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Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

Naming elephant and worldview

13 Sep

Deceased in February last year, American and Christian philosopher James W. Sire (1933-2018) did extensive research behind the worldview issue, said it took 30 years, published in 2004, probably to begin to address the theme in 1974.

Also his worldview must be reread, I mean that from 1974 to 2004 the world underwent transformations that it deepened, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the cold war that now seems to be reborn, the fall of dictatorships that seem to come back in all over the planet.

I have not read the book, but one of the book’s chapters and also its commentators have helped formulate an idea, though inaccurate, of his main book Naming the Elephant: Worldview as a Concept, publisher IVP Academic), and the chapter I refer to is the Definitions of Worldview: from Dilthey to Naugle, which in the title is suggestive of some idealism which the text confirms early on, is available on google Books.

It says at the beginning of Chapter 2 that the origin of the term Weltanschauung originated with Kant (1724-1804), “but only in passing,” and quotes Dilthey verbatim: “to denote a set of beliefs that underlie and shape all human thought and action.” ”(Sire, 2004, p. 23), denoting a set of beliefs that underpin and shape all human thought and action.

Although appropriate, perhaps the most thorough analysis of the term, Heidegger’s reading which updated and developed the subject in a broader sense than that of Kant and Dilthey is lacking, and Hans Georg Gadamer will rightly criticize Dilthey’s conception of the idealist.

To follow the concept of Weltanschauung Cites Nietszche, Wittgenstein, with tours of Plato and Descartes, Foucault and passing Rorthy art, and then begins to address evangelical Christian authors (Reformed is the name abroad), James Orr, Abraham Kuyper , Herman Dooyeweerd, Ronald Nash until he comes to what he calls the new synthesis that would be David Naugle.

However, never runs away from idealism, says he goes from ontology to hermeneutics (not the other way around) and says that this synthetic view is characterized by a “system”. semiotic of narrative signs ”(Sire, 2004, p. 42) quoting Naugle who made such a synthesis. However, the true synthesis hidden behind the text, with a clear nominalist view and the idea of ​​a semiotic system, reveals itself by quoting the biblical text: “Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe me also, referring to the biblical passage in John 14: 1, because you then ignore the text that says, “In my father’s house are many mansions.”

The idea of ​​signs, myths and symbols embedded in narratives that represent a worldview is not negligible, and it is even important, however any view that is solely about narrative does not do the work of removing the anthropological view and the real “historical view”.  Of what happened, being the idealist and unreal vision of Dilthey’s historicism.

There is another more significant passage, the so-called return of the prodigal son (Luke 15:10: 32), which some idealistic authors and exegetes dislike the name, seeking to idolize the eldest son who stayed at home with his father, who is more conservative. therefore, but also his prodigal son, his defect, went to the world to experiment.

The fact that he returned is commendable, but what a worldview he brought from his deviance, in fact their father is merciful to his conservative and rebel. 

 

Pride, prejudice and vanity

28 Aug

I had to go to the Web to find some references from Pride and Prejudice, a book of my youth, written by Jane Austen that references have sold 2.3 million copies, and published in 1813, Austen would have written the 21 years old, in 1797, this is important because the nineteenth century begins with the impacts of the industrial revolution and severe social crises, while the previous one still hovered over a certain “romanticism”.
The problems related to education, culture, and morals of that turn of the century in the conservative aristocratic society are problematized in the book in an interesting and somewhat peculiar way in addressing the prejudice theme.
The novel tells of an aristocratic but decaying Bennet family who lives on a farm on a farm called Netherfield, where a young aristocrat Mr. Bingley rents a morally going estate near the Bennet, which has four married girls, and he takes Caroline Bingley and Louisa Hurst her sisters, her brother-in-law Mr. Hurst, and a friend Mr. Darcy, who will be a protagonist with flirting and flirting with Elizabeth Bennet, the peculiarity being the prejudices between her and Mr. Darcy, whom she eventually marries.
Class problems apart, they are all decadent or not aristocrats, the bottom line is between provincialism and a broader social view, the novel’s peculiarity, and the nuances between vanity, prejudice, and pride, which can be clearly differentiated.
These are not different definitions, but social positions where vanity, the theme of a glance is present in virtually every character, and shows how complex the social relationship is thanks to it, pride where undercover interests can make it a superb detriment of relationships, and finally prejudice where differences (or distinctions) affect people’s lives, relationships and create tensions that are slowly becoming unreasonable.
It still has the romanticism of the time, the frivolity of the English aristocracy, but the fact that until now the novel is still successful is because it can touch on topics little understood and about which little elaboration exists.
A mini-series was made in the 1950s for TV, in 2004 a movie was made under the direction of Joe Wrigth, while writer Helen Fielding calls Mark Darcy her “ideal man” in reference to Mr. Darcy’s novel, shows the importance of Jane Austen’s book.
The movie is available on the telecine and the thriller below can give you an idea of the movie

 

Dialogue and not-power

16 Aug

A true dialogue: not being able From Nietsche, with its will-to-power category, to Schopenhauer and others, to Foucault’s biopower and Byung Chul Han’s psychopolitics, power implies resistance and somehow difference, and it does not always admit diversity.

There would be a form of no power, or at least a counterpoint for those who believe that power is necessary, of course here there is no talk of authority, it will always exist, but the type of authority is fundamental, for example, when discussing state violence. and its limits.

In the field of psychology, this is what Arendt calls the ‘space of appearance’, and we explained in the previous post that it is a ‘between’ who speaks and who acts, just as both Arendt and Byung Chul Han explain the complementarity between working life and the contemplative life.

It was Paul Ricoeur, in our view, who made Arendt’s most beautiful synthesis on this point: Paul Ricoeur, “almost all the discussions raised by Arendt’s political thought can be reviewed when presenting the conceptual power-violence pair” (Ricoeur 1989, p. 142), and Arendt herself sums it up by stating: “If we turn to discussions of the phenomenon of power, we quickly realize that there is a consensus among left-to-right political theorists that violence is so -only the most blatant manifestation of power ”(Arendt, 2001, p. 31), so if a counterpoint is desired one must think non-power.

The first form of non-power is attentive and capable listening to an “epoché”, that is, a void so large where there are no categories or dogmas, care is not lack of principles as this would also be a violence, and the second is admit a truth above the dialogue.

Thus the difference remains in the field of the false “epoché” common in many dialogues where the speaker begins to dominate the theme and does not admit counterpoints, while in the distinction makes it possible that what differentiates does not become an obstacle to dialogue, manifesting from the Other.

It has not been possible to overcome forms of violence to this day because power has been and still is needed, but the return to state violence through many governments across the planet brings us to the phenomenon of homo sacer, war criminals, refugees and others without fundamental rights, concept worked by Agamben.

But in philosophy, history, and religion there is a figure that awakens a powerlessness, the figure of Willendorf’s Venus, carved in limestone with shades of reddish paint, in the years between 28,000 and 25,000 BC, obesity and short arms. some scholars reject the idea of ​​the mythological goddess Venus, goddess of beauty, who was the fruit of love between earth and heaven, would say that the religious metaphor is perfect, between the mystery of the Infinite and the feet on the earth’s ground.

Mary, a mythical Christian figure who also causes controversy among scholars, has an unmistakable biblical passage of her dialogical role, is in Lk 1.43: “How can I deserve the mother of my Lord to come to visit me?” The discussion of which Lord she speaks, but it is undoubtedly in her is a dialogue between heaven and earth, between the divine and the human.

Arendt, H. (2001)Poder e violência (Power and violence). Rio de Janeiro: Relume Dumará, pp. 81-94.

Ricoeur, P. (1989) “Pouvoir et violence”. In Hannah Arendt: Ontologie and Politique. Paris, Édition Tierce, pp. 141-159.

 

Dialogy and nonviolent power

15 Aug

To this day all power has been conquered with some form of force, since the first elaboration of the polis it is present, but even Hegel who elaborated the modern idea of ​​state stated: “[…] although the state may arise through violence, it it is not based on it […]. In the state, the spirit of the people is the custom, the law, and the rulers, ”quote by Byung Chul Han in What is power, but the author will take up another concept from Hanna Arendt.

Arendt’s concept of “space of appearance” leads to the power of language, thus makes it “between space,” so this space “illuminates each time, as one between when men are talking and acting with one another” ( Han, 2019) quoting Arendt.

Arendt will also transform this space of appearance. “Power is what it calls {existence and preserves in existence the open realm, the potential space of appearance between the speaker and the speaker.”

What happens in practical terms is that in the potential space of appearance, dialogue must exist in order to admit the distinction, yet, as elaborated by Gadamer’s hermeneutic circle, the preconception is viewed positively, each person comes to dialogue with his worldview, his preconceptions, and a fusion of horizons is a condition for after dialogue one can reach what is common, what unites in distinction.

Impatience and unpreparedness to dialogue often become an exercise in dogmatic proclamation of preconceptions, and it is impossible to reformulate ideas and actions.

True dialogia says the masters Martin Buber, Mikhail Bakhtin, one can include Paulo Freire, Paul Ricoeur, Emanuel Levinas and many others, the figure of the Other is not always present, and without a deep listening and respect to the distinction.

There is no dialogue. Bakhtin, even being a Marxist where conflict is a form of motor, develops the concept through linguistics, her focus of studies, defining her dialogue: “…. as a description of language that makes all statements by definition dialogical; as a term for a specific type of statement, as opposed to other monological statements; and as a vision of the world and of truth (its global concept) ” (Bakhtin, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, 1986, p. 506), and the use of this author here is by dialogia.

In Christian thought the fundamental thing is Love of Neighbor, that is, to consider it in all the essence of its dignity as a human person and worthy of divine love, where all its fundamental rights should be respected, including the first of all that is your being. The unity of Being and event is one of the dimensions of Baktin’s dialogia.

In Buber, Tu (Other) is something that goes beyond the person, being the divine present in it, and there can be no verticality.

 

 

 

 

Dialogue and identity

13 Aug

Our society and our thinking since Plato and Aristotle is an identity-oriented thinking, Socrates and the pre-Socrates were more eclectic, because the difference, although tolerated, was fundamentally fought and still in our day even among those who dialogue.
It is the desire that we have things to remain stable, to change very little, meaning that deep down they must hold a certain sense of identity, that even if they admit difference or diversity, it must be placed somehow on rules and restrictions.
That is why I prefer the term distinction, the distinct is the different that does not allow for similarity, so the Asian is Asian for its distinction between Westerners, differences are enumerations and types of rules that ultimately want to erase the difference, but there are the distinguished one. Identity creates the Same, while distinction creates the Other.
Difference accentuates the uncommon and somewhat hinders dialogue, but Western philosophy did not think so.
This prevents change, because identity requires that what changes will not change its essence, remaining a background of the same, is a dialogue full of proselytizing, the idea of not accepting the distinction, what distinguishes is what is rooted.

Diversity throughout the history of identity and difference thought, several revisions have been submitted, the most current being the one made by Giles Deleuze (1925-1995) who studies the problem in depth.
Speaking of difference and repetition, Deleuze penetrates the symbolic, constructed and more conventional character of repetition, for him repetition is the need we have to see what creates our identity, without seeing the intermediation of the logic that creates our relationship with things.
Thus, for him, the repetition that tries to make a “world view” determination stable is nothing but a convention, since it does not allow us to see the ongoing change that despite feeling we try to hide the difficulty of leaving our “identity” and seeing the Other.
Brazilian philosopher Franklin Leopoldo Martins seeks to explain these relationships:


 

 

The land as homeland, the power and the mad

08 Aug

Foucault in History of Madness addresses the work The Nau of the Fools by the Dutch painter Hieronymus Bosh (1450-1516), which is in the Louvre collection in Paris, where he arrived on 1918.

The important point is that before the empire of reason, in Foucault’s prophetic view of the refugee boats of our time, these “crazy” people could stop in various places, and even the people who steal the food on the table. , are barely noticed, while today’s vessels suffer numerous embarrassments.

The face of madness was for that normal time, today it is in focus at various borders and the refugees, those that Agamben calls “homo saccer”, and who is a good “microphysics” (Foucault) or “psychopolitics” (Chul Han) of power.

This is not the case only within the framework of the state structure, although Hegel is the great precursor of the defense of ‘normality’, but it is also the rejection of everything that is ‘strange’, ‘different’ or in a more up-to-date language. It belongs to the “Other”, it is also rejected.

Small and large communities, as a form of prejudiced defense, accuse what is not proper of crazy, abnormal or any other form of “expulsion from the other” (Chul Han).

Modern subjectivity, precisely because it seeks normalcy or what is socially considered normal, eliminates the possibility of the different, the “mad” or those who escape a certain standard, this is the argument of “modern” legalists and fundamentalists.

Foucault goes to the extreme in referring to the eighteenth century as the one who built man’s “subjectivity”, since the “Cartesian” subject of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries cannot in any way be committed to any form of the “different” of “ “strange”.

Finally something that is not the ideal subject imagined by modernity, so the “crazy” has nowhere else to dock, the ship of the crazy is destined to sink on the high seas, dying for various kinds of deprivation, this is the idealistic model taken to the extreme.

In terms of art is what Byung Chul Han calls “smooth”, “polished”, the absence of deformity, arises an art with no negativity in the broad sense of the word.

Thus ethical values ​​are also aesthetic, it is a whole culture that goes from politics to art, through religiosity, cyberculture and the culture present in everyday life.

In a rather rare interview, German philosopher Fons Elders prepares for the debate between Foucault and Noam Chomsky, made for Dutch television on November 28, 1971.

 

 

Psychopolitics and power

07 Aug

In reading Byung Chul Han’s book, I came across the idea that I couldn’t talk about his arguments without going back and commenting on his psychopolitics of power. In his book Psychopolitics – neoliberalism and the new techniques of power (figure), the Korean-German philosopher demonstrated that the techniques of oppression used now.
It is not those that were politically thought out by Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism, so we talk about him last week, or Big Brother’s super-surveillance (not the unreal reality show), but what he called smartphone surveillance.
It states verbatim: “The confession obtained by force has been replaced by voluntary disclosure,” i.e., “Smartphones have been replaced by torture chambers.”, And it is not that the tortures have disappeared in Guantanamo or Venezuela.
It is possible by rereading (in the case of this blog a reading, as we have not done so) of Nietzsche’s will to power and the microphysics of Power that Chul Han does in his pamphlet “What is power” (HAN, 2019).
It rereads the word by saying that the meaning of things is not a “is-so,” but the meaning is given “as you name things, determining yours where and for what” (Han, 2019, p. 56). ), until the truth is ultimately “is allied with power” (Han, 2019, p. 57) thus being “the victory and the duration of a certain kind of truth” (idem) by quoting Nietzsche himself.
After quoting Foucault he will say “power is ultimately what it represses” (p. 62), and makes a brief historicity of this concept by stating that Hegel was the first to see it like this (I make a note with the state as an idolatry). ), then Freud and Reich, in my point in a stricter sense, that of psychology.
But he will object to an ever-negative view of power, in his right consideration: “power, however, is not based on repression” (Han, 2019, p. 63), and quoting Foucault himself, “power is productive, and produces the real ”(HAN, 2019, p. 64).
As he notes, it is a rarely referenced note by Foucault, for he “distrusts” a “nature” or an “essence” (p. 65), which the author deepens.

 

The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:

 

Consciousness and Freedom in Morin

25 Jun

Freedom, liberalism, autonomy of reason, possibilities of countless experiences this was the fascination of the man of modernity, however he forgot his being. In his works almost always functional, Edgar Morin says in Freedom Anthropology: “Freedom is a possibility of choice”, therefore, between real and possible possibilities, without leaving aside, of course, the possibility of exploring and understanding what is imaginary.
Modern man with rationalism and the exploitation of knowledge: “Sapere aude,” cried Kant, he wanted to get rid of the constraints of the environment, and with the possibilities of ample use of intelligence and conscience he found himself subject to norms, taboos, myths, ideas, beliefs and ultimately to society, which imposes laws and prohibitions.
But Morin warns that we are also possessed by our ideas, and not only him but a whole group of thinkers affirm that we walk towards uniformity.
He described his method of the empire of environments, with this it is necessary to replace the concept of external environment that imposes fatalities on living beings by the “idea” of dependent antonomy [1], we are subject to the physicochemical environment, for example, but these are integrated into a living self-organization [2].
The third point is to understand what autonomy means, a more concrete form of freedom, it is dependent on the external environment from which it withdraws energy and organization, all living autonomy is dependent [3].
Before we are born, we have already posed with respect to the fetus inside the mother, we have inherited genes from the parents, then in the external environment the forms of accidents, losses, encounters intervene, and within each one there are several decisions that cannot be taken as the logic of decision of a machine, this involves aspects of changes of values and even of states of the soul, a conversion to a faith or a deconversion with new effects.
In a recent talk, Morin said that we walked like sleepwalkers to disaster, this is not the direction of an autonomy of freedom, but rather the idea of a greater restriction, what Martha Nussbaum called the “empire of fear.”
We return to becoming automata, and as we walk as somnambulists, possessed of a certain automatism, a certain possession, but even being machines, we are non-trivial machines, but the ideal is to overcome the machine state and acquire true consciousness: consciousness of Being.
In consciousness is the act of self-affirmation of the subject and in the act of self-affirmation of the subject is the act of self-affirmation of consciousness.
With all the criticism of the current conditions, Morin says that it is possible to live the poetry, see the video:

[1] E. MORIN, La Méthode 1. Paris, Seuil, 1977; idem, La Méthode 2, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
[2] Idem, La Méthode 2, págs. 108-110.
[3] Its dependence on the ecosystem is circular. The living portion of the ecosystem (biocenosis) consists of the interaction between living beings and depends on them, which in turn depend on it.

 

Morin about Aesthetic and Art

19 Jun

Among the uninteresting things that get me through whatsapp I got a video that said that part of Alzheimer’s is social, in fact it was used to talk about dementia and sclerosis, not only because they knew the subject badly, but because social life was easier and more enjoyable.
Edgar Morin was in Sao Paulo, and at june 18 he seems to be the living example of this, still able to surprise his audience, has already written about the question of method, the foundations lost in modernity, land-fatherhood and a world citizenship, a book of love and poetry after the death of his companion Edwiges, now surprises talking about aesthetics and pleasure.
The conversation took place at Sesc Pinheiros, starting at 8pm, with live streaming through Facebook and YouTube videos, I delayed to post today because I wanted to look forward to it.
His proposal is now of a “poetic state,” in which resistance to modern power is not the dictatorship of arms, but the idea of becoming robots through economic power and impose an accelerated pace of life, as the Society of Bournot´s Byung Chul-Han.
Valuing the human state of aesthetic creativity is for him a second state in which one can feel “passionate, admired, in communion with others, marveling, transported, transfigured, inspired.
Something that is at the edge of the mystic, without being [clearly] religious. ” I say clearly because transfiguring or blazing is not possible without some clearly religious form, I am not talking about self-suggestion or fanatical spiritualism, but about poetry and art.
This state allows man something that Morin considers essential, allow man a particular emotion, a contemplative state Chul-Han would say, says the master at the height of his maturity without feeling old age: “Music, poetry, literature and other arts have always been present and active in my life “.
He is considered the great thinker of complexity, named for the studies that privilege multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies for problem solving, remember that he along with Nicolascu Barsarab and Lima de Freitas are authors of the ”Transdisciplinarity Charter” of Arrábida, Portugal.
Morin defends literature as a source of inspiration for this complexity, he says: “” a novel offers me a knowledge about humanity that no science can achieve because it presents complex relationships. Therefore, I believe that it is not possible to teach only through science “, when referring to the current difficulties of education. I have the impression that Morin will not die, his texts certainly will not, but his earthly life will be transported by angels to some place that will have a new name, a kind of earthly or transfigured earthly paradise, something like the biblical one: “a new heaven and a new earth, “described in John’s Apocalipse Revelation, verse 21.
See the video or link:
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