Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

Error, cholera and thymós

09 Sep

Just as scientific error is assumed to be part of scientific research, errors in human and social relationships should not lead to disruption and the return to connection between people or groups will inevitably involve some type of forgiveness.

It is often possible that the error is not assumed, but implied, this is because, we justify the path we take and make considerations about our lack and end up not assuming it, but the return should always be tried once forgiveness sana, and allows the dialogue to move forward.

Peter Sloterdijk wrote about the “timotic” situation of our time, Thymós is at the base of Plato’s theory to designate the “organs” from which the impulses, the excitations, the most inflamed affections are born, it seems something present in our time and so its book Ira e Tempo (Cholera and Time, in Portuguese translation by the publisher Relógio d´Água).

The preferred subject could not be anything other than politics, it is undoubtedly the pole of catalyzing hatreds and grudges, where forgiveness and dialogue seem to be increasingly a distant point that will never be reached, and the reverse of this is …

These impulses cross not only social networks, they pass through political journalism and polarize between parties, people and social groups, what Sloterdijk does in the form of “analysis” is that there is a state of proliferation (attention, it’s not what Byung Chul Han will call it psychopolitics, or the old “mass politics”), we have already drawn attention to Karl Kraus, who in his time between wars, drew attention to the discourse of the press and intellectuals.

In one of his comedies, “Walpurgis’ third night”, he said that “about Hitler nothing comes to my mind”, it is logical that he did not ignore the danger of that speech, but he warned journalists and writers who insisted on just mocking and he said that the media seemed to like the indignant but impotent citizen, so it has the opposite effect of the desired one.
An analytical look at the psychopolitics that Chul Han does is not dispensable, even though we are equipped with little knowledge on this matter, it would verify that the state of high tymotic tension, established by the media to guarantee the success of individuals who are charged with “ thymós ”, leads us to an endless (apparent) civil war.

It is as if all anger finds its “political economy” only in what Sloterdijk calls “rational” cynicism, a kind of “world bank of anger” that catalyzes, not by chance, opposite sides of the current polarization. Just look at politicians of different trends to see how attached they are to this trend, so resentment and legitimation of crimes make popular indignation impotent, claiming appetite and becoming a blank slate for any conversation, even if it comes from one. liberating feeling that should point to the new.

The absence of forgiveness or at least tolerance, makes violence and false radicalism visible and hides impotence.

SLOTERDIJK, P. (2012) Rage and Time – A Psychopolitical Investigation. USA:  Columbia University Press.



Art, split and unity

03 Sep

Hölderlin, a German poet cited and praised by Heidegger, also maintained intimacy with philosophy, in one of his little-known writings he contested the “absolute self”, but it is also necessary to question a precise “we” to a bubble, to a hierarchical world and stylized, in the poet’s perspective, consciousness without an object would be inconceivable and every judgment presupposes the world, which is very close to the awareness of something that phenomenology proposes.

The theoretical principles of a philosophy of history, very close to the view of Gadamer’s historical consciousness, were developed as divided into three periods: the unity, the split and the recovery of nature (in the form of the naturalness of art), however Hölderlin treated also from the aortic, and one could think of the real recovery of nature, in pandemic times it seems to breathe: fish, birds and animals reappear, the air is lighter and it seems that nature is grateful.

The split, which causes man to face so many contradictions and inequalities, is also said Rousseau, a condition of freedom, however when faced with indignities and injustices this condition seems to be threatened, the poet used poetry as a “Harmonic opposition” between the self and the world, but it claims a third, poetic and harmonic in which the world of texts inhabits, as Roland Barthes supposed, says in his poetry Half of Life:

            Where is it winter, find the flowers, and where the sunlight and the shadows of the earth? ”

            In the end, only “walls and flags in the wind” remain

            The poem itself is half that cannot be completed without the reader and the world.

            It is also uncertainty, according to beautiful image of the “song of the destiny of Hyperion”:

           “Like water from cliff to cliff, poured incessantly into the uncertain”.

Hyperion’s destiny song says:

           You walk up there in the light

          On soft ground, happy geniuses! Sparkling divine breezes

          They touch you lightly

          Like the fingers of the artist Sacred strings.

What Hölderlin inspires me is the differentiation between thinking and philosophizing, Heidegger also discarded the second, in the case of the poet his life and work cause relations between thought and poetry, and this one in a new relationship with philosophy, there is no poets soon neither philosophers.



In the pleasure of the text there is a dialogue

02 Sep

In the previous post there are Barthes’ expressions on literature, writing and text, and we have already conceptualized the idea of ​​inscription which is supposed to be supported, writing and the cognitive aspect and in the text the linguistic, artistic and “installation” aspect, and it is this is where his book “The pleasure of the text” is analyzed.

The book despite theoretical aspects is in fact a pleasure to be read, there is dialogue and mainly pleasant surprises, such as, for example, a semiological space, a kind of place between two margins: “an obedient margin, according to, plagiarism (…) the canonical state of the tongue and another movable, empty (…) these two margins wax, are necessary ”(page 40).

It yields more classic literature: “by Zola, by Balzac, by Dickens, by Tolstoy) it carries with it a kind of weakened mimesis: we do not read everything with the same intensity of reading; a rhythm is established, leisurely, with little respect for the integrity of the text ”(page 17)

Proust, Balzac and Tostói deals in a single line of ruptures, “the very rhythm of what is read and what is not read that produces the pleasure of great stories: Proust, Balzac, Guerra e Paz will sometimes have been read , word by word? (Proust’s happiness: from one reading to the next, we never skip the same passages) ”(page 18).

He recommends how to do the real reading: “Read slowly, read everything, from a Zola novel, the book will fall from your hands; read quickly, in fragments, a modern text, that text becomes opaque, timely for our pleasure: you want something to happen, and nothing happens; because what happens to language doesn’t happen to speech: what “happens” *, what “goes away”, the gap in both margins .. “(page 19).

Contrast the text with the theater or the cinema: “In the text scene there is no limelight: there is no one active behind the text (the writer) nor before anyone passive (the reader); there is no subject and object. The text prescribes grammatical attitudes: it is the undifferentiated eye that an excessive author (Angelus Silesius) speaks: ‘The eye with which I see God is the same eye with which he sees me.” (pag.52).

It reveals the secret of another book of his: “Old, very old tradition: hedonism has been repelled by almost all philosophies; only the hedonistic claim is found among the outcasts, Sade, Fourier; for Nietzsche himself, hedonism is pessimism ”(page 74), the book quoted in the previous post that goes far beyond hedonism.

BARTHES, Roland. (1987) O prazer do texto. Trad.   J. Guinsburg. Brazil, SP: Editora Perspectiva.  (portuguese edition in pdf, in english edition pdf)






Authors and dialogues

01 Sep

I read a 1968´s text by Roland Barthes “The death of the author” in which he problematizes the concept, proposing it as “the destruction of all voice, of all origin”, he would also say about man today in a troubled moment of concept and events truly and “strangers” who are building “barricades in the texts”, what he said of his contemporaries (Alain Badiou and Jacques Derridá stated that without this concept no object is critically thought), and what he would say today, certainly his thesis I was right, and more so today.

It is known that Foucault gave pins to Barthes, but in Sade, Fourier, Loyola they were returned by inserting the reader in the discursive game and reformulating the question of authorship in another dimension: the body, this object of consumption of so many theories today, only in Barthes it finds some solidity (not liquid).

For Barthes the text is a body, an object of pleasure endowed with the ability to penetrate the reader’s life in fragments, generating coexistences between reader and author, or verbatim: “The pleasure of the text also includes a friendly return from the author.

The returning author is certainly not the one identified by our institutions (history and teaching of literature, philosophy, Church discourse); not even the hero of a biography he is… it is a simple plural of ‘charms’, the place of some tenuous details, the source, however, of vivid romances, a discontinuous song of kindness, in which we read death with all much more certainty than in the epic of a destination; it is not a person (civil, moral), it is a body. ” (BARTHES, 2005).

Barthes proposed in 1977 (Leçon) a distinction of the terms: literature, writing and text, which is particularly interesting conceptually, writing has something that is the manuscript an inscription in which a support, an utensil is supposed, in second place (although it is only of a didactic character) the cognitive sense, by which the installation is designated and the third the “linguistic” forms endowed with meaning that take on an artistic sense.

To problematize the question of “pluridimensionality” proposed by Barthes for literature, he initiates the so-called “genetic criticism”, problematizing the enunciative aspect of the term, aims to reconstruct a history of the text in its nascent state, seeking to find in it the secrets of fabrication of work, and thus it is explained what a text is and its relation to literature.

It is here that dialogue is established through language, without understanding the genetics of a text, there may be solicitude or dialogue, but it would not leave superficiality nor reach that level desirable for many contemporary authors to assume the preconceptions and establish new horizons. .

Barthes makes a valuable reflection on listening, distinguishing it from the physiological act of the mechanic of “listening”, giving it a statute of psychological act that can only be defined by its object and intention, a category so dear to hermeneutics although it is not exactly the same, has similarities.

The author makes a valuable reflection about listening, distinguishing it from the physiological and mechanical act of “listening”, giving it a status of psychological act that is defined only by its object and intention.

Barthes’ phrase is famous: “Any refusal of a language is a death” and an interpreter of this author explains the difference between hearing and listening: “[…] a poetic listening (‘brute’, as Barthes wants) aims not to imprison sounds in a hierarchical way, as in an insipid object of cold analysis ”(El Haouli, 2002), it is this aspect of hierarchical dialogues that dominate many who think they do it but do not do it, just want the passive submission of the Other to the their categories.

BARTHES, R. Sade, Fourier, Loyola, Paris: Seuil, 1971. [tradução: Sade, Fourier, Loyola. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2005.

EL HAOULI, Janete. Demetrio Stratos: em busca da voz-música. Londrina: Gráfica e Editora Midiograf, 2002.





Fear, death and salvation

28 Aug

The society of tiredness, the search for productivity and fear is not that of the pandemic, it already existed before this health event, what happened now is that, at least people who have not lost their senses, fear of death is present and hangs over the whole of society, and ignoring death is not a good psychological attitude.

This is how psychologists who dealt with this issue related to children say, it is also true that fear can lead to panic that is not healthy either, but explaining and helping society to understand the limitations, even the production of the economy helps everyone, and the questioning the hyperproductivity that led society and nature to the door of exhaustion is also healthy, but now comes the economic crisis and what to do with it, again be sensible.

The poet Hölderling wrote “where there is fear, there is salvation”, at the beginning of the pandemic we thought that it was possible to treat the disease evenly, to reduce a little the activity that would help society to rebalance itself, but after many months the confinement also revealed itself problematic, but the fear of death and a certain blindness of not wanting to see the consequences continues in society, death is just a fatality, and not a possibility that takes us to care, care for life in every way.

Salvation resides in this fear, the fearless child is reckless, and the adult too often, does not think and does not act in favor of life, the preservation of self and others, thinks selfishly and this does not lead to salvation, it takes when dying more tragic than the fatality of death, even dying of fear, so the healthy and balanced is to deal with death, and those who need to remain socially active take the necessary care, but salvation, the rebalancing of the human.

This is at stake, what was the theme before the pandemic, is now reappearing in a tragic way and it is necessary to think about nature, production and day-to-day life that led to diseases such as panic, Burnout syndrome and the society of tiredness, to produce happiness we must not go to extreme tiredness and the exhaustion of nature and productive forces.

The very death of God, which for many seems like a huge tragedy, fundamentalists say the opposite and the Pharisees that we should not “spread fear”, when Jesus warns the type of death that would die, Peter says that God never allows such a thing , and Jesus’ reaction is at least curious (Mt 16, 23): “Jesus, however, turned to Peter and said:“ Go far, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me, because you do not think the things of God, but the things of men! ”, And little reflection is made on this passage, at most saying that it is because I was going to die on the cross, but at that moment nothing it was still known.

The lesson of the pandemic, the fear of death and dying, which is the hardest, is that there is no salvation without suffering, sometimes even bloodshed, the post-pandemic must provoke a discussion and a much more serious thought than it has already done. it has happened so far, conservatives say life should return to normal and others say: “and the fight against the pandemic must be changed”, that there were many mistakes, but the essential problem is to change inhuman behavior and social structures.



Symbolic and structural evil

17 Jul

It being clear that it is not a question of the struggle between good and evil, but the absence of good or the banality of evil, there is then a night in the West that cannot be unveiled if we remain superficial or “frivolous” as some authors point out, good is fragile, but not frivolous.

To understand the problem of “symbolic evil” addressed by Paul Ricoeur, one must look at its bases in Husserl’s eidetic phenomenology and in Gabriel Marcel’s existentialist philosophy, his search is what gives meaning to freedom (the modern view of free will ) and the reciprocal relationship between human voluntary and involuntary experience, this is essential to understand symbolic evil.

The original appearance of the question of consciousness (of something) comes from the connection that Franz Brentano makes when he returns to the subcategory intentionality, which broke the Cartesian identification between conscience and self-awareness, where intentionality reveals itself to be turned towards the outside and is thus projected outwardly with objective guidelines ranging from perception and imagination to will, affectivity and the apprehension of values ​​(empathy stands out).

What is voluntary and involuntary depends on this “great thesis”, while Husserl operated in conscience to the analysis of perception and “representative” acts,  Ricoeur extended to the spheres of affection and will .

So what is voluntary is the alternation between the vibrant impulse of emotion and the point of view of habit, while the involuntary “absolute” (symbolic or structural) is under what he called character (not in the moral sense, but in the sense of “ feature”).

The point of support that he has in Gabriel Marcel’s existentialist philosophy, without abandoning “eidetic analysis” is the problem of a subject capable of distancing himself from desires and powers, owner of his (and thus voluntary) actions and servant of the needs of the unconscious, character, an area not revealed in real consciousness and in life, although it seems to be outside the powers of the concrete, the historical, or what he calls the occasion, is the empirical realm of the will, seen in three moments.

The first is the human decision resulting from a project for the world (what Heidegger will change to a world view), the action includes both the dimension of a project with others in the world, as well as personal or subjective, however it does not separate and calls them -the body, and the body is seen as both voluntary and involuntary, but there is a “consent”.

Thus Ricoeur shows the exaggerations of idealism, and makes the “habit” in such a way as to inhabit it and make it habitable, and what the author points out that man can fail (his work O fallible man, from the 60s) , and the constituted guilt and the conscience of it are expressed in the symbols of culture.

Affirms the importance of mythical language to treat this symbolic, as well as the parable of the chaff and the wheat (Mt 13,24-29), which states that the “good” seed of the wheat blooms with the chaff (which must later be discarded), there are three situations: the seed that grows, the one that is suffocated by the chaff (symbolism of evil) and the one that falls between stones and has no roots (Ricoeur’s character would be this).

Paul Ricoeur (1967). The symbolic of evil. Beacon Press (Original published in 1960).




Modern thought and truth

24 Jun

Most of the issues raised in modernity refer to the Cartesian “cogito”, and that this would separate body from spirit, in fact mind from spirit, however it is unknown that the question is previous and is the meaning of substance.

It can be seen in the Cartesian work that mind and spirit are very connected, it can be said that the mind is submitted to the spirit, it reads in the sixth meditation: “mens cerebro tam intime conjuncta sit” (Adam and Tennery, 1996, VII, p. 437).

The origin of two forms of thought, Karl Popper will say that Parmenides’ statement is ontological “being is and non-being is not” in the sense of does not exist (existential and not logical), and Heraclitus of Ephesus “everything is not is becoming ”seen as“ dialectic ” is also ontological.

For Aristotle the substance meant the support or substrate in which the hylé (Greek conception of matter) was constituted in something giving a form (morphe), Tomás de Aquino will think from there, and add a new component in the notion of substance, besides of these two, namely, the act of being (esse / actus essendi), the act of being from which its ontology comes. This was already in Plato.

The famous notions of act and potency, an example, the seed is in the potency of the tree.

Aristotle had 4 causes: Material cause: what is the thing made of? For example, a house would be bricks. Efficient cause: what do you do with the thing? it would be construction. Formal cause: what gives it shape? The house itself. Final cause: what shaped it? The builder’s intention.

But intentio in Tomás is a subcategory of consciousness, and will return to being a category for Franz Brentano, but changing it as the main category as consciousness directed towards something, thus very different from the everyday use of intention.

What Husserl a student of Brentano will think of Cartesian Meditations, is mainly in the fifth and not in the sixth thesis, where he questions whether Descartes does not suspend judgment, but not the ego.
It challenges the Self of Cartesian anguish, without understanding which path from the immanence of the Self to the transcendence of the Other? Reconfigure psychology through phenomenology. Through the method of phenomenological reduction, the Transcendental Self is reached, as this suspension of Husserl and his followers is a hermeneutic epoché, a place in parentheses.

 The whole question of Heidegger (student of Husserl) and Lévinas is directed to this Other and Time.

ADAM, C .; TANNERY, P. (org) Oeuvres de Descartes, Paris: Vrin, 1996. Quoted in Amir d. Aczel: Descartes’ secret notebook, São Paulo: Zahar, 2007.


Conciousness and truth

23 Jun

One of the most common tricks is to say a half-truth, a lie without malice or that which softens our conscience when we know that we are doing what is wrong, it is not a matter of politics because in many cases it is difficult to say that “good” politician if corrupted.

A well-known phrase from William Shakespeare is “We know what we are, but we still don’t know what we can become”, which is as interesting a phrase as “To be or not to be”, because it means that we can be beyond being current , so there is a becoming, so “not to be and I will be”.

The inner sphere in which we satiate emotional voids, frustrations or anxieties, for example in drink or food, we are filling the void by temporarily satiating, but it will come back.

The relationship with philosophy is broad, since Plato who defined the myth of the cave as passing from the world of shadows, where we see ourselves as projections at the bottom of the cave to a high, authentic sphere and where there is true freedom, and the fear of the half- truths disappear.

True consciousness is neither an awakening nor an enlightenment, but an “unveiling” to remove the veil, and the first step is that consciousness is awareness of something, where I found limits or an unexpected NO, not only a pain, but a obstacle at first insurmountable sight.

Gesltat psychology, with a strong influence of hermeneutics, defines how to be aware of something (awareness) and we find a correspondent in Japanese philosophy, for example, as “satori”, to remove the superficial layers to find the nucleus of something.

The three steps to enter these layers are: to awaken to our deepest zone, in the emotional aspect, our fears, anxieties and concerns, the second requires what happens outside, the context, the people and situations that I invest without results, and the third, much more complex, knows what he feels, what happens outside, but there are prejudices, barriers and something that makes him defend himself and not go beyond certain limits.

Make a change, it is not enough to find the strengths, it is precisely in the weaknesses that your defenses are weakened, and they are articulated with your mistakes and experiences.



Post-truth time or hermeneutics

19 Jun

Hermeneutics is one that allows a worldview and an interpretation of different facts, it does not mean manipulation of the truth, but exactly the unveiling of what ideologies and non-practical theories hide (there is no phronesis, practical wisdom).

What happens is that the search for the absolute spirit, the establishment of total truths was actually totalitarian, that is, they did not admit a different worldview, the dialog was simply linked to a pre-established truth, so there were truths a priori .

Knowledge for Immanuel Kant begins with experience, and reason would organize this matter according to its own forms, with the existing structures in knowledge, so information would be a way to organize the matter that comes from experience.

Although “a priori” is generally referred to as an adjective of knowledge, it is also used as an adjective to modify nouns, such as truth, so there would be truth a priori, and this is one of the tenets of idealism.

But the truth for centuries has remained veiled, it has always been established by certain forms of power, but this is the time when the truths begin to be revealed, not by journalists and controlled groups that are part of fans, but the armed crowd of photos and cell phones , cameras present in many surveillance places, but the big leap is awareness.

It is no coincidence that this is the great current topic, from philosophical hermeneutics, the question of historical consciousness that is no longer deterministic, romantic or dogmatic to the question of whether intelligent machines can be aware and ultimately “imitate” man .

For Christian culture this can go to another point, a time when the truth is revealed, according to the evangelist Matthew 10: 26-29:

“Do not be afraid of men, because there is nothing covered up that is not revealed, and there is nothing of hidden that is not known. What I say to you in the darkness, say it in the light of day; what you hear at the ear, proclaim it over the roofs! Do not be afraid of those who kill the body, but cannot kill the soul! On the contrary, fear the one who can destroy the soul and the body in hell! ”.

Philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, who is not a Christian, said that the pandemic put us “all on our knees”, I would say that not everyone still has those who do not admit the mystery beyond our ability to understand and among the religious those who are not yet knees, at least out of compassion for those who suffer.




(Português) Da episteme grega a fenomenologia de Husserl

16 Jun

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.