is a resumption


The Truth Beyond Practice and Action

22 Nov

The truth of the so-called post truth must be read not from fake news, from editorial groups that are almost always polarized and full of the “doxa” (private opinion), but from a teleological search for truth beyond cultures, intolerances and ideologies.
The interpretation of how Gadamer sees this issue relating violence / non-violence comes from the lessons given by Heidegger in the 1920s in Aristotle’s Phenomenological Interpretations (Heidegger, 1992), where he penetrates the dialogical structure of Phronesis, which is practical-oriented wisdom in Greek philosophy it is distinguished from
episteme and techné.
I open a parenthesis, because this is important and what is the relationship with a policy increasingly subject to the “practical” direction of action and a certain type of violence, because even the perspective of change can not distance itself from what Jacques Ranciere calls Engagment, I would say being more direct, that there is a lack of prudence and tact with practice.
It lacks a notion of mutuality, a fundamental notion in Gadamer’s thought, which emphasizes the dialogical and
practical trait present in his project of philosophical hermeneutics, which may seem a distancing from praxis in the pure sense of engagment, but it is not, in his own words Gadamer is a practice that turns to itself without realizing its
fundamentals and without understanding it as the fruit of reflection and therefore of theory.
Whether it is the work of art or the field of education, or even the domain of relations with economic questions, engagment can rob the essence of artistic, pedagogical or economic doing, and this does not mean art, education or dehumanized economy.
According to Heidegger’s lectures and the Aristotelian philosophy of rhetoric, in addition to phronesis (practice), there are two other features of ethos: appeals to arete (virtue) and eunoia, that is, good thinking or goodwill that cultivates others to receive it.
Thus the practical action without the necessary acceptance of the others, then enters the Other without the virtue can become hypocrisy or unreliable, without the sympathy of the listener can become a disgusting speech without appeal, even with kind and sweet words.

HEIDEGGER, Martin. Phenomenological Interpretations with Respect to Aristotle: Indication of the Hermeneutical Situation. Trad. scored by Michael Baur. In Man and World, 25, p. 355-393, 1992.


Post-truth incompleteness

19 Nov

Before we know what post-truth is, we must know if there is any definition of truth, and this leads us back to the beginnings of Western civilization, where it was known that the truth was hidden, that is, either for Aristotle or Plato, the At the apex of Greek culture of antiquity, truth was hidden, that is, an aletheia was necessary, a Greek term not to be concealed, manifest, or even more (negation) lethõ (forget), therefore there is only truth about a fact occurred.
For Greek philosophy it was clear that “doxa” or opinion was contrary to episteme, or systematized and organized knowledge, but every episteme implies a method, that is, it comes from that epistemology, or the way to organize and prove certain knowledge.
The issue arose in the context of current politics because some politicians, avoiding names to avoid the doxological polarization (of opinions) started to deny facts, that is, what was registered and proven, and even denied, but this did not it’s new.
Already in her 1967 essay “Truth and Politics,” Hannah Arendt stated that fact-based truth could be substantiated and verified, but politicians insisted on turning back and making speeches based on opinions, so it is not new, and seeing with the media is something else, the monopoly of opinion and that almost always is not based on data.
The fact that there are social network media, networks and groups have always existed only that they were hegemon owners of newspapers and magazines, and now they are not, it starts to have an open confrontation of opinions, that turn into organized twisted, with emotional appeals and doxological.
It is not by chance that populist politicians, who all bordered on or were avowedly fascists, were great orators and capable of provoking fascination in the masses, the fascination today is another, the ability to articulate facts and use images or data that simulate false epistemes.
Brazil was the cases of mensalão, petroleum and other ill-informed people that generated a body of half-truths that inflamed and reached a large part of public opinion, another was little consideration of the cultural and moral values ​​of society, whether religious, whether it be black culture, indigenous culture, or Brazilian regionalities, there were many untruths.
It is so difficult to understand sometimes, that even trying to clarify the facts we are confused, for example, in Portugal there is now a famous case (here) of Tancos, a barracks where a gun truck was stolem the weapons of war, and I needed a Portuguese friend to understand, there is half-truths everywhere and lots of tall people seem involved, and the guns were returned with even an extra box of arms, appear a jokie but ist real fact.

As part of the truth of the facts, there are currents of “opinions” where the term may be inappropriate, currents of divergent or even opposing cultures would be better, without the broad dialogue required the tendency is for cheerleaders to grow and increase number of conflicts, where intolerance prevails the risk of serious conflicts is eminent.
We separate here “opinion” of epistemological, cultural or methodological divergence, since different ways to obtain the truth must be thought apart from the passions, otherwise the possibility of concrete ways to overcome crises are blocked and reason disappears.