Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:


Consciousness and Freedom in Morin

25 Jun

Freedom, liberalism, autonomy of reason, possibilities of countless experiences this was the fascination of the man of modernity, however he forgot his being. In his works almost always functional, Edgar Morin says in Freedom Anthropology: “Freedom is a possibility of choice”, therefore, between real and possible possibilities, without leaving aside, of course, the possibility of exploring and understanding what is imaginary.
Modern man with rationalism and the exploitation of knowledge: “Sapere aude,” cried Kant, he wanted to get rid of the constraints of the environment, and with the possibilities of ample use of intelligence and conscience he found himself subject to norms, taboos, myths, ideas, beliefs and ultimately to society, which imposes laws and prohibitions.
But Morin warns that we are also possessed by our ideas, and not only him but a whole group of thinkers affirm that we walk towards uniformity.
He described his method of the empire of environments, with this it is necessary to replace the concept of external environment that imposes fatalities on living beings by the “idea” of dependent antonomy [1], we are subject to the physicochemical environment, for example, but these are integrated into a living self-organization [2].
The third point is to understand what autonomy means, a more concrete form of freedom, it is dependent on the external environment from which it withdraws energy and organization, all living autonomy is dependent [3].
Before we are born, we have already posed with respect to the fetus inside the mother, we have inherited genes from the parents, then in the external environment the forms of accidents, losses, encounters intervene, and within each one there are several decisions that cannot be taken as the logic of decision of a machine, this involves aspects of changes of values and even of states of the soul, a conversion to a faith or a deconversion with new effects.
In a recent talk, Morin said that we walked like sleepwalkers to disaster, this is not the direction of an autonomy of freedom, but rather the idea of a greater restriction, what Martha Nussbaum called the “empire of fear.”
We return to becoming automata, and as we walk as somnambulists, possessed of a certain automatism, a certain possession, but even being machines, we are non-trivial machines, but the ideal is to overcome the machine state and acquire true consciousness: consciousness of Being.
In consciousness is the act of self-affirmation of the subject and in the act of self-affirmation of the subject is the act of self-affirmation of consciousness.
With all the criticism of the current conditions, Morin says that it is possible to live the poetry, see the video:

[1] E. MORIN, La Méthode 1. Paris, Seuil, 1977; idem, La Méthode 2, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
[2] Idem, La Méthode 2, págs. 108-110.
[3] Its dependence on the ecosystem is circular. The living portion of the ecosystem (biocenosis) consists of the interaction between living beings and depends on them, which in turn depend on it.


Morin about Aesthetic and Art

19 Jun

Among the uninteresting things that get me through whatsapp I got a video that said that part of Alzheimer’s is social, in fact it was used to talk about dementia and sclerosis, not only because they knew the subject badly, but because social life was easier and more enjoyable.
Edgar Morin was in Sao Paulo, and at june 18 he seems to be the living example of this, still able to surprise his audience, has already written about the question of method, the foundations lost in modernity, land-fatherhood and a world citizenship, a book of love and poetry after the death of his companion Edwiges, now surprises talking about aesthetics and pleasure.
The conversation took place at Sesc Pinheiros, starting at 8pm, with live streaming through Facebook and YouTube videos, I delayed to post today because I wanted to look forward to it.
His proposal is now of a “poetic state,” in which resistance to modern power is not the dictatorship of arms, but the idea of becoming robots through economic power and impose an accelerated pace of life, as the Society of Bournot´s Byung Chul-Han.
Valuing the human state of aesthetic creativity is for him a second state in which one can feel “passionate, admired, in communion with others, marveling, transported, transfigured, inspired.
Something that is at the edge of the mystic, without being [clearly] religious. ” I say clearly because transfiguring or blazing is not possible without some clearly religious form, I am not talking about self-suggestion or fanatical spiritualism, but about poetry and art.
This state allows man something that Morin considers essential, allow man a particular emotion, a contemplative state Chul-Han would say, says the master at the height of his maturity without feeling old age: “Music, poetry, literature and other arts have always been present and active in my life “.
He is considered the great thinker of complexity, named for the studies that privilege multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies for problem solving, remember that he along with Nicolascu Barsarab and Lima de Freitas are authors of the ”Transdisciplinarity Charter” of Arrábida, Portugal.
Morin defends literature as a source of inspiration for this complexity, he says: “” a novel offers me a knowledge about humanity that no science can achieve because it presents complex relationships. Therefore, I believe that it is not possible to teach only through science “, when referring to the current difficulties of education. I have the impression that Morin will not die, his texts certainly will not, but his earthly life will be transported by angels to some place that will have a new name, a kind of earthly or transfigured earthly paradise, something like the biblical one: “a new heaven and a new earth, “described in John’s Apocalipse Revelation, verse 21.
See the video or link:
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The Spirit of Truth

14 Jun

The fact that truth is not logical but ontological returns the idea of Being, when penetrating this question, modernity finds a new course, in this way I encounter the Other, which is not the same and its rupture with idealism is inevitable, even if idealist pragmatism does.
Against the logical truth of Being of the Greek Parmendes, being is and non-Being is not, in the world that judges itself sensible, eternal and unchanging, there being no contradiction, there is no plurality, no distinction (which is not difference); only an inhuman and legalistic perfectionism.
The original truth, as Heidegger and his followers think, is the truth of Being, the clearing * die Lichtung), which makes possible the unfolding, the originality of creation founded on the common-belonging of Being and Man, it is Being between beings.
It lies in the direction of the Greek interpretation of truth as Alétheia, a-lethe, that is, non-forgetting and at the same time truth and not closed dogma, but in the sense of “discovery of reality”, ” , in the sense of presentation.
The question of truth is problematized by Heidegger in the context of what might be called an ontological hermeneutics, it is available to every person who wants to find it, and therefore opens himself to dialogue with all, openness to the Other to unveil plural truth.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In Christian reading of the truth, after the resurrection of Jesus and the manifestation of Pentecost, he announces to the disciples the coming “Spirit of Truth” (John 16:13): “When the Spirit of Truth comes, it will lead you to the full truth.
For he will not speak of himself, but he will speak all that he has heard; and he shall declare unto you the future things. ”
He will not speak for himself, this is the ontological sleep of some religious, which leads them to a false moral and legalism, this is the Christian clearing, forgotten along with the forgetfulness of Being.
Without dialogue with the distinguished (the different can be litigious), is dead word, idealism.


The teleology of Kant

11 Jun

Since Kant clearly has principles and reasonings different from religious, at least as far as Christianity is concerned, one can then analyze whether his teleology is consistent, in terms of what he calls the “moral law” and the “limits of reason. ”
Moral law is indissociable from the religious idea, it can even be said that this would be its argument in defense of the existence of God, and is in the first part of his writing: “Religion on the Limits of Simple Reason” (2008), but it is also in the beginning of the Critique of Practical Reason, for him a “fact” of reason.
The book on religion came in the years 1793 and 1794, ie Kant (1724-1804) was in his maturity of the 70 years, and thus was at the same time his intellectual maturity and his anguish before the religion, Nietszche even says in his “Death of God” and affirms that he even wanted to erect a new religion, or a new thought about it or a teleology.
Kant re-read the doctrine of original sin, somewhat outside of Enlightenment thinking and its own root and against its belief in the congenital abounding of the human being.
He interprets this “sin” as the radical evil in us, and according to his thought are the actions that impel us to deviate from the moral law, which by a “revolution in the mood” and a “transformation of the mode of thinking “(A VI, 47s) we can in freedom, overcome the basic inclination by recovering the moral law within us.
In the second part of the book he clarifies the struggle of the good principle with the bad in the heart of man (see that it is not the superior theological good), the conquest of virtue, the need to promote purity of intention and obedience to the moral law, where Christ is a kind of archetype for which we must tend as personification of the good (this theological yes).
But what he understands as “perfection” is “the suitability of the conduct of life with the sanctity of the law, it is not attainable at any time,” and from here one may better understand its maxim in the Metaphysics of the Customs: “Acts externally in such a manner that the free use of your agency may coexist with the freedom of all according to a universal law.”
In the third part, if the foundation of a kingdom of God on earth is rediscovered, the theme of community or society and ethics, which is erected by the simple laws of the virtues as a regulating principle of action, is man constitutes the genuine end of all rational religion, “built on teleological principles though with references to Christianity.
The fourth part is a critique of religion, this can best be understood in connection with an “anthropological reduction” that he wrote at the end of his life: “Anthropology from the pragmatic point of view” (1798), lived another 6 years but with little intellectual production.

KANT, I. A religião nos limites da simples razão. Tradução: Arthur Mourão. Lisboa: Edições 70, [1793] 2008.


Idealism and morality

10 Jun

Dogmas and temporal truths seem to be the easiest and simplest answers at the height of the culture of reason, not the reason for reasoning and reflection, that reason which sought to abolish creative thinking, spirituality and the subjective taste of things: art, culture and religion.
Before penetrating the questions of ethics and aesthetics, Kant in his Work “Religion in the Limits of Simple Reason” will speak of Hercules and his works: “It is only after the defeat of the monsters that Hercules becomes a musician; before such work those good sisters retreat! (Kant, 2008).
One can read in the lucid preface to the Portuguese edition of Lusofonia (available in pdf) the reason why many theologians appealed to Kant, even though some felt that their demarcation of religion was too restricted to practical reason, they opened up and were enchanted with Kant.
Kant’s demand for a priori knowledge, in the case of religion, would become “a third form of human consciousness, feeling (FDE Schleiermacher, R. Otto) and still in the twentieth century, Catholic theology, the Jesuits Joseph Maréchal († 1944 ), Karl Rahner (1984) and Bernard Lonergan (1984) used Kant’s ‘transcendental’ elements to develop the notion of the dynamism of human intelligence, in synergy with the doctrine of being haurida in Thomas Aquinas to the totality of being and, consequently, to the problem of God “(Kant, 2008, p.5), of course this is a preface and not Kant himself.
The question of evil and morality are not in Kant any a priori as one might expect, since what is a priori are concepts more related to reason, mathematics and what he thinks as empirical.
What makes him a morally reprobate action is the maximum he takes for himself as subjective inclinations, as the basis of action.
Thus a decision taken according to the moral law (or not) is not a natural act, so an intelligible action can decide against the moral law, and so what it takes as moral law is the freedom to decide, the free will, said thus: “… therefore, the judgment that the author is an evil man cannot safely be based on experience (KANT, 2008, 26)
What moves idealism as a religion, and much of contemporary thought, while retaining religious and theologians, is a notion of the essential dynamism of human intelligence, its openness to the totality of being, and therefore to the problem of God.
For the idealists the opposite would be the abandonment of the concept of lierdade, then for morality, freedom is necessary as one of the predicates of the “morally good” and therefore also of the “morally bad.”
Necessary foundations are the construction of great modern institutions: the individual, the state and in some ways even what is thought of as “family.”
KANT, I. Religion on the Limits of Reason. Translation: Arthur Mourão. Lisbon: Editions 70, [1793] 2008.


A humanitarian Pentecost

07 Jun

It was celebrated this week the landing of the Allied forces in Normandy, the end of a war that showed the limits of the human barbarism, but it is necessary not to forget the pump of Hiroshima that Michel Serres, died to a week, said to be his philosophy.
The crisis of humanitarian thought (and of practical actions of course) is evident not only by the return of old ideologies or by the emergence of authoritarian governments, this is a visible face of a failure of a form of humanism that has in its foundations the enlightenment and its resulting postulates: of man, of the state and of social equilibrium. Sloterdijk re-relays Heidegger’s Letters on Humanism to say that the project of “human pacification” has spoken, it is necessary to rethink it, and old scientific, religious, and cultural dogmas may seem like answers, but in a careful analysis they are not, they have already been tested .
Pentecost is a Christian feast that speaks of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, this metaphor is interesting for a “humanitarian turn” that can give a new breath to the human spirit, a look beyond prejudices, false prophets or skepticism.
A new spirit, really open to the dialogue of distinction, of all cultures and peoples, as well as group and collective dogmas, can give humanity a new breath.
Where can this come from, not from isolated actions, prophetic groups and “enlightened” but from a new way of thinking humanity, with a renewed spirit, coming from above. In the field of thought is undoubtedly the overcoming of idealism on one side and also the pragmatism of the other, the idea of the excluded third besides the A and the non-A, dualistic logic, or the third instructed as wanted by Michel Serres can lead to a third spirit in which contradiction is not a problem, but a solution.
In the biblical passage, 40 days after being cruxified and appearing resurrected always leaving peace, appears to the assembled disciples and says (Jn 20,21): “Again Jesus said:” Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you. ”
The ideas and mechanisms, including the technological ones, available for peacebuilding are already there, the amount of wealth produced would be sufficient for all peoples not to greed, what happens is the igorance of these mechanisms on the one hand, and on the other a certain abandonment of those proposals that initially seemed clear, here is the “sending”.
A new spirit on the actions for greater social justice, rebalancing the forces of nature (now will be necessary technology, the process is almost irreversible destruction) and a new impetus in actions against corruption, violence and disrespect to diversity are part of a new Pentecost for humanity, a renewed spirit is needed.
Organized cheering only favors A and not-A, it takes a third force, Maslow’s name in psychology, but here it means a broader, cultural sense.


The Philosophy of Michel Serres

06 Jun

I have always been impressed by Serres’s philosophy, but I could not make a synthesis, at first it seemed physical, sometimes metaphysical, sometimes chaotic, sometimes logical-mathematical, sometimes organized and schematic, other times poetic and chaotic.

It was his death, and the impossibility of saying new things through his mouth that made a synthesis, perhaps because he will never write, because whenever he wrote there was something new, there was light to each new work he wrote. In his text body variations clarifies his choice of character Harlequin: “Why does Harlequin wear cloths mingled, inlaid, striped, stained?

Because he imitated everyone and his masters, he acquired form and color from them. The density and depth of his clothes and the surface mosaic of his cape provide a certain idea of ​​the immense body memory. (…) By stripping and re-establishing them, Harlequin remembers the gestures (of the people, in the sense of masks or disguises) that the body schema stores. “(Serres, 2004, 79).

Serres’s philosophy is light and at the same time new, for him learning is invention, as philosophy is (Serres, 1991: 27), thus creating the figure of the “learned third”, which for one who starts from the mathematical logic, is precisely a rupture because between the A and the non-A, there is a third possibility: the learned one.

It thus creates the pedagogical society, for which it predicts a revolution in education, with information in full circulation because of new technologies, wrote this in 1997. Michel Serres is a leading philosopher, there is still no pedagogy that has a direct influence on the new type of pedagogical practice that the new technologies provide, his concept and miscegenation, of continuous learning has much to add to anyone who seriously studies the new paths of education.

It is necessary that a southpaw leans to the right and that the right hand to the left in order to awaken a certain animal stillness, which seems more prone to the mortal, which he calls “mortal sleep” and to warm each one.

It is necessary that the southpaw leans to the right and the right hand to the left in order to awaken thus from their animal stillness or their mortal slumber, to warm their paralysis, from which may arise a “learned third.”

Thank you Serres, go in peace to your “Legend of the Angels”, they wait you. 


Serres, Michel. Variações do Corpo (Variations on the Body). Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2004.

________. O Contrato Natural (The natural contract). Translation by Beatriz Sioux. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1991.


Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003


Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.