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Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

New worldview and future

06 Sep

Tied to preconceptions and the worldview that is gradually overcome by reality can do little or nothing to make the future come true, the crisis is wider than the economic warns us Edgar Morin, is not the problem of technique, but of Being , to see the Other that is not the same, to leave worlds limited by limited worldviews and that admit no others.
This means abandoning many things that are dear to us, not the principles, but the ability to review them for even greater principles that include EVERYONE and not just the self or US of selfish, closed groups.
Quantum physics, dark bodies and energies (not holes, but still unknown matter and energy), show how limited our worldview is.
It is not about wisdom or phrases made superficial, theologies made by careful analysis of reading the text, the hermeneutic circle is precisely the possibility of a textual reading from the admission of preconceptions, seen here positively, the Indeed, we can accept another worldview with a different preconception from mine.
Invited to participate in the nascent Christian community, Jesus was also asking his disciples to abandon the ancient worldview of family attachments, work, and riches, but despite the growth of Christianity over millennia (now in reverse), this view has been misunderstood and misunderstood. by the exegetes.
In Luke 14.27: 30, the Master invites them to leave behind their worldviews to follow him: “He who does not carry his cross and walk behind me cannot be my disciple.
In fact, which of you, wanting to build a tower, does not sit first and calculate the expenses, to see if it has enough to finish? Otherwise, it will lay the foundation and will not be able to finish.
And all who see this will begin to mock, saying, “This man began to build and was unable to finish!”, But the contemporary step is bigger.
Yellow September requires that you see the Other not as someone with the same rights as US.

 

Change thinking and teach to live

05 Sep

When we propose a model that is not that of the world of life, Husserl made a philosophy of it, his Lebenswelt, Habermas made it a sociology, Heidegger and Gadamer incorporate it in his thoughts, but the end that is life if not learning.
The central problem of seeking a “clearing” is that we create models too far from life, from its defense including nature, dignity and living itself, we are in a Yellow September, whose theme is none other than to say that it is worthwhile. It is worth living.
thought”.
Clinging to already outdated methods and models, logicists and neopositivists, it is not pointed out “the nature of knowledge, which itself contains the risk of error and illusion” (MORIN, 2015, p. 16).
The great complexity theorist proposes, first of all, a return to philosophy (in the sense of primary thinking) in its Socratic condition of dialogue, Aristotelian (in the sense among others, of the organization of information), Platonic (questioning of appearances), and even pre-Socratic (questioning the world, inserting knowledge in modern cosmology), finally cannot teach life without knowing that it has dilemmas, errors and options.
Morin, who could boast of wisdom by age, by intense intellectual activity, from the pedestal of those full of certainties, no doubt or misconceptions that we see parading through the gyms and public stands of devouring and unquestioning media.
Morin seeks to “conceive the instruments of a thought that is pertinent because it is complex” (Morin, 2015, p. 23), and we see the barbarism of dogma and little elaborated certainties.
Ready-made phrases, self-help manuals, (mainly economic) laissez-faire, rudeness, and ideological hysteria deepen today’s cultural, humanitarian, and social crisis.
It scares me that book readers are so sure with so little thought, in fact criticism of thought grows and the praise of ignorance seems to win any argument.
Morin encourages us and brings us to a still visible and possible future, his lecture at the Frontier of Thought (2016) is a hope and a deepening that sheds new light.

MORIN, Edgar: Ensinar a viver: manifesto para mudar a educação. Trad. Edgard de Assis Carvalho e Mariza Perassi Bosco. Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2015

 

Closing, pride and fall

30 Aug

Closed groups oppose criticism, call for dialogue and openness, but they are just what they are not allowed, making long speeches, are persuasive without opening up to what is distinct, ignoring the possibilities of mistakes and flatterers who do not use their support.
This is the mistake of the proud, failing to observe how the failures, and failing to realize or what leads to occur, even well-meaning groups and people, but with severe damage to a feeling of superiority, than in the last occurrences after the interruption. of pride, already stated in the previous post that can be positive, for the vanity that leads to the fall.
Great weapons are not enemies, which they are not always, for they can be people who warn of failures and serious defects, such as large corporations, groups with large applications and interests, and get lost in vices and defects that lead to serious falls.
There is no way to break or close allies and applause, unless there are warnings of misconceptions and that in general there are, there is always someone or some well-meaningly disabled voice showing who are the same values and great values.
Good proposals and good intentions are not lacking, but those who led the war, mistreatment, and the Forces alien to the common welfare of power generally went to the fragility of welfare, for those who have few resources to care for and many have for themselves.
To discard, it seems that all is well, but the price of freedom is an eternity, says popular wisdom, direction of goodness as well.
In biblical terms, there is a passage in which Jesus observes and arrives at a place where guests hosting guests are all sitting in privileged places, and tells them a parable of a wedding party, which explains that it may be ashamed if the owner of the come home and ask to sit further back giving a place for a more illustrated guest.
He says that by having a party he can be excluded because he receives nothing in return, “when a party invites the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind” (Luke 14:13), they have nothing to do with repaying. therefore they will always be the same.
Van Gogh’s picture of potato eaters reminds the poor of their time, the characters seem to have a deformed human condition.

 

Pride and vanity

29 Aug

The word pride (orgulho in Portuguese) originates from Catalan orgull, perhaps few know it, but if we look at its synonyms we can see that it can mean positively: pride, dignity, and in the negative sense: superb and pundonor (doesn’t exist in English, it would be something like a hint of honor), depends on context haughtiness can be positive or negative, finally the word depends on the context.
Pundonor instead of Castilian, punt d´honor, meaning a certain rigor or modesty, also decorum, perhaps all this has fallen into disuse, and it strikes me that excess literature, philosophy treats it little and its connection with vanity is not correct . It may be said that Sloterdijk’s era of cynical reason is not only right for big themes, but for these smaller, smaller ones because they have become cynicism perhaps not in literature but in thought, to the point of making the negative expression of “sins”.
Now becoming even greater pleasures, including theft and lies, is not the time for fake News, but a long way from the absence of a clearing where themes like these can be clarified.
Pride driven to exaggeration is an exaggerated concept of itself, which brings it to a point of contact with vanity, but vanity beyond cynicism has become the pride of media philosophy, not just memes and fake ones.
News, but the in-fact views of the media. Reversing the true meaning of things serves the arrogant and proud of skepticism that responds little or nothing to a reality of obscurantism and unclearness.
The vanity of a king can be exemplified in a tale, where close observation clarifies it, although Hans Christian Andersen’s Tale of the Emperor’s New Clothes can also be used in reverse, but the popular saying “the king is naked ”clarifies what it is, we have already posted that the“ state is naked ”and now we could say“ the statesmen are naked ”:

 

Pass to through the narrow door

23 Aug

The time of liberality, the time at all seems easy and then complicated, the door of wisdom is great and ignorance is great, “the client wants ease,” but then.
Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea of the Fernando Pessoa, so let’s see: “Was it worth it? Everything is worth it Who wants to go beyond the Bojador It has to go beyond the pain ”.
The Bojador was a cape off the coast of Africa where many ships sank, many sailors stopped a voyage to the Indian Ocean, one soul is not small beyond pain.
The easy movement of idealism, the little reflection in favor of impulsiveness, the adherence to the new populism, and a broader crisis the cultural feature of our time, and the navigation in our deepest systems, but the internet browsing, the web browsing.
Web without compasses helps, but is not a determinant, a determinant is ignorance.
To get an email-like paradise, Edgar Morin, and many people who see the planet as a cohabitation, or a co-immunity like Peter Sloterdijk, also watching the psychopower that time, the information bombing, that comes from long before the time when Karl Kraus (1874-1936) claimed the newspaper that propelled a Europe into a Crisis, at the same time as the science europeans crisis.
It said Karl Kraus in This Great Time that you can go to speak of the tired of War is stupid : ”so the fatigue of war is actually a state of which there has to be no salvation. Tired of war must always be, not after, but before the war has begun. War fatigue must not cause war to be ended, but no war. ”

The door of wisdom is the same and ignorance is wide, “the customer wants facilities,” but then. Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea Fernando Pessoa, let’s do what is most important, the best way to choose freedom, democracy and freedom of choice. It is !!!, to help humanity to go to a homeland of all, a diversity and tolerance.

A biblical worldview has a beautiful expression for this Luke 13:34: “Do your best to enter the narrow door. Because most theologians and exegetes see only the rights and possibilities of a minority, then one is left with a self-applied humanity. Before it’s too late, before we say, “We’re tired of the war,” we let it go.

 

Idealism and the wide door of misconceptions

22 Aug

At the same time discovered as quantum physics, holography, and a new worldview of the universe emerge, there are those who believe that the earth is flat and that we were never the moon. These are too many specific problems to be dealt with, but philosophy in general contemporary rather than neoliberal, this is its pragmatic economic aspect.
It is idealistic and even philosopher-youtubers who discourse on philosophy follow it. Kant is complex, but his central point is the dichotomy between subject and object, as they cannot be separated, at least in terms of theory of knowledge, he created the analytical and synthetic judgments.
The analytic judgment is that the predicate is within the subject, and so it specifies its logic, and this logic comes from a physical-mathematical view of knowledge in modernity. It exemplifies using geometric figures such as the triangle and the square, of course it has four sides, but this is not a deduction but a tautological, circular definitions.
The synthetic judgment, on the other hand, cannot be contained in the subject, so it adds reasoning as something completely new, that is, the novelty is the predicate.
It is very simplified, but essentially develops a logic where Being and Entity are confusing and dismantles the possibility of an ontology, even if it is partial, and imagined with this throwing away all the “superstitions”, the famous “Sapere audi”, dare to know.
As reason alone was not enough, it was necessary to introduce the idea of empiricism, which came from David Hume’s arguments (1711-1776, so judgments may a priori, which already exist in the subject, and a posteriori, experimentally acquired.
Schlick (1882-1936), who founded the Vienna Circle neologicist school, criticized the idealistic basis of a priori knowledge, claiming that since statements have a logical truth, they are neither analytical nor synthetic as they are. Kant argued because it was paradoxical; and that if the truth depends on the factual content, the statements are therefore a posteriori and not a priori, since the facts must happen, Schlick was assassinated by Nazism.
In the circle of Vienna were present Kurt Godel, Karl Popper, Hans Kelsen and others.
The same proposition can be known by cognitive agents both a priori and a posteriori, using the same example as Kant, a creation only knows that the square has four sides after learning to count, while for an adult it seems “inductive.”
The video is a short discussion about idealism of Kant to Hegel:

 

Refugee Drama and Italian Government

21 Aug

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, because of controversy over accepting refugees, with his deputy Matteo Salvini, resigned Tuesday in the Italian parliament, and said he would inform President Sergio Mattarela on the same day.
Along with Salvini is the 5-star heiress of blogger and comedian Beppe Grillo, who came to the government as M5S, which in the last elections had 33% of the votes and has 229 deputies, was a government ally, but sometimes controversy with Mattarela’s “league” are united to prevent immigrants from reaching the country, without Conte the right can “turn back”.
In his speech in parliament Conte sharply criticized his deputy for saying he wants to anticipate the elections, which is “irresponsible” and “despises parliament”, and throws Italy into a “dizzying spiral of political and financial instability”.
Salvini is one more who wants to leave the European Union, it seems that every extreme right in the world has only one program, recreating the nations from an economic point of view is a catastrophe, also in England Boris Johnson’s speech about leaving the European Union , is already voted but without possible agreement, show that chaos is not what says these new “nationalists” were of time, is the chaos that they themselves implant, the UK that says so.
Portugal will have elections this year, there the program seems the opposite, the right-wing parties say “we are Europe”, although they do not say clearly what this means, because during the Salazar period there was a speech of “proudly alone”, Salazar was resurrected in other countries maybe.
Spain is a case, I had no good impression of the Catalans until I went there, noting that it is the central government that is the rightmost, and that Catalonia’s nationalism is similar to many small countries in Europe where ethnicities were massacred.
Without taking sides of course, I think the Catalans would wish to continue in the Europa zone, but as independents.
Also Italian, the philosopher Giorgio Agamben described these stateless and dispossessed men of the earth as Homo Sacer, the fringe of qualified political life, man as a political subject, and unlike many interpretations there was the zoo, which was treated as a slave by domains of war, or for living an almost animal life, not for their desire

 

Dialogue and not-power

16 Aug

A true dialogue: not being able From Nietsche, with its will-to-power category, to Schopenhauer and others, to Foucault’s biopower and Byung Chul Han’s psychopolitics, power implies resistance and somehow difference, and it does not always admit diversity.

There would be a form of no power, or at least a counterpoint for those who believe that power is necessary, of course here there is no talk of authority, it will always exist, but the type of authority is fundamental, for example, when discussing state violence. and its limits.

In the field of psychology, this is what Arendt calls the ‘space of appearance’, and we explained in the previous post that it is a ‘between’ who speaks and who acts, just as both Arendt and Byung Chul Han explain the complementarity between working life and the contemplative life.

It was Paul Ricoeur, in our view, who made Arendt’s most beautiful synthesis on this point: Paul Ricoeur, “almost all the discussions raised by Arendt’s political thought can be reviewed when presenting the conceptual power-violence pair” (Ricoeur 1989, p. 142), and Arendt herself sums it up by stating: “If we turn to discussions of the phenomenon of power, we quickly realize that there is a consensus among left-to-right political theorists that violence is so -only the most blatant manifestation of power ”(Arendt, 2001, p. 31), so if a counterpoint is desired one must think non-power.

The first form of non-power is attentive and capable listening to an “epoché”, that is, a void so large where there are no categories or dogmas, care is not lack of principles as this would also be a violence, and the second is admit a truth above the dialogue.

Thus the difference remains in the field of the false “epoché” common in many dialogues where the speaker begins to dominate the theme and does not admit counterpoints, while in the distinction makes it possible that what differentiates does not become an obstacle to dialogue, manifesting from the Other.

It has not been possible to overcome forms of violence to this day because power has been and still is needed, but the return to state violence through many governments across the planet brings us to the phenomenon of homo sacer, war criminals, refugees and others without fundamental rights, concept worked by Agamben.

But in philosophy, history, and religion there is a figure that awakens a powerlessness, the figure of Willendorf’s Venus, carved in limestone with shades of reddish paint, in the years between 28,000 and 25,000 BC, obesity and short arms. some scholars reject the idea of ​​the mythological goddess Venus, goddess of beauty, who was the fruit of love between earth and heaven, would say that the religious metaphor is perfect, between the mystery of the Infinite and the feet on the earth’s ground.

Mary, a mythical Christian figure who also causes controversy among scholars, has an unmistakable biblical passage of her dialogical role, is in Lk 1.43: “How can I deserve the mother of my Lord to come to visit me?” The discussion of which Lord she speaks, but it is undoubtedly in her is a dialogue between heaven and earth, between the divine and the human.

Arendt, H. (2001)Poder e violência (Power and violence). Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará, pp. 81-94.

Ricoeur, P. (1989) “Pouvoir et violence”. In Hannah Arendt: Ontologie and Politique. Paris, Édition Tierce, pp. 141-159.

 

From biopolitics to psychopolitics

10 Aug

The form of power, while still centered on the state and its modern concept of state that comes from Hegel and not just the French Revolution, underwent changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, which philosopher Michel Foucault called biopower.
Literally the philosopher elaborates it this way: “The instruments that the government will give to achieve these ends [that are, in some way, immanent to the field of the population, will essentially be the population over which it acts. ” (Foucault, 1978, p. 277-293) that is in his work Microphysics of power, when it addresses the issue of governability.
Many who do not accept Foucault’s philosophy, for lack of reading or understanding, do not realize that what today is called public policy has this idea at its source. However biopower can be thought of more fully, including technologies that act on a local population or particular social demand, but always with the idea of establishing power and control over particular localities or social groups.
Byung Chul Han in three recent works (The Swarm, Psychopolitics, and What is Power) (explains that this form has been superseded by current psychopolitics, where local powers and policies are replaced by elaborate new techniques of power, Foucault also calls them that. With the problems of health, birth, mortality and life estimation (see this theme in welfare reform) the biopolitics aimed to control the “body” as well as the biopower.
Entering the digital age this evolves into psychopolitics, which leads us to a crisis of both freedom and identity, where psychically even one’s own will is struck. Byung Chul Han’s long analysis of What Is Power, returning to Nietzsche and even Kierkegaard (1813 – 1855), the philosopher reveals the subjective aspects that power has been working from the conception of the modern state.
He considers it essential to understand the digital age, even though he has criticism of technological appropriation, and places the latest Big Data technology as a key element in this process, and is therefore very current because it is the technology that reaches the psyche of the social subject, and of the individual ultimately: his interests, desires and worldviews.
I consider it important to return to Kierkegaard, although Chul Han does so on time, the ideas of this existentialist philosopher are deeply related to the concepts of the works of the Korean-German, in particular: the anguish in The Society of Bournout and the pursuit of happiness and pleasure in The agony of Eros.
The social scientist slovenian Renata Salecl’s obsession with choice addresses the issue of Kierkeegard’s updated anguish:
https://www.ted.com/talks/renata_salecl_our_unhealthy_obsession_with_choice/transcript?language=pt-br#t-97506  

 

Power and ignorance

09 Aug

Power can and should be exercised for the common good, for the good of all, but it is not because there is ignorance of the strength and strength of the ignorant who elect as unqualified persons as representatives.
Just as the mad, the different, and those that Nietzsche and Foucault asked for socializing, the possibility of mad ships landing on shores and borders being opened to refugee peoples, so the wall of ignorance must be broken, because it strengthens the powerful arrogant and merciless.
One cannot speak of a society in general, since it is divided and fragmented for the most part by nostalgia of a “good” time without this being explicit to the whole of society.
They close in groups, in “cheering” without opening themselves to society and its real problems, and where the “ships of the mad” cannot dock, but today it is not only for refugees and stateless people, it is also to the people themselves, often one feels strange in one’s home country. In the social sphere there is also the phenomenon of tiredness, the exhaustion of new ideas, the lack of true evolution, the lack of an ideal or an axis.
What occurs in reaction to what Peter Sloterdijk calls “despiritualized asceticism,” an exercise society, but without real elevation.
This is what happens in religious groups of various kinds, as well as some political and social forces, shut down and expel their “crazy”, “different” members who want to recover the originality of the proposal that attracted them to the group.
What happens in the Bible is to give in to hopelessness: “If that servant thinks, ‘My master is taking too long,’ and begins to beat the servants and the maids, and to eat, to drink, and to get drunk” (Luke 12:45), and when the boss arrives he will charge him for this infidelity. It is not just about resilience, but above all we must not separate those we think are ‘crazy’, ‘exaggerated’, ‘revolutionary’, Foucault warned that this was normal in medieval society and modernity until the 18th century.
It is not just about resilience, but above all we must not separate those we think are ‘crazy’, ‘exaggerated’, ‘revolutionary’, Foucault warned that this was normal in medieval society and modernity until the 18th century.
Bad leaders, and the absence of de facto collective communities, are those who have abandoned their own principles and values and have mistreated and authoritated those who wish to remain true to real values.
This is the argument of ignorance, beyond force, the exclusion of the different, the Other and all those who perceive the deviation to authoritarianism and the various forms of drunkenness.