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Arquivo para a ‘Information ethics’ Categoria

#LockDown now

06 Apr

We have entered a decisive week of the pandemic, especially in Brazil, but also in many parts of the world, contagion will reach poorer areas and countries, where sanitary conditions and the concentration of people can lead to the greatest human tragedy, but it is Easter week. and I have hope.
A huge #LockDown could have a fulminant effect against contagion and this would help fight the pandemic, network studies (in the sense of the relationship between two nodes, in this case it is the proximity of people) show that the network effect exists, and the only now appear in poor peoples.
The possibility of interrupting is to create clusters, isolated sectors of society and a single contact of the one node produces a viral effect.
Carl Latkin, in addition to being an eminent infectologist who works in Global health programs, is also one of the most productive researchers in Social Networks, our study of co-citations in Social Networks works demonstrated this (a PhD in progress), but a given important of this researcher is what shows the presence of HIV in African-American homosexuals.
This study carried out with a sample of 234 African American men, showed that the fact that they are in denser sexual networks, are more prone to contagion.
The analogy with COVID-19 is that peripheral populations are in denser population networks and the relationship within the family is stronger, as they are larger families, as we do not have time to do local sampling, beyond the quarantine period, we’re running a simulation and the risk is real, even the ministry team admits a Covid-19 explosion.
It turns out that workers supporting essential services: truck drivers, cleaning workers and assistants in medical centers, secretaries, etc. it comes from the periphery and displacement is already a problem, they ride on crowded buses and do not have the necessary hygiene conditions.
There is an urgent need for a #LockDown during this week of the end of Lent, not only can the holidays help, but a political attitude of frontal confrontation can help a lot.
Carl Latkin, Cui Yang, Karin Tobin, Typhanye Penniman, Jocelyn Patterson, Pilgrim Spikes, “Differences in the Social Networks of African American Men Who Have Sex With Men Only and Those Who Have Sex With Men and Women”, American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 10 (October 1, 2011): pp. e18-e23.

 

Sensibility and public cause

16 Mar

Health is a public cause, almost everyone agrees, but when proposing protective measures, many people, not seeing the cases explode and the number of infected people growing, do not understand why and make them a joke or disdain, it was like that in countries that later woke up, this is the case of Italy, whose number of deaths exploded yesterday, Spain and Portugal where the movement on the streets disappeared and many products on the market as well.
Italy recorded 368 deaths, an increase of 25% just this Sunday, and the number of infected people went to 3690 this weekend, Spain and Portugal the number of people who decided to stay at home practically paralyzed the country and for this to be as possible, families have stocked up in supermarkets, they have reduced offers, those who have not been prevented may be left without some products.
Several authorities have commented on the effects, there is a real video of a meeting that took place at Incor (Heart Institute), and a fake attributed to Stanford University, it is also false that Cuba sent vaccine to China, a fake and ridiculous fake is that lemon and vitamin C fights the virus.
The politicization of the issue is also of little concern for the population, we must all fight because soon the explosion of the coronavirus will happen in Brazil, what many experts are concerned about is the capacity of the Health System to respond, all over the world and also in Brazil , with protection the curve will be less steep and the system will have a response capacity, the graph above explores with and without protective measures.
The most complete video on the subject, because it also deals with the cultural aspect and behavior in combating a pandemic, is that of the profa. Dr. Claudia Feitosa Santana, from University of São Paulo, Brazil (is possible setting to English):

 

The supper of ashes

26 Feb

That defines how or man is by nature also understands or is a nature, or a substance proposed in an infinite number. and an initial structure in the philosophy of Nature and in the 1584 work (*Supper of Ashes) of Giordano Bruno, linked to Copernican theory, which creates an infinite universe with an omnipresent divider, an eternal matter and a permanent mutation.
Bruno declared himself a “realist” Copernican in 1582 in Paris, and when he arrived in London a year later, he placed himself on a non-cosmological level with extravagant ideals for the time, epoch or universe in which he lived and at the time of his living rooms. class. they are suspended, dedicated both to the theological radicalism of its Protestant public and to “atheistic” Aristotelianism.
A curious aspect of Bruno, like Leibniz and Spinoza or produced, is named his protagonist of Theophilus present in the Bible and what is meant by “son of God”, or that he too will separate himself from his Catholic religion or thought that Philosophy should to be independent of religion, through the passage through the Copernican heliocentrism through an infinite universe that we owe to Bruno.
According to his policy and / or being able to involve this infinite movement, he stated: “What ingenuity to ask to burn, to be able to move or to be able”, that was or its package with the donations of the power of religion and the nascent academy.
In his book “The supper of ashes” he made an extraordinary statement for the time: “The earth and the stars … how they dispense life and food from things, restoring all material that entrepreneurship, are themselves endowed with life, to a much greater extent, and to be alive, and in a voluntary, orderly and natural way, the second intrinsic principle, that they will move towards the Spanish and Spanish spaces with which I agree ”, he said, a universe of Copernicus.
t is important not to be true of Bruno, who also has controversial works on the Eucharist and the Virgin Mary, more or more important for our time and restoring a lost dialogue of old data, and for which the inquisitors continue. apostates Giordano Bruno took a big step in science and wanted a philosophy to be independent because of power and religious not inculturation, even if it leafs through and needs to overcoming fundamentalism and establish the Dialogue.

*Bruno, G. (1995) The Ash Wednesday Supper. Lawrence s. Lerner ¨Edward A. Gosselin (editors), University of Toronto Press.

 

The importance of Droysen’s legacy

17 Feb

We stated last week that both the perspective of Droysen’s Hellenism (he coined the term) and the perspective of the true meaning of his story were broader, long before Gadamer’s criticisms of “romantic” historicism, this author who was a student of Hegel , had already done so and with much property because in addition to being a student, he entered the concept that Hegel is for modern philosophy its founder.

Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-1884) questioned the principle of historicity, and, long before his time, questioned historians about the “scientific” foundations of a certain perspective and relativism, as well as indirectly questioning Dilthey in an attempt to use history to support the Sciences of the Spirit.

Droysen in his Compendium on History (Grundriss der Historik) that was not suitable for History, since it pretends to be science, to borrow without a method from another perspective of knowledge, which is natural science, even if as an “example”.

The solution presented by him, similar to that of Gadamer, synthesized in the methodological notion of Investigative Understanding (forschendes Verstehen), aimed to give History the possibility of an autonomous science, so for him there is something that precedes the explanation x understanding dualism, which is the history, what we called last week the “form” of thinking.

His 1857/1858 compendium of history (Grundiss der Historik) is available in Spanish (1983) and Italian (1989) versions, still in Portuguese.

Of particular interest, at least for me, was Chapter 3, which deals with the hermeneutical problem of understanding, which gives a sense of the applicability of its method.

The link that we can and should make with the moral question, from the previous topic, can be found on page 386 of her work Teologia dela Storia (Italian translation):

“… we need a Kant, who critically examines not the historical matter, but the theoretical and practical movement before and within history, and who demonstrates, like anything similar to the moral law, an imperative category of history, the living source from which the historical life of humanity flows. ”(DROYSEN, 1966, p. 386)

Droysen observes in what he calls “Systematics” three types of ethical communities: “the natural communities”, “the ideal communities” and “the practical communities” (figure above), and relates to them from history, said thus: “ours systematic resulted from the notion that the historical world is the ethical world, but while conceived from a certain point of view; because the ethical world can be considered under other points of view … ”(Droysen, 1994, p. 413).

Its becoming, therefore, is far from the Hegelian dialectic, but at the same time it dialogues with it.

DROYSEN, J. G. (1966) Teologia dela Storia. Prefazione ala Storia dell´Ellenismo II – 1843. In: Istorica. Lezioni sula Encilopedia e Metodologia dela storia. Trad.: I. Milano – Napoli: Emery.

_______. (1994) Istorica. Lezioni di enciclopédia e metodologia dela storia. Trad. Silvia Caianiello. Napoli: Guida.

 

Tradition and the truth of becoming

14 Feb

Much of what is preached and lived in our day is tradition, here not seen as the thought that built the history of humanity, but only repetitive and apparently “stable” customs and habits that time has taken charge of changing.

This is how the religion that should build a true asceticism of becoming, or becoming, builds prejudiced and traditionalist ties that hinder the progress of humanity.

It is not by chance that they fought Giordano Bruno and Galileu Galilei, their works represented a change in the worldview, in this case a cosmological view, but the world view means, above all, a broad view of the phenomena and of life.

The world does not change because thinkers who should aim for the future show only their fears, their arrogance fixed in concepts of tradition and their lack of creativity.

In a passage where Jesus and his disciples ate spikes with their hands and traditionalists demanded compliance with the law of washing hands, the Master shows that the words of these men did not match their attitudes.

Jesus says in Mark’s biblical passage (Mark 7: 6-8): “Isaiah prophesied about you, hypocrites, as it is written:‘ This people honors me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. There is no use in the worship they give me, because the doctrines they teach are human precepts. You abandon the commandment of God to follow the tradition of men ”.

It is in this sense that the following paragraph says (Mk 6, 9): “They know very well how to change the commandments to follow the tradition”, and this is also the sense that the evangelist Matthew says (Mt 5, 20) : “If your righteousness is no greater than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the king of heaven”, this is the essence of Christian morality that is well observed is universal.

 

Morality and its diverse concepts

13 Feb

We think of morals as moralism, Puritanism or “certain” Christian morals, as a whole it involves love and so it also involves dialogue, but morality is even more confused because it mixes with Kantian idealistic morals and state morals, the so-called “justice”.

Hellenic morality, of classical antiquity, is a fusion of Greek morality when it spreads through Asia Minor and the Mediterranean will meet the Roman “laws”, which is a nascent state morality, but separates from it as a form of stoicism.

This period was called by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-1884) for the first time Hellenic, and include among the thinkers Plotinus, Cicero, Zeno and Epicurus, they keep geometric and astronomical notions that merge with moral ideas, we know great phrases of this period, but not thought like Droysen did.

It can be synthesized in two currents, moral individualism or “inner” morality and Plotinus neoplatonism, which is similar to the thought of Augustine of Hippo, but different in terms of teleological morality, for Augustine, evil is the absence of good, not the opposite.

Kantian morality is essentially individualistic, “acts in such a way as to be a model for others” while state morality will be the rules that managed the social contract (previous post), Christian morality as current since the time of Jesus can be pharisaic and traditionalist (what is called fundamentalist), in essence it should be universal.

Loving everyone, including enemies, is not what most religious moralists do, their essence is still the “fight against evil” and not their overcoming through love and never hate.

 

 

American primaries

05 Feb

After a technological shame, curious that this happens in the USA and here the polls doubt, the first results come out with 62%, even more curious is the counting system because although Bernie Sanders leads.

In fact a candidate to the left, the results even yesterday night were: Pete Buttigieg leads with 26.9% of state delegates to nominate the candidate, while Sanders is behind in 25.1% of the figures, followed by Senator Elizabeth Warren with 18.3%, Joe Biden with 15.6% and Amy Klobuchar with 12.6%, one of them will dispute with Trump who won there.

One can speculate on the real reasons for the delay, suspicions aside, the growth of Bernie Sanders could mean a future polarization in the elections, a radical right against a left (in the American mold) also radical, is almost a global trend.

The important thing is to understand why this occurs, and of course it spreads throughout society, first the difficulty in extreme situations of thinking about political situations when the speeches went to extremes and second because the imposition of a radicalized president arouses a reaction. It is possible to resume serenity and reflect again on the urgent and dramatic world problems, from ecology to income distribution, it would be healthy for democracy, for citizens and for culture as we reflected yesterday on the Oscar nominees who have the finger of two Brazilian directors, but the American and world scenario is worrying.

 

The cultural and spiritual crisis

23 Jan

A modernity divided into objective and subjective questions that no man is inseparable, the first because he must have concrete relations with the same objects that are intangible, or object of a form of thought that is also subjective, as or thought about a concrete object, being thought is subjective.
The fundamental problem is that every form of thinking must clearly define or think about that object and is accepted as established knowledge, an epistle and not an opinion anymore (the doxa of games) and what is possible to think again, that is , epicenter of the current crisis.
It does not know what is right or what is the established thought about a given object, or if it is an epistemic tradition about it, nor is it known what is the fact of new possibilities of thinking about it, it is a crisis in general , like any attempt at a spiritual or meditative tone on a subject, appears only as an escape from reality and there is nothing new.
Change as a basis for thought or voluntary attitude, we will change because it is not good, neither the attitude or dox, creating a word for the epistemic dialogue that must be one or the other episteme, this is a relationship with tradition, but that allows change, finally the new.
No spiritual aspect means knowing what you have done until today, as a religion and relationship with what is natural, or super-natural and what contemporary reality exists, a concrete relationship (erroneously called exposure, as it is spiritual) with needs and contemporary thought itself with threats of change.
There is nothing new, nor realistic pragmatism, nor spiritual escape, it produces neither true action nor contemplation.

 

Identity in the view of a mystic

22 Jan
Chiara Lubich, born in Italy on January 22, 1920, would be 100 years old today, among many teachings I found in her philosophy, 
this one is still little known and seems appropriate to the moment of humanity, because it speaks of 
identity, and begins by commenting on Hegel, this writing it was almost burned were it not for a 
person who hid it in a safe.

October 24, 1974
... (original text in Italian)

egel: non é vero che l´essere che existe é statico, ma dinamico. Tra l´essere e il il non essere, viene fuori il divenire. Tesi, antitesi, sintesi. Il nulla serve, perché se non serebbe l divenire. Il nulla adquista um valoe filosófico, um ruolo particolare. Aplicando uma “concezione trinitária” (cóse disse lui), c´é l´essere, il non essere ed il divenire. Il divenire non é qualcose imperfetta, ma la sintesi ta l´essere ed il non essere. Non si puó sostenere completamente il princípio di identitá perché essere e non essere non si appongono assolutament, perché trovano la síntese nel divenire.

… (free translate)

Hegel:
It is not true that the being that exists is static, but dynamic. Between being and non-being, becoming arises. 
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. None of this is necessary, because it would not be possible to do so. None of this has a 
philosophical value, a particular role. 
When applying a "Trinitarian conception" (as he said), there is being, not being and becoming. 
Becoming (becoming) is not imperfect, but the synthesis of being and non-being. 
The principle of identity cannot be fully supported, because being and non-being are not at all opposed (they cannot be fixed), 
because they find meaning in the synthesis in becoming.
This not only overturns the theses that seek fixed identities and call them liquid or corrupt identities that admit a non-being of dialogue, in fact they are the inspiring source for a more integrated world.
 

Humility and Authority

10 Jan

Nietzsche’s stereotype about contemporary morality by establishing the difference between that of slaves/flock sage ness, humility and piety and that of the lords that is that of joy, inventiveness and life, may seem exaggerated but it is that idealism created, and was strengthened by the statutes of the state, the Individual and reductionist scientificism.

The Kant philosopher of idealism proclaimed two ideas about humility, the first about moral humility that “is the feeling of smallness of our value, compared to the law” and the second that is “the claim that, through renunciation, acquire some moral value, hidden moral value”, with a little analysis it is clear that it is a false humility, used for power.

It is possible to establish a fair relationship of authority with humility, although this relationship is not simple, it is possible when done as a service, detachment and potential for it to exercise, so it is not a mushy humility, since it is not necessary to be aware of authority.

The biblical example is very illustrative for this, Jesus’ authority before the people and the disciples was never made as a power structure, but with the authority of those who know the value and “potential” he has to exercise it, but by asking to be baptized by John the Baptist and washing the feet of the apostles exercised a humility of true authority.

Contemporary society needs less authoritarianism and more authority with humility.