Arquivo para a ‘Linguagens’ Categoria

The cultural and spiritual crisis

23 Jan

A modernity divided into objective and subjective questions that no man is inseparable, the first because he must have concrete relations with the same objects that are intangible, or object of a form of thought that is also subjective, as or thought about a concrete object, being thought is subjective.
The fundamental problem is that every form of thinking must clearly define or think about that object and is accepted as established knowledge, an epistle and not an opinion anymore (the doxa of games) and what is possible to think again, that is , epicenter of the current crisis.
It does not know what is right or what is the established thought about a given object, or if it is an epistemic tradition about it, nor is it known what is the fact of new possibilities of thinking about it, it is a crisis in general , like any attempt at a spiritual or meditative tone on a subject, appears only as an escape from reality and there is nothing new.
Change as a basis for thought or voluntary attitude, we will change because it is not good, neither the attitude or dox, creating a word for the epistemic dialogue that must be one or the other episteme, this is a relationship with tradition, but that allows change, finally the new.
No spiritual aspect means knowing what you have done until today, as a religion and relationship with what is natural, or super-natural and what contemporary reality exists, a concrete relationship (erroneously called exposure, as it is spiritual) with needs and contemporary thought itself with threats of change.
There is nothing new, nor realistic pragmatism, nor spiritual escape, it produces neither true action nor contemplation.


Truths and Fallacies of Humility

09 Jan

It is common thought that humility would be a kind of wisdom revealed only to the humble in the strictu sense of the word, so it is linked to a lack of knowledge, instruction and therefore truth, this is not humility, but only and only. ignorance.

There is still a medieval type of thinking: “the attitude of voluntary abjection in the face of man’s miserable and sinful nature” seems religious, but if this is so, the apostle Paul says more clearly, according to Nicola Abbagnano’s Dictionary of Philosophy, she is “the lack of spirit of competition and boasting”, which is present in various domains, even the religious one.

André Comte-Sponville, in his Philosophical Dictionary helps to discern: “Humility should not be confused, therefore, with self-hatred (I add self-pity), even less with servility or lowliness”.

The humble man does not believe himself inferior to others: he no longer believes himself superior.

Do not ignore what is worth .. or may be worth… ”, so many arrogant criticize the lack if humility that they themselves are carriers. Finally I want to add a stronger philosophical argument, Nietzsche’s disagreement with Socratic philosophy (like, I only know that I know nothing), Nietzsche argued that the Socratic consideration of tragic art (he defended tragedy and criticized its concealment), never It tells the truth, since by constructing a set of conceptual values ​​about life, it impoverishes and diminishes it.

Interestingly, the philosopher of the “death of God” states that life cannot be evaluated by the living, because as part of it they cannot judge it, being an illusion of reality.

The lesson about Nietzsche de Eric L. Dodson is good initialization about Nietzsche:


A re-reading of the three wise men

03 Jan

In times of fundamentalism and religious intolerance, a re-reading of the Magi that they have adopted and also “contemplating” the birth of Jesus is essential for dialogue.
The first necessary is that God has communicated with the “wizards” of the East, he can reopen closed hearts for reconnection (religion of the Latin verb religare which is to reconnect), for they were not even religious in the conventional sense, but
magicians and God reconnected them.
The second is that the divine communication was through stars, which means that they could understand this language and that God spoke in their human language, that is, there are forms beyond the dogmatic communication between God and men, even non-believers.
Cosmology is an ancient and fundamental part of philosophy, its evolution and composition studies the universe, and comes from antiquity, the pre-Socratics studied it, also seek the explanation of the origin and transformation of nature and the universe and build myths and divinity, creating a relationship between mortal and imortal beings.
So God is not so indiferente to this, a universal proposition should not disregard cosmology, and if one wishes to construct a cosmogony, that is the beginning and end of all life, then an eschatology is also constructed, and Christian eschatology may be related to Is not this, after all, God the beginning and the end of everything?
Thesecond re-reading, the question about of the stars, in fact even today they are looking for cosmological evidences ofthe star that the Magi followed, a star, a come t, this could help to date Christmas of a more precise date.
Theologians such as Teilhard Chardin did not fail to consider the cosmological hypothesis, and the notion of a Christ-centered universe helps a non-fundamentalist interpretation of a more complex eschatology, and so we have recourse in the previous post (in 1 / 4 /2019) to St. Gregory of Nazianzen.
The third is that the magi were “contemplating” the boy-God, in addition to the active vita, Hannah Arendt also spoke of her in The Human Condition (published in 1956, with Brazilian edition of 2009), which comes from the conference Work, Work and Action (Brazilian publication of 2006), but already spoke of this question Aristotle in the bios politikos and the vita negotiosa or actuosa in Augustine, and, recently Byung Chull Han in The society of the fatigue.
But they did not come to worship only, where the element offered incense is essentially this, but also brought gold in the sense of wealth and myrrh in the sense of sacrifices offered.
Magi should signify the opening of Christianity to other languages ​​which are also an expression of the infinite, of the universe, and of the sacredly constructed life in all and in all.


The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:


Fear, anguish and change

12 Dec

The philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) invites those who live in fear, to live in impropriety, or a kind of aporia that means to think without assigning values and meaning, letting circumstances attribute it, it seems an alienation, but it is the alienation of the self.
In a world that is always running, and I warn that this was already a reflection of Nietzsche and also Mario de Andrade’s Paulicéia Desvairada of the 1920s, and now the Monarchy of Fear, which is a reflection of Martha Nussbaum for the USA, but that serves to Brazil and others.
Nothing is more related to fear than Death, but it also arouses anguish, it would be to think about their relation to change, I would say none, unless the hypothesis that Heidegger throws us: impropriety, that is, we cease to attribute meaning and allow others to ascribe it, I would say that it is a resigned dialogic.
Heidegger also wrote that it is in anguish that we experience our fragility.
In it we find unexpectedly the change, where neither the anguish and the fear reach, beyond them therefore, where the hope and the “clearing” are born, lights on the forest.
So the fear exists because there is a real danger, and it means that something is changing, the anguish leads us to think about what is the change and the direction of it.
I suspect that the term impropriety used in the national translation for the word of Heidegger unangemessenheit may have another meaning, since angemessen can be translated as what is reasonable, so I would translate unreasonableness, that is, which is not in a sense as being reasonable, but that in the face of  fear and anguish, they arise as having new horizons, from which changes that were previously unthinkable can emerge.
The German poet Hölderlin said that where there is fear there is salvation, it can be said nowadays in a broader way, that is, in science, in politics and because not in spirituality


Digital´s aporetic and maieutic

10 Dec

 In the time of the pre-Socratics, philosophy called the sophist had as a presupposition to create discourses to favor the rulers and this soon led to Greek democracy to languish and a moral relativism, Socrates who lived in the century. IV a.C. proposed a method to address this which was to develop the maieutic, a method of asking which developed the logos.

But the aporetic state that lived was necessary more than to ask, an interlocutor had to abandon its preconceptions and the relativism of the opinions demanded something more than just to ask, something that would make a birth in the new thought, hence the maiuêutica name that was the the art of giving birth, so it was not a matter of “creating” knowledge, but of giving birth.
There is no doubt that the digital medium became twisted of “opinions”, the doxa as the Greeks called them, but can one parturize and inquire in the digital medium? a digital maieutic is possible, the case is not just how twisted (claques in Portugal) are organized, but how they are manipulated by sophisms, now updated as”fake news”.
The sophistry exists in history, never left or will cease to exist, in digital times the problem is the viral process, but the publishing groups through newspapers and TV channels have already done this and there has always been a maieutic that opposed manipulation to the facts.
Let us return to the method of Socrates, he did not initially know any, did not make his judgments according to tradition, customs, opinions, nor had an episteme, or an elaborate method, just asked, the problem today is that the questions are and  modernity has already created “organized” knowledge (in the systematic sense rather than the truth), but we can use this for a  new digital maieutic, repelling wrong speeches.
I think it’s not by chance that Artificial Intelligence is evolving, but practical intelligence, phronesis coupled with techné and praxis itself (which is therefore a part of the practice) may help, so Martha Nussbaum’s speech makes a lot of sense.
Many people talk aboutmaintaining “focus” (but it may be wrong) or emotional intelligence, which, disconnected from practical wisdom (phronesis), can fall into paralysis or alienation.

All we have today is not due to the digital world, it affect its, is a means and so it is incorret to see it as the final or initial cause, not even was the industrial revolution that caused it, but the set of values and feelings built in modern society, which is nothing more than a forma of being-in-the-world, a Dasein as Heidegger writed and explained.

Digital resources seem welcome, but we still have the barrier of preconceptions, an elaborate human hermeneutics is necessary



The aporia and the desert

07 Dec

What happens in moments of deep crisis is to return to the safe harbor, unfortunately the safe harbor for the masses is what they know: a strong modern state and if not the religious fundamentalism that seems to give back the roots of each people.
There are not few examples in the world, even those who refuse to rediscute the state realize that something is going very wrong: weariness of democracy or even hatred of democracy, it is not so simple, do not get tired or hate what is good , There is something wrong.
Aporia is at this moment more than emptiness, because it means to hear something that comes to mind (the Cartesian cogito that does not go beyond the ego), the alter that is to hear that which is not the Same, aporia is recognition of a fallacy, even if it is a historical step.
Sloterdijk’s diagnosis is hard, we must abandon the depths of our anthropological interpretations: all interpretations of man as “worker” or “communicator” must now be translated into the language of exercise which we have known until then as manifestations of homo faber or homo religiosus , a life of “exercises.”
Of course it is questionable, but his diagnosis has so far, the dualisms: sacred vs. aristocratic common, cognitive cultures knowledge vs. ignorance, military cultures vs. liberal cultics, and goes around now, it is as if for several systems there were only binary dual logic,. Niklas Luhmann went in the same direction and goes so far as to say that his identity is constituted, he allows his internal communication and regulates and at the same time restricts his communication with his environment (Luhmann).
What would be beyond that? The understanding of culture as a rule and not as ancestry, is in fact a new understanding of humanism or even its end some want.
Under culture they understand, from Wittgenstein to Sloterdijk, are the set of all possible behavioral forms within a given society, that is, all forms of life that pass through the sieve of the rule; rule is placed at such a high level of demand that only a life of exercise can achieve it.
So few would be able to fulfill it. Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and even Foucault would all be representatives of a philosophy as a discipline, so philosophy is more than a school subject: it is engaged and characterized by a “vertical tension.”
If Brazilian conservative politics requires a school without a party, it thinks of nothing but a return to a life of exercise: moral, religious, and cultural, because it knows little or nothing about the origin of slogans such as “order and progress,” recalls the positivism of Auguste Comte from which the word “love” was withdrawn, dispensable for dictators.
The necessary aporia is the recognition of a cultural, philosophical and even religious night that the West faces, but also Buddhism and other pacifist Hinduism already show signs of “intolerance” in current cases in regions of India and Myanmar.
Only a “modern aporia” will be able to open a new horizon, old schemes are bankrupt, I am more optimistic than Sloterdijk and others, humanism has not died, there is a humanism of a new kind that must be born: of every man and of every culture, without exclusions.
As it is written in Luke 3,4: “The words of the prophet Isaiah: This is the voice of him that cries in the wilderness, ‘Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight’”.


Disruption, do you know the most used words?

04 Dec

The year 2018 will be marked by several disruptions, among them the artificial intelligence that has come to stay, you may think that it is long, but where there is more code is neither on the phone in facebook, but in the car, so it is a disruption.

The second is the use of words in Instagram that have become common and not everyone knows, the hashtag #instagood should be used only for the best photos, but users ended up using it so much that it is the second most used word in Instagram (with number of use of 574.190.28, below just #love that went from 1 billion.

The third one in Instagram is also little known and long: #photooftheday, but if you read it correctly you will see that it is simple: the photo of the day, more than 407 million if it is joined to another word used in the same way # picoftheday would probably be the second .

It will be a bit difficult to know what the word “fashionable” was in 2018, but in Portugal because of a humorous program “Gato Fedorento”, the word “esmiuçar” known to Brazilians, here it came into fashion in 2009, because of excellent mood Ricardo de Araújo Pereira, I promised to read it last year (see my post) and I did not regret it.

There is still no elected word, the initiative in Portugal is from Porto Editora, there are polls on the site until December 31, so only in the new year will we know.

In English I read on websites that fit the perfect “perf” and “lineswoman”, our English line judge would be the referee of American football, I think it can mean women decided or make a decision.

In Brazil, fake news was widely used, besides the electoral uses of # elenão and #mito, nothing more depoliticized, gave in what gave, not even the future government has a clear future ahead.

The evolution of situations of religious fundamentalism throughout the world, and perhaps now also in Brazil, may create a new word, but there is undoubtedly a return to nationalism and religious foundations unprecedented in history, until peaceful Buddhism is affected.

What word was used for this other than fundamentalism? Not yet. What word was used for the return to nationalism, even in Europe? None, so my conclusion in my posts, there is a diagnostic problem, the word would be thought night, then use a Greek word: APORIA.


The Truth Beyond Practice and Action

22 Nov

The truth of the so-called post truth must be read not from fake news, from editorial groups that are almost always polarized and full of the “doxa” (private opinion), but from a teleological search for truth beyond cultures, intolerances and ideologies.
The interpretation of how Gadamer sees this issue relating violence / non-violence comes from the lessons given by Heidegger in the 1920s in Aristotle’s Phenomenological Interpretations (Heidegger, 1992), where he penetrates the dialogical structure of Phronesis, which is practical-oriented wisdom in Greek philosophy it is distinguished from
episteme and techné.
I open a parenthesis, because this is important and what is the relationship with a policy increasingly subject to the “practical” direction of action and a certain type of violence, because even the perspective of change can not distance itself from what Jacques Ranciere calls Engagment, I would say being more direct, that there is a lack of prudence and tact with practice.
It lacks a notion of mutuality, a fundamental notion in Gadamer’s thought, which emphasizes the dialogical and
practical trait present in his project of philosophical hermeneutics, which may seem a distancing from praxis in the pure sense of engagment, but it is not, in his own words Gadamer is a practice that turns to itself without realizing its
fundamentals and without understanding it as the fruit of reflection and therefore of theory.
Whether it is the work of art or the field of education, or even the domain of relations with economic questions, engagment can rob the essence of artistic, pedagogical or economic doing, and this does not mean art, education or dehumanized economy.
According to Heidegger’s lectures and the Aristotelian philosophy of rhetoric, in addition to phronesis (practice), there are two other features of ethos: appeals to arete (virtue) and eunoia, that is, good thinking or goodwill that cultivates others to receive it.
Thus the practical action without the necessary acceptance of the others, then enters the Other without the virtue can become hypocrisy or unreliable, without the sympathy of the listener can become a disgusting speech without appeal, even with kind and sweet words.

HEIDEGGER, Martin. Phenomenological Interpretations with Respect to Aristotle: Indication of the Hermeneutical Situation. Trad. scored by Michael Baur. In Man and World, 25, p. 355-393, 1992.


Truth, beyond theory and practice

21 Nov

The concept of theory came into little credit if it moved away from practice, because idealism has no other possibility than to consider that it was the practice that determined the truth, or empiricism, because the ideal as knowledge, supreme knowledge of the idea, would have to have some method to discern when a “theory” is valid or not, and only experience could say.
There is a mastery and clarification about the multiplicity of things and, on the other hand, there is a knowledge of a concrete situation as if it were a more adequate orientation.
What Gadamer sought to demonstrate in his Truth and Method, among many other things with the question of historicity and method, was that when it comes to our technical capabilities, and they include our preconceptions and our interpretation of reality, the model of truth is not and should not be unique, and this not significant relativism, but ability to see the horizon posterior to the process interpretation of reality, ie, after the fusion of horizons
In the aspect of our technical capacities, it performs well its function, which is to bring relative security and comfort to some needs that exist and others that were created in the process of fusion of horizons.
When the field in question of our history and language is at stake, our relationship with art and religion, our awareness of death, our self-knowledge, and our choices and responsible actions in the face of our affect us as finite human beings, the model of truth fails.
What the Greeks determine as the spontaneous emergence of an “art” [τέχνε] proper to define the meaning of truth-bearing words [συνβολον], the art of interpreting [ερμηνευτικές τέχνες] has the name “hermeneutics” which represents not only our particular view of an object, but on the contrary our difficulty in determining precisely the meaning of a message,
While the Aufklärung of modernity believed that even the contents of history, which had become alien to us, could also be accessible to us through our rational activities, that is, a theoretical reflection, the idealism the fashion of the “old” Hegelians, the new ones have no reference to historicity, and Gadamer will reflect on Dilthey, who had the merit of abandoning psychologism, without leaving romantic historicism aside.
Thus speaking specifically of art, he argued that in order to properly understand his own works, more important than to grasp the unity between the content of the text and the tradition, is to accept the effort of understanding that only arises where there is the possibility of revising some misunderstanding, or some preconceptions, in other words, the interpretation is of the nature of understanding, since it is part of the possibility almost always of misunderstanding.
For contemporary hermeneutics, with some misunderstandings, Schleiermacher says that the task of understanding a text must also become an effort to understand another individuality, and then there are so many questions about the Other.
Ability to move beyond preconceptions and reinterpret the truth itself is part of the effort to overcome barriers where irrationality and hatred build insurmountable walls, Gadamer make this exemple: “Whoever abandons himself to his particularity is ungebildet (“unformed”) – e.g., if someone gives way to blind anger without measure or sense of proportion”.