Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

Apodítico e epoché in Husserl

23 Apr

Words strange and of high significance for the philosophy of Husserl, apoditic we use much in the day-to-day only that of improper way, something that we think evident and it is not God, the life, the death, finally a series of concepts that seem to be evident and are not, as you see them, hylé appears.
Subjective matter, the sense given by the Greeks to what seems material, to Husserl possesses a veiled truth, this composes a subjective matter attached to any perception, or what he defined as “returning the thing itself”, in the sense of having a intention about it.
Thus Husserl calls “the intention” the meaningful content of something, the intention of a book on it, though the intention does not have the flesh-and-blood presence of the book.
When we have a “meaningful intention” (“Bedutungsintention”) we mean with an intention the book and the table, that is, the object without even considering its presence, for example, if we have the meaningful content of that book, in this sense “intuition” Is  “evidence.”
Although for Husserl words are used interchangeably, intuition is the fulfillment of an intention, or consciousness of it, this is important for its thought, since the perfect filling between intention and intuition will never be fully satisfied.
In this, it immerses itself in the concept of consciousness, that is, the “consciousness of something”, to make explicit its method, which consists in traversing the phenomenon, using phenomenological reduction, or epoché, which for Greeks is the suspension of judgment. empirical evidence), and for Husserl it is a place between parentheses.
This consists in provisionally leaving aside all preconceptions, theories, definitions and pre-judgments, and only then gradually give meaning to the things that seek their “originality.”
This introduction to Husserl’s Phenomenology for Phenomenology, may clarify:


Arrogance, nets and feet-washed

17 Apr

It is a holy week, a fact that goes unnoticed, but it is fundamental in the spirituality that is said to be “Christian” (yes, for the society in crisis, everything is confused: democracy, freedom, moral, ethics and also the principles and values of certain cultures) a detail is the foot-washing ceremony, the master is lowered to a function made by slaves and washes the feet of the disciples.
There is no greater contradiction in the contemporary world, for the idea of power, wealth and arrogance without measures make the Other object of manipulation, desire and submission, and almost no circle escapes, from the power of the state to the periphery of cities, through schools, churches and various types of associations.
Behind this idea is to always see the Other as smaller, less prepared or less capable, the networks have reversed this and disorganized a vertical power structure, clear with exaggerations, but the central, often even established and democratic power too, see the censures of the ministers of the Brazilian STF (Tribunal Superior Judge), who were supposed to defend the constitution.
Yes the networks also exaggerate, but without the exercise they will never learn, is now given a power that only the editorial groups, the centers of power and the wealthy had, manipulate the truth in their favor, and were already fake news, I was going to ask where the truth was then.
Feet-washing puts this logic, will power or power Nietszche, something that seems natural, but for sick reasons evolve in times of crisis.
To wash the feet of prisoners, as did Pope Francisco in last year, to go to those who will not be able to reciprocate, to open their arms and pockets to those who need it, and in the case of Christian Easter, to give their lives for their friends, love, started with washing the feet.
Most people do not recognize the gesture, Peter did not want Jesus to do this, or think it is a false feeling, or that the person himself does not give himself the courage, never that [voluntary and conscious: washing the feet of those who could by some logic being below us.
Few do, in a society in crisis is more than a gesture, it is necessary, it is healing.
While the Brazilian thinker Leandro Karnal thinks that humility does not get well, Mario Sérgio Cortela said that is humility:



Shut me up, the stones will speak

12 Apr

It is not illusionism, pure utopia (Thomas Morus’s Utopia is the desire for a world with fairness), it is about understanding and respecting the mystery, of being aware that we do not know everything. It was not Einstein, but Heisenberg who first announced the quantum theory, which inspired Dali in his Mystical Manifesto, which changed the idea of ​​science, space, and time.

The image of the real black hole is just the tip of the iceberg of a mysterious universe, which surprises us and shows us our limitation.

Much of the contemporary regression is the incomprehension of cosmology and cosmogony, which in a different way are present in all cultures and religions.

Scientism, determinism, and materialism wanted to abolish the subjective thinking of cosmogonies, but it survived, and the discovery of the black hole is the enlargement of scientific cosmogony.

Says the biblical Reading (Lk 19:40) “if they shut me up, the stones will speak,” in the passage that the religious themselves asked Jesus not to speak of his eschatology, his mission and his end in the hands of the powerful. The quantum computation is explained by Shohini Ghose in 10 minutes:



Philosophy: consolation, island and infinite

10 Apr

The section in which he analyzes the philosophy of Boethius, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Warburton shows his lack of appreciation of the religiosity of both, and the aspects analyzed: the consolation of Boethius’ philosophy and Anselm’s theological argument, which is not the same as Thomas Aquinas, and the absence of this analysis is presumed that perhaps it was for Warburton, are private.
Boethius (480-524 AD) is indeed important to be remembered, his discourse on Philosophy, an imaginary person in the period that is imprisoned as a consolation, although important, for it is his main known speech, his contribution through a fragment found of his writings: whether or not they exist universally, is his most important contribution. Important because it is about the issue will be the debate between realists and nominalists, whether the universals are things or merely words (for the nominalists).
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a realist and his argument about rationalism as a complement to faith, is his most strongly theo-ontological argument, and his thesis on the being and the essence, his deeper contribution to philosophy.
But back to a brief History of the Philosophy of Nigel Warburton, when speaking of the ontological argument of Saint Anselm (1033-1109), about the existence of God, he presents as a counterpoint the “perfect island” of the monk Gaunilo de Marmoutier, an imaginary island that would so perfect that we could not imagine that there is a more perfect one than she, although no one was there.
His argument, which proves that such an island would not exist, in contrast to Anselm’s that there is nothing beyond God, for an imagined God cannot be greater than an existing God (Warburg, 2012, 52).
Now the island is finite, and God or the Universe or something that exists as a whole, an therefore ontological argument, “what is,” exists even though we can discuss what kind of being is.
What is the island’s faulty argument, then, is that it being finite may not have perfections of existing islands, and as an island it is “isolated” which is typical of positivist empiricism.
What Boethius, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas did in the long period of maturing of philosophy and science, still remembered the scribes and offices in the monasteries, was the building of the basis for a rationalism that is not opposed to faith but ut complements it.
The vídeo shows ideas about The Consolation of Philosophy of the Boethius:


The work of Lev Manovich

02 Apr

The what differentiates Manovich from other discourses is his understanding of computer language and his study of interfaces, this was reflected in his works such as the one presented at the Chelsea Art Museum in New York, the Finnish Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie in Karlsruhe, at The Walker Art Center (Minneapolis) and at the Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma (Helsinki).
He has received numerous awards such as the Guggenheim Fellowship and the Digital Cultures Fellowship (University of California, Santa Barbara) and has been a reference professor of digital art at the California Institute of the Arts and the University of Arts and Design (Helsinki) and Arts Center Hong Kong), with a universal vision, therefore.
Without ignoring conventional readings and media, he shows that the reformulations of the categories for analysis of the current models function as a sort of genealogical map of the new media (I would say anthropological, but I understand the perspective of the author), where he seeks to sketch the possibilities and perspectives of the future.
In this way, both the perspective of the computer and its productive potential appear to be linked to its work as mediator of culture.
It appears in Manovich’s text: “Each stage in the history of computer media presents its own aesthetic opportunities as well as its own projection of the future: in short, its own ‘research paradigm’ “(Manovich, 2001).
And it points to the future by saying that some techniques: “At a later stage, these paradigms will be modified or even abandoned.
In this book, you wanted to the “new media research paradigm, during its first decade, before it falls asleep in invisibility,” which is where the ideas of interfaces should break.

The good self-presentation is this keynote: Museum without Walls: Using Big Cultural Data to Re-think Cultural History – Lev Manovich, in The Graduate Center, City University of New York, see the vídeo:



Another digital read

01 Apr

McLuhan in the 1960s (Understand Media) wrote about the transformation that the electronic era brought, however, the first integrated circuits (ICs, the chips that were in the bottom tiny transistors) just beginning to emerge, the first computer on the chip, the microprocessors only appeared in the 1970s.
The chips succeeded the Internet in the mid-1970s and the explosion of personal computers in the 1980s, only in 90 the Web was born, Lev Manovich was born in 1960.
His most influential book The language of new media was published in 2001 by MIT Press, as its name indicates is Russian, and his reflection goes beyond McLuhan because it speaks of the digital age, but as the name says it is with emphasis on language and analysis structures.
The author initially presents himself with his book, gives a presentation of Dziga Vertov’s Man with a Movie Camera (1929) to talk about the peculiarity of the new media, he is intelligent and daring his proposal since it goes from the word to the without losing sight of the language, his original question is What is new media?
What brought me closer to the book was the second chapter on interfaces, made in comparison to the cinema, in order to highlight the schemas of information organization (in a new sense, of course) and its role in today’s society, this is what called the book
What is technically called IHC (Human Computer Interaction), between the cinema and the printed word have a grammar (we say a syntax in computing) itself and without understanding it we run the risk of ignoring the interfaces with proper ownership, and that largely determine how the user (some thinkers also) relate to it, I make a metaphor, it would be like wanting to read a book thinking of it as having a mouse.
In 1993, he studied the origin of computational media and its relation with avant-garde art in the 1920s, we have already posited about Gustav Klimpt and others, finally worth reading.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
The work of Gonçalo Marto made in the course of Communication Design of the Faculdade de Belas Artes em Lisboa (Faculty of Fine Arts of Lisbon) is good start:


The prodigal son

28 Mar

The prodigal son did Just as any text is subject to different interpretations, it is not different for the biblical text, the search for exegetes is debatable, especially for the hermeneutics that admits the diversity of interpretations, because to penetrate in the Mind of God is a little too arrogant, clear for the which admit the existence of God, to others, it suffices to see itself limited only.
A Dutch writer and priest Henri Nouwen, who died in 1996, worked at Harvard University and Yale, wrote 40 books including “The Return of the Prodigal Son” (1992), in which from the painting of Rembrandt Petersburg). Through the observation of a poster with details of the picture
The Return of the Prodigal Son, the author made a spiritual walk in which he analyzes the characters of the biblical parable in the light of his personal experience, but with new elements that is the vision of his brother old. In general, when one is accepted after a wandering life, however the older brother has difficulty accepting the situation, this is symbolic for so many people who have difficulty accepting the other and include it within a certain circle, not only in the religious environment but also cultural, are all resentful “older brothers”.
Not accepting it is in a way preventing its change of route, conscious or unconscious is what many do and so we enter a vicious circle where positive changes are almost totally blocked, of course these circles become stiff and arrogant. In a globalized world in which differences are noticed, coexisting and culturally present, it is impossible to make life more fluid and pleasant with the behavior of “older brothers”, the changes then become conflicted and can reach extremes.
The parable is the “prodigal son” and not the misplaced, inconsequential or some other stigma of exclusion that we wish to put to him.
Rembrandt’s beautiful son has a detail (detail in the photo), which is the paternal hand he receives and a more delicate hand that caresses, this is our hermeneutical approach.


The binary and the trinitarian

15 Mar

If we escape the logic of Being and Not-Being, a practically natural path is the Trinitarian, that is, Being-is, not-being is also and thus we have opposed the principle of the excluded third of which Aristotle speaks, and French thinker Florent Pasquier recalls this forgotten principle now broken.
Along with philosophy, physics has also broken this principle, since going from A to B at any point in the universe has to pass through an intermediate point C, quantum physics has shown that this phenomenon is possible, denied by Einstein and colleagues, and for this reason it became known as EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) phenomenon, but this “tele-transport” has already been proven.
But when it comes to human nature and its complexity, the problem is more complex, because what it means to speak of non-being, in present day means the denial of cultures, of individuals, of doctrines and even of methods, the affirmation of the Being, the negation of millenarian cultures existing on the whole planet, and the delimited vision of an eschatology (vision of the beginning and the end) can lead to an affirmation of the Self before different cultures, making non-Being practically impossible and dialogue a act of hypocrisy, one does not accept the different.
Dualism is fixed in mind and body, even worse in a contradictory and non-complementary way, but there is a third excluded which is the spirit, part almost metaphysical, and little material that results in a new communicational relation, proper to the spirit, the Noon sphere.
Author of this vision of human complexity, the noosphere, Chardin explains the substantiality in the following way the spirit: “it must be represented … as an excessively impoverished and reduced substance. Marriage, let us not forget, not only transforms, not only adds, but also produces.
Each new union achieved increases the absolute amount of being existing in the Universe “(Chardin, 2006, p 108), explaining that it is not a simple” rubber “, which is the matter of the Greeks.
This union is a spiritual force, a “communion” and not just simple association, and these three realities Being, Non-Being and Other that make up this new principle without the excluded third, is the Trinitarian.
The biblical passage of Tabor (Lk 9,28b-36), simplified even by the apostles who imagined Moses and Elijah together with Jesus, was the incomprehension 

The vídeo about third excluded and transdisciplinary studies by Florent Pasquier in Brazilian Conference:


Binary and dual

14 Mar

It is not the contemporary world that created binary dualistic logic, it only simplified arithmetic using Boolean Algebra, by the fact that simulating 0 and 1 in a machine is simpler than a decimal arithmetic that Western civilization has adopted.

But the onto-logic of Being that comes from Parmenides that says being is, and non-being is not, and has come to our day by Cartesian rationalism and Kant-Hegelian idealism, we are divided into two worlds: being and not to be, right and wrong, oppressive and oppressed, being and being, which distances objectivism and subjectivism from any ontological discussion. In philosophical terms.

It is difficult, but enlightening, “Because metaphysics interrogates the being, while being, it remains close to the being and does not turn to being as a being” (Heidegger 1983: 55).

It is a misconception to think that Heidegger has imputed metaphysics by destroying it, for it links it in an essential way to Dasein (the being in a simple definition), written clearly in its text: “Metaphysics is the essential event within be-there.

It is the very being-there “(HEIDEGGER 1983: 44). It is by the metaphysical event that the being-there human that establishes relation with the being, but this occurs in the world, it is necessary to be-in-the-world (in the broadest way) and this being demands a non-being relation for being with the Other, who is not the Self, then not-being is also Being.

It can be confused with nothingness, nihilism is an essence of our time, and can lead to the time of emptiness, as Nietzsche thought, and now Lipovetsky (The age of emptiness).

The Trinitarian being demands beyond the Self (which is not the Self because it admits the Other), the Other and the non-Being that is something beyond nothing, as Teilhard de Chardin explains: “nothing-being coincides with fully realized plurality. Pure nothingness is an empty concept, a pseudo-idea “(Chardin, 2006, p. 107).

It is possible for a relationship that goes beyond the level of formal dialogue, this non-being is necessary, an emptiness that admits the Other, different from the Same.

CHARDIN, T. P. Em outras palavras. São Paulo – SP: Martins Fontes, 2006.

HEIDEGGER, E. Que é metafísica. São Paulo – SP: Abril Cultural, 1983. (Coleção Os Pensadores)

This video of Academy of Ideas suggest any questions about Parmenides philosophy:



Smells, time and flowers

11 Mar

Time is urgent, time and money, being and time, but the interpretation of time is not secondary, considers it absolute, or even the “fourth dimension” that depends on it, but it is not, time is duration and when not the smell loses the “aroma” (in sense of smells).
This is how Byung-Chul Han defines it in his “The Aroma of Time: A Philosophical Essay on the Art of Delay” (Relógio d’Agua,) which, using Marcel Proust, defines it: “His temporal strategy in the face of this hasty period consists in contributing to the recovery of time, the Aroma.” (Han, 2016, 57).
Proust’s novel is “In Search of Lost Time,” do not rush has nothing to do with the digital universe, is talking about a work published in seven volumes between the years 1913 and 1925 in seven volumes, the period of the foundation of the Pequeno Jardim store in Lisbon, in Bairro Alto, at Rua Garret, 61 (photo above, still there).
He speaks of the “timelessness” of Being, losing continuity, permanence, makes a quote from Proust of something I have felt, but in the opposite sense: “The man I was no longer exists, I am another,” and says that this is an identity crisis, I felt the same crisis but in an opposite sense, something I found in a contemporary Portuguese poem called Café Orfeu.
Portuguese poet Manuel Antonio Pina says at the end: “And to which I returned, slowly as if before your smile someone (I probably) had never existed”, of course talks about a meeting of a person, one can think the smile of life, or how Marcel Proust would like a scent found, aromas I felt and tasted in Lisbon.
As I think of reforestation, Martha Nussbaum’s theme for a resumption of the “aroma of time”, I remember a music “fado” of Amália Rodrigues that says “smells good, smells like Lisbon”, the words speak of flowers in the cover, says the letter of the among other verses:
“A carnation in a stolen water It smells good, it smells like Lisbon,
A rose blooming in the cover Smells good, Smells like Lisbon ”
Lisbon smells of flowers and sea, it says at the end, but the flowers are plastic, and if they do not take care of them (the sardines are disappearing) the sea will also be plastic, but I’m dreaming of a “reforestation”.
The “fado music” follows in the immortal voice of Amalia Rodrigues:
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