Arquivo para a ‘Física’ Categoria

A complete Universe model

31 Mar

The busy life and the buildings of the big cities prevent us from seeing the starry night sky where you can count more than a thousand stars with the naked eye, and is the model of this universe already known.

The whole that can be known hides a Whole that is all of creation and that had its Fiat or its Big Bang an initial moment and is gradually unveiled by research and the large telescopes built and that can now search beyond the Milky Way and many planets can be seen.

Even with all studies, what we know is only 5% of the composition of the universe, as shown by the figures of the Dark Energy Survey (DES), led by the American laboratory Fermilab, since 25% of the universe is dark matter and the remaining 70% are dark energy.

Since the first moment of the Big Bang, the universe has accelerated the pace of its expansion and the process has not slowed down, through the observation of a type of supernovae, end-of-life stars that collapse and emit an amount of brightness comparable to the center of the stars. galaxies, it is concluded that dark energy was the one that increases the speed of this growth process.

Dark matter, on the other hand, gets its name because it does not interact with photons (the particles of light, which are now definitely massless particles in the current model) and thus it is not possible to directly detect them through telescopes where the color and quality of the light makes them possible to be studied.

This dark matter is noted for its gravitational effect, that is, it has gravity and the visible bodies interact with it, and although we know that it exists, studies on the phenomena that happen to them and their interaction with other celestial bodies only started, studying their shapes and the distortions that cause their gravitational fields, which gives some information.

The study that covered approximately 300 million galaxies, 100,000 clusters and 2,000 supernovae, in addition to objects from our Milky Way and the Solar System.

In 2016 a detailed map of 43.00 galaxies was published reaching a distance of 380 million light years from the solar system, called the 2MASS Reshift Survey (2MRS) was presented at 218º. American Astronomy Society meeting in Boston, USA.

The Gaia satellite launched in 2013 by the European Special Agency (ESA) completed in 2018 its mission to register the stars and make a 3D map of the Milky Way (photo above), but the result according to Leah Crane, an astronomy expert was “The universe just got even more confused,” he wrote in the new Scientist magazine.




The order of the Universe

30 Mar

In classical antiquity the model that predominated was the Ptolemaic, which surpassed the model of Aristotle (384-322 BC) who thought that the Earth was the center of the universe, of course in addition to other models that considered the flat earth the Earth attached to a “ spherical shell ”and others.

Other ideas emerged, but the model of Claudio Ptolemy (85-150) prevailed, until the model of Nicolau Copernicus (1473-1543) appeared in the late Middle Ages, but the Sun was still the center of the Universe, the important here is the mathematical and geometric “order” that he established, which influenced all modern science.

Our limit as a galaxy was proposed in ancient times by Democritus of Abdera (450-370 B.C.), seeing the bright low in the night sky, stated that it consisted of distant stars.

It was only in the 10th century, that the Persian astronomer known as Azophi (Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi), who observed the Andromeda Galaxy, describing it as a “little cloud” and was rediscovered by Simon Marius in 1612, and in 1610 Galileo Galilei confirms that the Milky Way was composed of several stars.

The model of the Milky Way was established by William Hershel in 1785 (drawing above) and until the discovery of the expansion of the universe, it was composed of galaxies and these by stars and planets.

The current cosmological models came from the hypothesis, today practically confirmed by the clergyman Georges Lamaitre (1854-1966), demonstrated by Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) and theorized and completed by the English physicist Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) and his student Roger Penrose (1931-).

It was from the study of density fluctuations (or anisotropic irregularities of the “matter”) which, analyzing the larger structures began to develop, the result is what is called barionic matter that condenses inside halos of cold dark matter , and these are the ones that formed galaxies as we see today, but dark matter and energy are still studies.

What we want to establish here is how our view of the world and matter also has implications for the view of life studies, and in the present case, of the structures of viruses and small organisms that can help science find solutions to epidemics and pandemics.

In a study that we are doing on publications in Social Networks, the scientist with the largest number of publications in the area of ​​Social Networks is Carl a. Latkin, an infectious disease physician who is a member of the Center for Global Medicine, which is not by chance, our worldview and complexity has changed and it can help us to fight the pandemic.


Beyond the universe

19 Mar

We still live the belief of absolute space and time, the great discoveries of the physics of our time have already proved the existence of the space-time dimension and a fourth dimension where many physical phenomena are explained, standard physics elaborated this, but now we can go beyond.
There was a discrepancy between the measures of expansion of the universe made based on the cosmic microwave background, the noise that remained from the first Big Bang and the expansion of red stars as the recent measurement made by in 2001 was 72 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km / sec / Mpc), with a parsec equivalent to 3.26 light years away.
The red stars are a stage of evolution of the suns when an event called helium glash occurs, in which the temperature rises about 100 million degrees and its structure is rearranged, which ends up decreasing its luminosity, but let us be calm take millions of years to happen. Initial measurements at Planck’s time were 67.4 km / sec / Mpc and recently a NASA team led by Wendy Freedman set it to 70 km / sec / Mpc which apparently averaged and reconciled the two measurements, but in practice they seemed two different phenomena.
The hypothesis of Lucas Lombriser, a physicist at UNIGE in Geneva, published in the next issue of Physics Letters B, shows the universe not only expanding but a bubble within another universe of lesser density, and certainly revolutionary Physics and will change our worldview.

The frightening and at the same time fascinating idea that we are in a bubble within a larger space only with the “matter” density (as we know it, which is called baryonic), may point to enigme new ones like black lowest holes and dark matter.

There is no blindness only in the flat earth, in the Copernican universe and in the worldview of a planet still rearranging itself with its internal social forces, the expanding universe is much larger and may be within a “cosmic broth” that until then was unthinkable, Lombriser he thought.

The idea of multiuniverses was launched by Stephen Hawking and now it seems almost real, see the video:


The Big Bang can be something else

17 Mar

And the Theory of Standard Physics, whose discovery of the Higgs particle recently in the Hadron collider made physicists vibrate, now everything seems to have another meaning.
There were two strong evidences about the Big Bang and the expansion of the universe since the first ball from which everything came out, and now it would be in a bubble of 250 million light years.

And now, this “our universe” where the density of matter is half of the rest of the universe, the hypothesis is Lucas Lombriser, theoretical physicist at the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and answers at what speed the universe expands, and reconciles the two previous averages of Universe Expansion.
The approach published in the journal “Physics Letter B”, resolves the divergence between two independent calculation methods that reached different values by around 10%, a statistical deviation that is irreconcilable, and does not need any new physical model.
According to the Big Bang theory occurred 13.8 billion years ago, the proposal was first made by the Belgian physicist and elder Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) and demonstrated for the first time by the American astronomer Edwin Hubble (1889-1953), observing that distant galaxies were moving away and putting them back together, one could calculate the time of the first explosion.
The expansion constant called H0 was meditated at a value of 67.4 according to data provided by the Planck space mission, which hypothesizes that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic, but now you can think of it with a bubble with matter density half of the entire universe, that is, at 13.8 billion light it exploded within a “other” less dense universe.
Lombriser said: “If we were in a kind of gigantic” bubble “, where the density of matter was significantly less than the density known to the entire universe, this would have consequences on the distances of the supernovae and, ultimately, on determining the H0”.
Thus, the 250 million-year constant for the bubble reconciles the values of the constant H0 for the Big Bang with the constant with the calculation of the spacing of the supernovae that has influence from the entire universe including the part of the bubble with half density, reconciling the two measures.


Aesthetics, culture and spirituality

31 Jan

The disorder that contemporary society advances is not only economic, social and cultural, the aesthetic reflex is a society that aims to eliminate imperfect, pain and co-immunity (all types of immunity are sought at all costs, removing diversity nature), is the attempt of the absence of tragedy, in the cultural and aesthetic sense, of change, but life goes through death.

The result, contrary to the aesthetic that admits the tragedy, is precisely to move towards what it tries to eliminate, it is the society of death, of obscurity, while perfection is sought, the aesthetics of the perfect and straight, but they are contrary to nature, and the man who is part of it. The expansion of the corona virus, other viruses came as recently as the Asian flu, it is a show that we must live with this, recent discoveries in the glaciers of viruses that we did not know mean that they always existed and always had mutations.

But the transgenic mutations, of plants and animals that do not have any type of disease, have the paradox of being precisely that they generate potent diseases while destroying the natural diversity of the complex natural system, in fact, this is also the simplification.

At the social and religious level it means abolishing divergence, moving towards an identity that is nothing other than the denial of the Other, the diverse and the imposition of authoritarian systems, while at the same time making a discourse against individualism and authoritarianism, it favors its, see the Entropy law (picture).

The contradictory, as well as the different walks and continues to evolve in the midst of crises, because it knows that tragedy is part of life and can be overcome if viewed with concern and with the naturalness of those who lead life and society into the future.

The biblical passage in which he speaks of Jesus’ natural life, his preaching time was 3 years, and for 30 he lived a normal life, see the 10 to 1 ratio, the Pharisees and fundamentalists of our time live the opposite, is narrated by the evangelist Lucas (Lk 2,39-40):

“After fulfilling everything, according to the Law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to Nazaré, their city. The boy grew and became strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was with him ”. In fact, the law in this case was the laws of Judaism, that is, its relationship with the tradition of his time.



The complexity, the infinite and God

17 Jan

Except for areas such as art and sectors of astrophysics, the rest of scientific research is a prisoner of its own methodologies, designed to “maintain the balance of discourse by banishing contradiction and wandering; controlled or guided all developments of thought, but it itself stood out as impossible to solve. ”(Morin, 2008, pp. 80-81).

It does not mean, of course, to destroy the balance and rationality of human thought, but to let it penetrate: in a sense of the simplest, the most elementary, the most ‘childish’: changing the basis of reasoning, the associative relations, and repulsive among some early concepts, but upon which the whole structure of reasoning and all possible discursive developments depend. And that is, by the way, the most difficult. ” (Morin, 2008, p. 82).

So we start from the “childish” idea of ​​infinity, but which is the great scientific complexity of modern thinking as well, the immensity of the universe that is 96% mass and dark energy is still mysterious, but it may help us and finally the idea that in this infinity there is more than one energy, there is a living Being that precedes the universe itself can be another generous “childish idea”: God.

The eschatology that derives from these two fundamentals, a mysterious universe and a Being that precedes everything (in Christian eschatology is a Trinitarian God, who is also the ‘divine man’ Jesus), can give us a new dialogue in which what we think about matter. , spirit and science can change.

The essential relationship of God through Jesus with the world has as its crucial point the substitution of the metaphor of the lamb that Abraham killed in place of his son (the origin of God’s lamb comes from there), and is manifested by the evangelist John about John the Baptist ( Jn 1:29) who saw Jesus approach and said, “Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of the world.”

The Josefa d’Obidos painting that we have already posted here by virtue of building a hologram installation is depicted above.


Totality and infinit

16 Jan

The complex is fundamental for understanding wholeness, Edgard Morin wrote: “Only complex thinking can civilize our thinking” (Morin, 2008, p. 23), in the absence of a totalizing and comprehensive discourse, complex thinking itself is.

Giordano Bruno was the first to intuit that the infinite was fundamental to the nascent modern thought, but this one took refuge in the rational dualism (objectivism x subjectivism) and in the human finite that does not admit the mystery and the infinite present in the cosmic totality.

Current thinking, thanks to the physical complexity that came from quanta and relativity theory, is launched into the depths of the universe to think about matter and dark energy and their new and eccentric phenomena that challenge current models of physics, science, and maybe religion.

Edgar Morin, before reflecting on the paradigmatic turn, says that the West “the fruitful child of the schizophrenic Cartesian dichotomy and clerical puritanism, also commands the double aspect of Western praxis, on the one hand anthropocentric, ethnocentric, egocentric since it is the subject ( because based on the self-worship of the subject: man, nation or ethnicity, individual) by another and correlatively manipulative, icy “objective” since it is the object ”(Morin, 2008, p. 81).

Without considering themselves dogmatic, arrogant, and self-referential, this thought, even when projecting to the Infinite, even appealing to God and even invoking dialogue, is itself arrogant, the slightest amount of questioning enough to note arrogance.

Now, even for the religious to admit the mystery, it is indispensable to admit the idea of ​​God and the infinite, while for the “rational” thought (not the dogmatic rationalism) to admit the complexity of the phenomena is only to make serious science and to investigate the reality, nature on the one hand, and to admit man’s place within it is the only possibility of overcoming the objectivist and egocentric arrogance of modern thinking.

The infinite that is also claimed by current thinkers such as Ricoeur, Lévinas who explained the sense of alterity before the Infinite: “The idea of ​​infinity does not start from Me, nor from a need for the Self that accurately assesses its emptiness. In it the movement starts from the thought, not from the thinker. ”(Levinas, 1988, p. 49).

LEVINAS, Emmanuel. Totalidade e infinito. Tradução José Pinto Ribeiro, Lisboa- Portugal, Edições 70, 1988.



Bruno, besides the heretic

15 Jan

I read in my youth Giordano Bruno’s “La cena de las cenizas”, one of six dialogues written in Italian, written during his two-year stay in London (1583-1585).

The Dominican priest discussed the Copernican Revolution in this book, and although he was accused of heretic, his discussion was no other than Christian eschatology in his worldview beyond his time glimpsing the ways of the infinite world and his view of God.

He paid with his own life, being burned alive on February 17, 1600 in Rome, but all his commentators claim that their dialogue opened the way for a new link between the paths of cosmology and philosophy, but contrary to the medieval Christian worldview.

His philosophy went beyond the limitations of reason (mathematical and logical) using for his bold vision an amalgamation of basic facts and cosmic reality, but without neglecting a reflection that led to humanistic action.

Also fleeing empiricism and using mental experiments from which he deduced the ramifications of his worldview, some interpreters claim that he used reasoning similar to what Einstein used for his intuitions about the universe.

Referring to the cosmos as infinite reality, Bruno went beyond the spheres of Aristotle and Ptolemy, to him as well as to Kepler, Paracelsus and Nicolas de Cusa the universe is a living being that holds an essential unity that unites all particular beings, which are but emanations of the whole, this cosmological view influenced the entire Renaissance.

His worldview, which did not triumph in the Renaissance, perished and was interrupted by the emergence of Cartesian reason, Hume’s idealism and empiricism, but deserves to be reread and studied as a strong influence on Renaissance thought.

Here’s what was said about Giordano Bruno in the famous cosmos series:





A re-reading of the three wise men

03 Jan

In times of fundamentalism and religious intolerance, a re-reading of the Magi that they have adopted and also “contemplating” the birth of Jesus is essential for dialogue.
The first necessary is that God has communicated with the “wizards” of the East, he can reopen closed hearts for reconnection (religion of the Latin verb religare which is to reconnect), for they were not even religious in the conventional sense, but
magicians and God reconnected them.
The second is that the divine communication was through stars, which means that they could understand this language and that God spoke in their human language, that is, there are forms beyond the dogmatic communication between God and men, even non-believers.
Cosmology is an ancient and fundamental part of philosophy, its evolution and composition studies the universe, and comes from antiquity, the pre-Socratics studied it, also seek the explanation of the origin and transformation of nature and the universe and build myths and divinity, creating a relationship between mortal and imortal beings.
So God is not so indiferente to this, a universal proposition should not disregard cosmology, and if one wishes to construct a cosmogony, that is the beginning and end of all life, then an eschatology is also constructed, and Christian eschatology may be related to Is not this, after all, God the beginning and the end of everything?
Thesecond re-reading, the question about of the stars, in fact even today they are looking for cosmological evidences ofthe star that the Magi followed, a star, a come t, this could help to date Christmas of a more precise date.
Theologians such as Teilhard Chardin did not fail to consider the cosmological hypothesis, and the notion of a Christ-centered universe helps a non-fundamentalist interpretation of a more complex eschatology, and so we have recourse in the previous post (in 1 / 4 /2019) to St. Gregory of Nazianzen.
The third is that the magi were “contemplating” the boy-God, in addition to the active vita, Hannah Arendt also spoke of her in The Human Condition (published in 1956, with Brazilian edition of 2009), which comes from the conference Work, Work and Action (Brazilian publication of 2006), but already spoke of this question Aristotle in the bios politikos and the vita negotiosa or actuosa in Augustine, and, recently Byung Chull Han in The society of the fatigue.
But they did not come to worship only, where the element offered incense is essentially this, but also brought gold in the sense of wealth and myrrh in the sense of sacrifices offered.
Magi should signify the opening of Christianity to other languages ​​which are also an expression of the infinite, of the universe, and of the sacredly constructed life in all and in all.


Black holes and worldview

16 Jul

Until recently the material world comprised only the so-called baryonic matter which is 4% of the only one, which is the material that most people know, with the dark energy and mass appeared the “black holes” that are actually black bodies.
Scientists still believe from Einstein’s theory that black holes suck objects and everything around them, including light itself, now a new phenomenon can change that. This process of sucking is called accretion, so there is a hot plasma that orbits around the black hole and is sucked by accretion, but this can also occur in bodies, and now a body that resists this accretion has been sighted. of accretion body, by the junction of material around it in the process of protoplanet formation.
The GRS1915 + 105 object is actually two stars a black hole (the body whose gravity prevents anything from escaping, hence being called the hungry), and a very modest star for the proportion of the black hole, similar to the sun. If compared to the 13 billion light-years of the observable universe, it is close to the Earth, because it is 40 thousand light-years away, what intrigues is that the black star (the name looks better than a hole) is that the star -star is not sucked though called accretion.
Next to an American laboratory, the star was observed using an ESO (Southern European Observatory) telescope, forming a trio from Germany and Chile that captured the light from the companion star of the black hole and determined to ” technical “:
According to a paper published in Nature, astrophysicist Charles Bailyn of Yale University, USA, said that the calculations are still not very accurate in size, mass and energy: “It is computed using very simple observations and calculations based only on the laws of orbital motion of Kepler, who are already known and have been trusted for centuries. ”
The mass is one of the problem points, in addition to the aspect of the addition, according to Jochen Greiner of the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, Germany, one of the authors of the article: “I would be very surprised if the mass was so wrong that theories applied.
By that I mean that I am convinced that theories have missed the mark: “In fact it is already suspected that what we think about mass is something quite different, by the theory of the current relativity, until the particle of Highs and the existence of the black holes they seemed to confirm, since the universe copernican and newtonian were surpassed.
Now if the mass is the one that is measured, and the hole does not suck it, it means that there will be a new worldview, where mass and matter must be re-conceptued.