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Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

Immanence, transcendence and cristianism

24 May

Certainly the search for a true spirituality has one thing in common: it is a search for happiness and peace, this is particularly tragic in times of crisis and low light, it seems almost unattainable this state.
Let us return to two concepts of phenomenology: the transcendent that is inner and the transcendental that is external and allows some form of relation with the objects of the world, then any relation of immanence would be denied, seems an inevitable consequence because it reinforces the classical opposition between transcendence and immanence .
The Holy Spirit allows man some form of immanence, for example, for our intelligence and our interiority we ask for the light, and one of the names most appropriate to the Holy Spirit, in the sense that Christianity gives him is Paraclete, which means both defender and comforter, without him we would be plunged into anguish and frailty.
Thus, in admitting the transcendence of our interior, we must admit that we have somehow the possibility of the consciousness of something, an essential form of phenomenology, and it allows us an immanence of the objects, not only through the senses, but in a high way, a superior transcendence, and can be justified by the existence of a superior transcendental.
It is not a force or an energy, but a form of Being, which means to be in the full light, in the Heideggerian sense being in the “clearing”, of course there must be several requirements for it, which is ultimately a fullness of Being, fleeting and non-permanent, in the video proposal of the previous post (by Jonathan Haidt), a ladder or to use another image of the Tales of Narnia (book of Clive Staples Lewis), which are basically Christian, a passage inside a mobile takes it to the kingdom of Narnia, from which films were made as well.
It is a metaphorical way of rethinking the “fatigue” of the world, in a more spiritualized way than the phenomenology proposes, but as a method is similar.
The experiences and memories were thought by phenomenology, and if we think in the Christian sense of experiences and memories of what should be the life of love of brotherhood and love of the Other “as” himself and “as” Jesus taught us, is in the Scripture passage John 14:26: “But the Advocate, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and remind you of all that I have said to you.”
But this God is unknown in other cultures and misunderstood by Christian currents. The mystic Raniero Cantalamessa, who was once a preacher of papal retreat, explains this trinitary God:

 

Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence:

 

The crisis of Science and Knowledge

22 May

The quantum physics that dismantled the building of mechanistic physics, which was the idea of ​​an increasingly mathematical knowledge, and this would be rigor and not philosophy, in the sense of thinking, is a crisis established in the beginning of the last century, studies of the Vienna Circle and Husserl’s statement of the crisis of the European sciences were the initial contours of this crisis.

On the crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as a privileged discourse of appropriation of the world being, pointed out in the original idea of ​​Edmund Husserl in “The Crisis of the European Sciences and the Transcendental Phenomenology” (2002), Heidegger points to a crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as the privileged discourse of appropriation of the being of the world.

Heidegger later wrote of it: “The decisive development of the character of modern enterprise of science, therefore, also wed another species of man. The scholar disappears. It is rendered by the researcher (researcher) who is in his research endeavors. These, and not the care of a erudition, give to their work the fresh air. The investigator no longer needs any library at home. He is constantly on the move. Discusses in colloquies Discusses in colloquiums and is informed in congresses. “(HEIDEGGER, 2002, p.108).

It was pointed out correctly by the Brazilian researcher, Cintia Struchiner, that “this is not a crisis of the sciences as such (it is quite obvious that the sciences continue to progress and produce knowledge), but it is basically a crisis of sense. The neutrality of the world of science leaves out fundamental human questions (values, culture, ethics), so that between the world of science and the life-world a process of detachment is gradually being established. Husserl’s point is that science, so constituted, has very little to offer us regarding the most fundamental issues for humanity: its values, its culture and the sense of individual and collective existence” (STRUCHINER, 2007)

The contours of this crisis lie in the vision and thought of science, but extrapolate these and emerge in a culture of obscurity, ignorance as thought, the immediacy of the being of the world, and the emptying of being-in-the-world produces only a weariness, an absence of essentiality, a superficial criticism that does not leave the technician and does not discuss technique as an essential knowledge, but does not exhaust itself, because it does not contemplate Being.

These changes continue to occur in the 21st century, a European work explains this through phenomenology itself, showing the digitization and opening of this knowledge:

 

HEIDEGGER, H. Caminhos de floresta. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2002.

HUSSERL, E. A Crise das Ciências Europeias e a Fenomenologia Transcendental, São Paulo Ed. Forense Universitária, 2012.

STRUCHINER, Cinthia Dutra. Fenomenologia: de volta ao mundo-da-vida. Rev. abordagem gestalt., Goiânia , v. 13, n. 2, p. 241-246, dez. 2007 .

 

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

Intentionality, materiality and world

03 May

It seems distant the discourse of the world of life and intentionality, for idealistic thought would be because it is not, it is not about having the intention to go to the knowledge of the object and to have its possession, the important thing is not to separate them, intention is consciousness of the object.

Putting it more precisely, and using the Greek terms, this duality is the relation between the  (morphé) form and the matter (Hylé), the use of the Greek concept is because we enter the intentional layer of the lived that is present in the world the form.

Husserl updated these concepts in noema and noese, this being the intentional act as the set of subjectively oriented experience of the object, what we call information and the first is hylético data (the Greek concept), which can be updated as cognitive experiences, this is that they become knowledge independent of their facticity or materiality in the modern sense, which is different from Hylé.

The intentionality as consciousness Husserl met her with his master Franz Brentano and he took it from Thomas Aquinas who in turn took it from Aristoteles and Saint Augustine. It is important to understand that awareness of something does not mean truth in Truth and Method Hans Georg Gadamer gives a long speech on this.

 Although it is not correct to say that Aquinas is Platonic, the spiritual substance that exists in Plato and Augustine is maintained, as the conventional vision of soul, so soul is morphé, form of the body, it is it that communicates the act of being.

In the biblical passage, there are others that refer to recognizing Jesus in breaking bread, he is not known by his material form in the physical sense of the present, but by his act of being, in the passage of John (21: 1-19) after they have gone fishing without fishing, Jesus appears to him and asks if he has something to eat (they do not recognize his form), then they send the fishery and fish again, there they recognize his being by his intention and finally they go to eat together and with the coals already burning Jesus says to them: “Bring some fish that you have caught” (John, 21: 10).

The three strange facts in this passage, they did not fish for anything and then they succeeded, they did not recognize Jesus by his form but by his experience (He orders them to fish and he breaks the bread) and Jesus eating (He is not more in world of form, He resurrected).

At the end he asks Peter his intention and says “You love me“, He said about the all experiences of intentionality.

The contemporary world seeks to create narratives and facts to reaffirm them, but has difficulty with its materiality that unite form and materiality, remains in the dualism.

The intentionality is a property not physical of the mind, see this vídeo:

 

 

 

World of life and deviations

02 May

It seems obvious what the world of life would be, but it is not because simply this world is populated by theories and misconceptions trying to put life as some form of acting, of making functionalist or even of thinking in restricted forms that do not behave life.
It is not by chance that this was later developed by Heidegger and Gadamer, since all life refers to the Being, and closes itself in this and not from its relation with the objects, but with the vision it has of the relation with these objects which are part of the world of life.
Separating them into ontological and ontological, though distinct, means that there is something beyond the life of being, not in the mystical sense, but of the transcendental realizations (the apriori) of consciousness.
Thus the work of Hans Georg Gadamer “Truth and Method” is nothing other than to oppose a vision of historical consciousness other than that of something, the basic presupposition of the hermeneutics, there is therefore no clear relation to life, beings, objects and culture of concrete beings within a concrete reality.
The original meaning of the “world of life” (Lebenswelt) is embodied in Heidegger’s work of Being and Time, used in part by Sartre, Gadamer problematized it, and Schultz made it central to his phenomenological sociology.
Phenomenology brought from Franz Brentano the notion of intentionality, which according to Sokoloski, intention means the relation of consciousness that we have with an object, then refers in the last analysis to what we call consciousness.
The notion of intentionality is the one that contrasts most strongly with positivism, when reconsidering the subject and object relationship, in a perspective of inseparability, offers an opposition to its objectivism and neutrality.
By fully recovering the subject in relation to objects, phenomenology is a resumption of the humanization of science, a restorative view of Being and of existence.
The work of Alfred Schutz (1899 to 1959) incorporating phenomenology into Max Weber’s sociology, regains the importance of the concept of Verstehen (understanding) and distinguishes it from Erklaren (common-sense knowledge, or methods of modern social sciences).
Hans Georg Gadamer clarifies that Verstehen is close to the understanding of the Other, in which the relation of knowing is thus humanized.
SOKOLOWSKI, Robert. Introduction to phenomenology (in portuguese). São Paulo: Loyola, 2004.
The concept of intentionality is central to phenomenology and this vídeo clarifies the term:

 

The smooth, linear and non-life

30 Apr

Certainly most people feel uncomfortable with the amount of activities, of course there is another type (which is not the opposite) that is passivity or procrastination, the fact that someone is in paralysis, the panic or anxiety syndrome is exactly this.
What is tiredness, it is not only social, intellectual, political activism or hyperactivity, that is attributed to children, but there are numerous workaholic, compulsive and tense adults.
What impels us to this, contrary to what one might imagine to be a confused life, or the loss of focus (there are innumerable books on this, and others of self-help for aspects that are not the central ones), is a “life of exercises, “would say Peter Sloterdijk, or the society of fatigue Byung Chul Han, where this comes from and why we arrived in this state seems unanswered.
The idea of linearity, “focus” or personal management, emotional intelligence and so many other jargon do not escape a life even though “straight” continues to take us to the bottom of the pit.
The network represents complexity, but even opening the possibility of a universe of relationships (in fact only 6 relationships, called the six degrees of separation are needed) does not improve the deteriorated degree of relationships, explains Byung Chul Han in a lecture made in Barcelona , in 2018:
“We are on the Net but we do not listen to the other, we just make noise,” said Byung-Chul Han, saying that only travels the necessary, does not do conventional tourism “to not participate in the flow of goods and people,” he said at the Culture Center Contemporary of Barcelona.
This led psychiatrist Steven Berglas of Harvard Medical School’s Department of Psychiatry to elegantly protest: “To be fair to (… a certain author …) and other self-help authors, there is much useful material in their works and much of the damage done by such literature is due to the fact that these books are not read or even read. Many people cite insights from books based on a hurried reading of the fourth covers or titles, in “Reclaiming the Fire” of the 2001.
The psychiatrist Albert Ellis claims that most of the problems of modern society arise because are based on absolutist beliefs of “I must” or “have” about oneself, about others, he created a Therapy Rational Emotional of Conduct (TREC), the TED of Jules Evans clarifies the therapy:

 

Apodítico e epoché in Husserl

23 Apr

Words strange and of high significance for the philosophy of Husserl, apoditic we use much in the day-to-day only that of improper way, something that we think evident and it is not God, the life, the death, finally a series of concepts that seem to be evident and are not, as you see them, hylé appears.
Subjective matter, the sense given by the Greeks to what seems material, to Husserl possesses a veiled truth, this composes a subjective matter attached to any perception, or what he defined as “returning the thing itself”, in the sense of having a intention about it.
Thus Husserl calls “the intention” the meaningful content of something, the intention of a book on it, though the intention does not have the flesh-and-blood presence of the book.
When we have a “meaningful intention” (“Bedutungsintention”) we mean with an intention the book and the table, that is, the object without even considering its presence, for example, if we have the meaningful content of that book, in this sense “intuition” Is  “evidence.”
Although for Husserl words are used interchangeably, intuition is the fulfillment of an intention, or consciousness of it, this is important for its thought, since the perfect filling between intention and intuition will never be fully satisfied.
In this, it immerses itself in the concept of consciousness, that is, the “consciousness of something”, to make explicit its method, which consists in traversing the phenomenon, using phenomenological reduction, or epoché, which for Greeks is the suspension of judgment. empirical evidence), and for Husserl it is a place between parentheses.
This consists in provisionally leaving aside all preconceptions, theories, definitions and pre-judgments, and only then gradually give meaning to the things that seek their “originality.”
This introduction to Husserl’s Phenomenology for Phenomenology, may clarify:

 

Arrogance, nets and feet-washed

17 Apr

It is a holy week, a fact that goes unnoticed, but it is fundamental in the spirituality that is said to be “Christian” (yes, for the society in crisis, everything is confused: democracy, freedom, moral, ethics and also the principles and values of certain cultures) a detail is the foot-washing ceremony, the master is lowered to a function made by slaves and washes the feet of the disciples.
There is no greater contradiction in the contemporary world, for the idea of power, wealth and arrogance without measures make the Other object of manipulation, desire and submission, and almost no circle escapes, from the power of the state to the periphery of cities, through schools, churches and various types of associations.
Behind this idea is to always see the Other as smaller, less prepared or less capable, the networks have reversed this and disorganized a vertical power structure, clear with exaggerations, but the central, often even established and democratic power too, see the censures of the ministers of the Brazilian STF (Tribunal Superior Judge), who were supposed to defend the constitution.
Yes the networks also exaggerate, but without the exercise they will never learn, is now given a power that only the editorial groups, the centers of power and the wealthy had, manipulate the truth in their favor, and were already fake news, I was going to ask where the truth was then.
Feet-washing puts this logic, will power or power Nietszche, something that seems natural, but for sick reasons evolve in times of crisis.
To wash the feet of prisoners, as did Pope Francisco in last year, to go to those who will not be able to reciprocate, to open their arms and pockets to those who need it, and in the case of Christian Easter, to give their lives for their friends, love, started with washing the feet.
Most people do not recognize the gesture, Peter did not want Jesus to do this, or think it is a false feeling, or that the person himself does not give himself the courage, never that [voluntary and conscious: washing the feet of those who could by some logic being below us.
Few do, in a society in crisis is more than a gesture, it is necessary, it is healing.
While the Brazilian thinker Leandro Karnal thinks that humility does not get well, Mario Sérgio Cortela said that is humility:

 

 

Shut me up, the stones will speak

12 Apr

It is not illusionism, pure utopia (Thomas Morus’s Utopia is the desire for a world with fairness), it is about understanding and respecting the mystery, of being aware that we do not know everything. It was not Einstein, but Heisenberg who first announced the quantum theory, which inspired Dali in his Mystical Manifesto, which changed the idea of ​​science, space, and time.

The image of the real black hole is just the tip of the iceberg of a mysterious universe, which surprises us and shows us our limitation.

Much of the contemporary regression is the incomprehension of cosmology and cosmogony, which in a different way are present in all cultures and religions.

Scientism, determinism, and materialism wanted to abolish the subjective thinking of cosmogonies, but it survived, and the discovery of the black hole is the enlargement of scientific cosmogony.

Says the biblical Reading (Lk 19:40) “if they shut me up, the stones will speak,” in the passage that the religious themselves asked Jesus not to speak of his eschatology, his mission and his end in the hands of the powerful. The quantum computation is explained by Shohini Ghose in 10 minutes: