Arquivo para a ‘Computer Langue’ Categoria

What is clarification for Charles H. Hinton

13 Nov

The writing that preceded quantum physics, hermeneutic philosophy and a new spirituality (or ancient in the sense of true), brought new and curious reasoning.
When speaking of a greater dimension of space (Higher Space) and greater dimension of Being (Heigher Being): “We have been subject to a limitation of the most absurd character. let us open our eyes and see the facts” (Hinton, 1888), appear simple but need been trained, said about himself: “I worked at the subject without the slightest success. All was mere formalism. But by adopting the simplest means, and by a more thorough knowledge of space, the whole flashed clear.” (idem)
Clear more: “We are conscious of somewhat higher than each individual man when we look at men. In some, this consciousness reaches an extreme pitch, and becomes a religious apprehension. But in none is it otherwise than instinctive. The apprehension is sufficiently definite to be certain. But it is not expressible to us in terms of the reason”.
Part of the physical aspect, the idea that “our apparent isolation as bodies of one another is by no means as necessary to assume as it would seem,” here his intuitive relationship with quantum physics that would only become reality at the beginning of the twentieth century admitting that at that moment it was only a possibility, but it added one more point: “and if we were to examine the matter closely, we should find a natural relationship that explained our consciousness to be limited as it is today” (Hinton, 1888)
Hilton states: “our apparent isolation as bodies of one another is by no means as necessary to assume as it would seem,” we may say we are related to the whole, make a mathematical argument for this. If spatial forms can only be symbolic of four-dimensional forms: and if we do not deal directly with spatial forms, but treat it only by symbols in the plane – as in analytic geometry – we are trying to obtain the perception of the upper space through symbols of symbols, and the task is hopeless “(Hinton, 1888).
He will say in an almost mystical whole, but compatible with the thought of Teilhard Chardin for example, “Instead of an abstraction, what we have to serve is a reality, for even our real things are only shadows. We are part of a great being, in whose service and with the love of whom, the greatest demands of duty are fulfilled. “(Hinton, 1888)
Then it will give the sentence: “The power to see with our bodily eye is limited to the three-dimensional section” (Hilton, 188) and will from there create its vision of the 4th. dimension: the Tesseractus.

Hinton, Charles H. (1888) The new era of thought. London: S. Sonnenschein & Co. (Chap. 7, 9, 10 and 11)


Julia 1.0: A new computing language

03 Sep

When the scenario of computing lijaguajes no longer seemed to present novelties, an audacious project of MIT arises that can change this logic, it is the language Julia, it is unnecessary to say that it is open source.

At a London event in 2018, the JuliaCon for developers: Professor Alan Edelman, Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski and Viral Shah released Julia 1.0, Edelman declaimed at the time: “Julia has been revolutionizing scientific and technical computing since 2009,” worked since this year in a new language that combined Ruby, MatLab, C, Python, R and others besides having parallel features, artificial intelligence and easy connection with semi-structured databases. The commands are similar to the already popular C, C ++ and Java, for example, the program of calculation of the roots of the equation of the 2º. Degree:

function quadratic2 (a :: Float64, b :: Float64, c :: Float64)     

sqr_term = sqrt (b ^ 2-4a * c)    

  r1 = quadratic (a, sqr_term, b)    

  r2 = quadratic (a, -sqr -term, b)    

  # can return multiple values ​​without using the return word     ~

  r1, r2



The version released on August 7, 2018, and its stable version the next day called Julia 1.0 puts it definitively in the universe of the programming languages ​​of the present time.

The release candidate for Julia 1.0 (Julia 1.0.0-rc1) was released on August 7, 2018 and the final version one day later.

The team wrote that code that runs without warnings in Julia 0.7 will run identically on Julia 1.0. Julia uses JIT (MCJIT from LLVM) that generates native machine code directly, before a function is executed for the first time, are not bytecodes executed in a virtual machine (VM) or translated as the running bytecode, as copor example, Java, the JVM or Dalvik on Android, is even native code.

Julia is also used to drive standalone cars and 3-D printers as well as applications in precision medicine, augmented reality, genomic structures, machine learning and risk management.

As Professor Edelman said: “The release of Julia 1.0 indicates that Julia is ready to change the technical world by combining high-level productivity and ease of use of Python and R with the fast speed of C ++”, changes come there.


Possible and impossible changes

11 May

At other times, the proportions, the changes that occurred in previous stages, also caused a strong impression on the people, but the most influential disruptive technologies, glasses and telescopes, allowed the first printed books to be read, and thanks to the telescopes, the Copernican revolution took place.
The change of paradigms that happens causes astonishment, but what needs to be done in fact, what is possible in a more distant reality and what can happen in the next years, I already indicated in some post, The “Physics of the impossible”, by Michio Kaku (2008).
The author quotes Einstein’s phrase at the beginning of this book: “If an idea does not seem absurd at first, then it will not have any future,” it takes a strong and shocking thought like this to understand that if we should bet on innovation, is the historical moment of this, you must understand that most disruptive things will initially be absurd.
Speaking of more distant things, at the beginning of the microcomputers, it was stated that they would not be useful to many people, the mouse was clumsy and “little anatomical” when it appeared, and there is still a lot of distrust in “artificial intelligence”, not only between laypeople on the subject, among scholars as well, others idealize an “electronic brain”, but neither Sophia (the first robot to have citizenship) and Alexa Amazon really has “intelligence.”
What has to be stopped, and this in Copernicus’s time was worth for the theocentric vision, today there is also an anti-technology sociopathy that borders on fundamentalism, if there are injustices and inequalities they must be combated on the plane in which they are in the social and political.
Roland Barthes said that every denial of language “is a death”, with the adoption of technology by millions of people this death becomes a conflict, first between generations, and then between different conceptions of development and education.
To the scholars I make the recommendation of Heidegger, affirmed on the radio and the television that only half a dozen people understood the process and of course with the financial power can control the publishings of these medias, but also one can answer in the religious field.
The reading of the evangelist Mark, Mc 16,17-18 “The signs that will accompany those who believe will be these: they will cast out demons in my name, they will speak new tongues; If they take snakes or drink any deadly poison, it will not hurt them; when they lay their hands on the sick, they shall be healed. ”
This needs to be updated for the new interpretations of this bible text.

KAKU, M. (2008) The Physics of the Impossible: a scientific exploration of the world of fasers, force fields, teleportation, and time travel. NY: Doubleday.


History of the algorithm

07 May

The idea that we can solve problems by proposing a finite number of interactions between several tasks (or commands as they are called in computing languages) for several problems originates in Arithmetic.

Although the machine of Charles Babbage (1791-1871) and George Boole’s (1815-1864) Algebra make a huge contribution to modern computers, most logicians and historians of the birth of the digital world agree that the problem of fact was raised by David Hilbert’s second problem (1962-1943) at a 1900 conference in Paris.

Among 23 problems for mathematics to solve, some recently solved such as Goldbach’s Conjecture (see our post), and others to solve, the second problem was to prove that arithmetic is consistent, free from any internal contradiction.  

In the 1930s, two mathematical logicians, Kurt Gödel (1906-75) and Gerhard Gentzen (1909-1945) proved two results that called new attention to the problem proposed, both referring to Hilbert, so in fact, there is the origin of the question, roughly, if an enumerable problem is solved by a finite set of steps.

In fact, Gentzen’s solution was a proof of the consistency of Peano’s axioms, published in 1936, showing that the proof of consistency can be obtained in a system weaker than the Zermelo-Fraenkel theory, used axioms of primitive recursive arithmetic , and is therefore not general proof.

The proof of the inconsistency of arithmetic, called Gödel’s second incompleteness theorem, is more complete and shows that some proof of the consistency of Peano’s axioms can be developed without this arithmetic itself.

This theorem states: if the only acceptable proof procedures are those that can be formalized within arithmetic, then Hilbert’s problem can not be solved, in other more direct form, if the system is complete or consistent.

There are polemics raised about these results, such as Kreisel (1976) who argued that the proofs were syntactic for semantic problems, Detlefsen (1990) who says that the theorem does not prohibit the existence of a proof of consistency, and Dawson (2006) that the proof of consistency is erroneous using the evidence given by Gentzen and Gödel himself in 1958 work.

The controversies aside, Kurt Gödel’s participation in the important Vienna circle in the 1920´s before the war exploded, and the subsequent discussions of his theorem by Alain Turing (1912-1954) and Claude Shannon (1916-2001) underline its importance for the history of algorithms and modern digital computer.


Unknown Stories of Computing

21 Aug

Charles Babbage built two machines called Analytical Engine and Diferential EngineMEMEX, these machines, their systematizations and thoughts would not have arrived until we were not working patiently Ada de Lovelace (1815-1852), daughter of Lord Byron who compiled and organized the work of this Pioneer, making it understandable to mathematicians of the time.

Later David Hilbert (1862-1943) listed 23 mathematical problems at the time without solutions, one of which was to organize an algebraic system in order to solve the problem computability problem by algorithms, Kurt Gödel thinking about this problem creates a paradox about Completeness of systems, stating that it can not prove having proof by an assertion within the system, then consistency problems weaken such systems.

Thus it was necessary that logic, besides being constructed with good properties, had consistency (no contradictions), completeness (any proposition would be either truth or false exclusively) and the systems were decidable (existence of a method allowing to establish if any formula whether the formula was true or false).

This latter property was called by Hilbert as the “entcheidungsproblem”, or problem of “decision”.

Alan Turing and Claude Shannon working on coding machines (for US government messages) and decoding (a machine called Enigma was captured from Hitler’s army), as both projects were secret, found in meals and work breaks as indicated The book by James Gleick and talk about the problem proposed by Hilbert and not solved by Gödel, a secret document proves this passage of Turing, who was English, by Bell Laboratories, where he worked on deciphering the Enigma machine code.

Shannon at that time worked as a monitor at MIT in Vannevar Bush’s laboratory, who had proposed a “read” machine called MEMEX (it appeared in TIME magazine) was not a computer itself, but a machine to cross information from books.

Vannevar Bush suggested to Claude Shannon Boole’s Algebra..

Later using the model of the mathematician Alonzo Church that finalized the design of Alain Turing, and the call Turing Machine is actually based on Turing / Church model.
Norbert Wiener’s model were electronic models of feedback machines, although he founded Cybernetics, the idea was to create models for movements and turn them into problem-solving models, they were contemporary with Vannevar Bush of MIT


(Português) Correção automática de código

17 Feb

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Games e a tecnofobia

31 Aug

Os games que tem jogos violentos e games que pouco educam são uma realidade,ColetaSeletiva fazem milhões ao redor do mundo, mas também ocupam uma faixa etária e depois os jovens perdem o interesse, mas não a necessidade de interagir.

Uma área nova de estudos neste campo, que estuda também as redes sociais é a chamada fenomenologia da interação, embora haja muitos trabalhos sobre o assunto, um pouco conhecido é a curiosa obra do poeta Goethe: A metamorfose das Plantas, onde o fenômeno orgânico é compreendido como a manifestação do todo com as partes, em que ele explica a relação da unidade e multiplicidade, entre o todo e as partes, a ausência e a presença.

Deveria ser assim, mas não é, especialistas e psicólogos procuram compreender exatamente o que está acontecendo, ficam entre a extrema liberalidade (tipo pode tudo) e a tecnofobia: isto faz mal aos jovens, vai torná-los ignorantes (há um famoso livro que os chama até de imbecis), mas tudo não passa de formas pouco profundas sobre o que os games significam de fato.

As pessoas tem necessidade de interação, que é uma forma específica de comunicação e de relação, é aquela no qual as partes trocam e trocam dentro de um todo, ou seja, de um contexto mais amplo, assim esta é a atração dos games: a possibilidade de interagir.

Se é um fato que existem jogos muito negativos, também há muitos jogos educativos que os adultos pouco se interessam e as vezes nem sabem que existem, existe um site específico para Games Educativos, também a Fundação Lemann preocupada com uma educação de qualidade explora a questão, é há diversos outros sites: Escola Games (que tem o game Coleta Seletiva), SmartKids, Jogos Educativos e diversos outros como o site da Editora Abril para games para as diversas disciplinas escolares.

Mas é mais fácil proibir do que educar, é mais fácil ter preconceito do que se informar porque não tem a menor ideia que um dos processos fundamentais da educação é o diálogo, que nada mais é do que interação.


Algorithm to paint creative

15 Jun

The paints can be considered depending on the creative influence of currents performers or artistsSimilares prior to define creative paints or which are only derived from a determined current, researchers Ahmed and ElGamal Babak Salek Rutger University developed a vision algorithm cyber sorting images.

They used concepts that can be called classemes (classemes) developed in 2559 a list of different types with a vector (a list of parameters) that classifies, which is described in the recent article by MIT Technology Review, USA.

The algorithm consulting a spleen of the art data containing images and notes on about 62,000 works of art and can be seen approaching the ranks of art history, but also showing how contemporary paintings use old features.

The history of the paintings have a large number of similar form of examples that already has previous traces of great influence on those who followed, for example, Leonardo da Vinci’s Madonna of 1469 and a child with a pomegranate, Goya 1780, even Monet or crucified Christ, 1865 and so on.

Others paintings are more derived, showing many similarities with those who came before and are therefore considered less creative.


Computational Linguistics

03 Dec

In evolutionary line of intelligent agents, which promises to be the next big wave of the Web, is the risingLinguaNatural computational linguistics (CL), who explains that new field is this is the Professor Shalom Lappin, Computational linguistics professor at King College London.

According to a report in The Guardian, the teacher says it is possible to write software models that automatically analyze certain aspects of a language and thus create and develop models to work with natural languages.
In the aspect of engineering, CL focuses on natural language processing, in order to develop systems that facilitate human-computer interaction, and to automate a number of tasks linguistic practices, such as machine translation, text summarization, speech recognition and generation texts, extraction and retrieval of information and sentiment analysis contained in a text.

By examining the scientific aspect of the CL, the researchers seek to model natural languages as formal combinatorial systems in an effort to identify the procedures by which humans can learn and to represent these systems.

The King’s College of London held the Natural Language Festival to celebrate the diversity of languages, where the development made, were presented by Professor  Lappin.


Google faces problems in Europe

28 Nov

Google$The European Parliament voted in favor to question Google, as a solution to end the complaints about the company favors in their search services, although it cannot on trade relations sent a clear message to commercial bodies.

The final decision will be in the hands of free trade commissioner Margrethe Vestager, who has worked in 2010 on anti-competitive case of Google’s rivals in 2010.

On the other hand, the US political and commercial organizations have expressed their dismay at the vote, saying the search giant acts legally.

According to the BBC data,, Google has around 90% of the share market, to research data in Europe, and rival asked to investigate four areas::

  • The manner in which Google displays its own vertical search services compared with other, competing products,
  • How Google copies content from other websites – such as restaurant reviews – to include within its own services,
  • The exclusivity Google has to sell advertising around the search terms people use, and,
  • Restrictions on advertisers from moving their online ad campaigns to rival search engines.

Restrictions on advertisers to move their online advertising campaigns to compete with search engines.
In the previous case, Joaquin Almunia (see our post) rejected the concessions made by Google, and suggested that the fine can be $ 5 billion.