Arquivo para a ‘Museology’ Categoria

The Beauty and pain of the Samaritan

13 Oct

The Korean-german a philosopher Byung-Chul Han claims the woundapieta in Belo’s participation, nothing more significant than Michelangelo’s The Pieta, an Italian economist denounces in his book “The Sore of the Other”, trying to establish as interpersonal relations are a source of joy and “blessing” to man, but we could say of beauty as well.

Beauty is situated in reciprocity, and it is not a question of returning the “value” according to what has been paid, the society where the measure is only a mathematical value, “wound” and “blessing” are two inexplicable poles, which characterize interpersonal relationships and are also a source of happiness, joy and beauty for man, but do not fail to pass through “pain.”

The word wound, in other languages it’s like having a bruise, en english is interesting because wonderfull is wounderful, well we could create the word wounderfull, for the beyond-wounded of the other, and is a sense of word the economist Luigino Bruni.

A child who is born is a pain, the pains of childbirth, the culture of the polite and immunology, Sloterdijk’s term that is also used by Chul Han, are unrealities that can lead to an irrational pain, indifference and pain contempt for the painful and excluded. It is not enough to give a “medal” to the heroine teacher who fought to the death to save the children, it is necessary that the culture, the beautiful and the economicist ideology value the relations, affection and appreciation for those who suffer turning their backs on suffering, the principle of invisible of one person.

The biblical parable of the Samaritan (good is a euphemism to say that the Samaritans were evil) there was a man wounded on a road passed several people, including priests and went on ahead, the Samaritan that we can say a “common” type stopped and bailed him out, he was neither a religious nor a philanthropist.

Is possible in this sense Maria is a samaritan that suffer with Jesus in Pietá.

I call this parable with another in which the king prepared a feast and the guests did not come, the banquet of Plato and the table of various liturgies and cosmologies are references to the relationship between the men, instead of the guests the king ordered that they were the “peripheries “And invite the common people to come to the banquet (Mt 22,1-14.

It is not prepared for the true banquet that those who move away from the pain, create the polished and immunological environment, where those who suffer and who are excluded do not participate, the true feast is that of which fought with sacrifices and solidarity for all to participate.

BRUNI, La ferita dell’altro. Economia e relazioni umane, Il Margine, Trento 2007


The salvation of the Beautiful

11 Oct

I read the Spanish version of another good book by the Korean-German aBalloonByung-Chul Han, undoubtedly an urgent theme in times of ugliness and a certain confusion between art and bad taste.
He comments on works by Jeff Koon, who calls himself soteriologic, because he promises a redemption different from Christian redemption, but hewn from positivity to hedonism, the positivity he calls the “polished world” (page 16), giving the example of the sculptor Balloon Venus, among others.
To understand what positivity is, the author exemplifies the work of Andy Wharol that even if he declared himself in favor of a “beautiful and satiny” surface (page 14), his work is not without negativity, for example, in “Death and disaster”.
He comments through Roland Barthes (the work cited is Mitology) reminiscent of the tactile model of the car Citröen, which also recalls the interactivity of the media, but seeks to emphasize that the tactile is the most demystifying of the senses, while the vision is the most “magical” “.
He comments that by calling “Baptism” an exposition that contrasts with Christian culture, Jeff Koons work exerts a sacralization of the read and impeccable “(page 17), and although it sounds” new “it is idealistic and seeks to hide the “wound,” which is essential for art, according to Gadamer, as quoted by Chul Han, from which the call to “change life” arises (page 17).
The author affirms “today the polished is not only turned to the beautiful, but also the ugly” (page 19).
On the difference between eroticism and hedonism, the author resorts to the work of G. Baittaile “eroticism”, where he realized that the ugly is the dissolution of limits and release, remember that the author has a specific work on the subject: “The agony of eros”.
Idealist perfectionism is seemingly pacifying and “beautiful,” but it is conservative because it fails to point out what can and should be changed, it is the “wound” that saves art.
HAN, Byung-Chul. La salvación de lo bello. The salvation of the beautiful. Barcelona: Herder Editorial, 2015


The beautiful and the liquid

05 Sep

The idea that there is a liquefaction of aesthetics in modernity is as modern as theFalsoBelo concepts of freedom, state and mainly: subjects and objects.
In this death of aesthetics, some authors have already written, the beautiful is merely an exposition of the sensible of the idea in works of art, and it would be from them that the contradiction created in modernity between subject and object would be solved, thus a work of art would be : “The first intermediate link between what is merely external, sensitive and transitory, and pure thinking” was perhaps less liquid, would be “scientific.”
Hegel acknowledged in Kantian philosophy a “breakthrough in relation to other aesthetic theories”, since, according to the apex philosopher of idealism, the possibility of unification between spirit and nature would give for art, but refuses it when realizing that would lead to a insurmountable dualism between subject and object, in a rather rude synthesis we would say: “the idealist demon.”
But he does not overcome this “demon,” as Hegel said: “… the artistic beauty was recognized as one of the means that resolves and brings to unity a contradiction and opposition between the spirit resting in himself abstractly and nature . … Kant’s philosophy felt this point of unification in its necessity, as it also recognized and represented it in a determinate way. “(HEGEL, 2001, p. 74)
The book by the German-Korean philosopher Byung-Chul Han, Die Errettung des Schönen  (The Salvation of the Beautiful) (Fischer Verlag, 2015, without translation to Portuguese or english) gives a new guiding thread to the question of the beautiful, with what he has already called other books of “lack of negativity of our era”.
It uses in its language the ideas of the “positive” and “negative”, to designate super consumption, whether of commodities, information and capital, rather prefers diversity than alterity, rather difference than distinct, and thus in the aesthetic to the rugged, and aesthetic is for Han an apology to the smooth, the polite, the pornographic and not the erotic (in the sense of eros).
Subjectivity is confusingly smooth, without interiority and difficulties (without suffering we have already said it), submits to a simplicity that wants to flatten and polish, therapies to overcome fear, distress, religious worship is the repetitive and pure ” indoctrination “, reading without any hermeneutics and full of old and outdated exegesis, lectures should amuse and not teach, media are confused with their ends (which is for-communication).
The liquefied is that liquefazem everything, to be according to its smoothness, its ugliness and its absence of negativity and contradiction, is more than idealism is “pure idealism”, bodies that look like dolls, faces without expression or of unique expression, absence of mimesis, we will return to it, but here it is enough repetitive, imitative, mere representation, false receptivity, the act of resembling, and in the background the presentation of the self (no alter).

HAN, B.C. Die Errettung des Schönen  (The Salvation of the Beautiful), DE: Fischer Verlag, 2015.
HEGEL, George W. Curso de Estética (Aesthetics courses). BR. São Paulo: Edusp, 2001.


Kurt Gödel and the computation

22 Aug

The proof that Kurt Gödel formalized for number theory was to be followed by a GodelTuringdocument that demonstrated that the same method applied to large formal axiomatic systems in other contexts, the modern approach made by the Turing Machine (it is important to say that it was done almost simultaneously by Emil Post), is a more general proof and touches the problem proposed by David Hilbert originally.
The proof now written in Gödel’s systems language applied to the particular formalization of number theory and sought to demonstrate that it served formal axiomatic systems, but a concept that could not be determined by the original Gödel document because of the lack of definition Mathematics of an effective procedure of a computational algorithm, or what Turing called the Finite State Machine.
After Alan Turing was able to determine the effective procedure, inventing an ideally idealized computer, now called a Turing machine (also done independently by Emil Post), it became possible to move more generally.
Hilbert’s fundamental requirement for a formal mathematical system was that there was an objective criterion for deciding whether a proof was written in the system language. In other words, there is a more modern proof whether it is the Turing machine, whether it is an algorithm, or a computer program, made for proof checking.
Thus the modern and compact definition of the formal axiomatic system as a recursibly enumerable set of assertions is an immediate consequence of a program that works with a large set of theorem, which by the amount of axioms, if treated humanely, would take an astronomical amount of time, Some proposals were made earlier in LISP (Levin, 1974) and more recently by Gregory Chaitin (1982) when proposing that the Information Theory of Algorithms proposes to work on individual objects instead of sets and probability distributions proposed by Claude Shannon And Norbert Wiener. So the correct question would be (Chaitin, 1982) how many bits are needed to calculate an individual object?
Algorithmic information theory focuses on individual objects, rather than on the sets and probability distributions considered in the information theory of Claude Shannon and Norbert Wiener. How many bits does it take to define how to calculate an individual object? These problems led to Computability theory.
This theory, also called recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic that originated in the 1930s with the study of functions computable by Alain Turing, and was studied by Kolmogorov, Chaitin, Levin, Martin-Löf, and Solomonoff. There are numerous papers on questions concerning this theory.
The question of completeness, or NP-complete class, is the subset of NP problems of computational complexity, verifies how any problem in NP can reduce, with a polynomial time reduction, to one of NP-complete problems, by verifying If the problem is computable, in practice, if the algorithm exists.


Unknown Stories of Computing

21 Aug

Charles Babbage built two machines called Analytical Engine and Diferential EngineMEMEX, these machines, their systematizations and thoughts would not have arrived until we were not working patiently Ada de Lovelace (1815-1852), daughter of Lord Byron who compiled and organized the work of this Pioneer, making it understandable to mathematicians of the time.

Later David Hilbert (1862-1943) listed 23 mathematical problems at the time without solutions, one of which was to organize an algebraic system in order to solve the problem computability problem by algorithms, Kurt Gödel thinking about this problem creates a paradox about Completeness of systems, stating that it can not prove having proof by an assertion within the system, then consistency problems weaken such systems.

Thus it was necessary that logic, besides being constructed with good properties, had consistency (no contradictions), completeness (any proposition would be either truth or false exclusively) and the systems were decidable (existence of a method allowing to establish if any formula whether the formula was true or false).

This latter property was called by Hilbert as the “entcheidungsproblem”, or problem of “decision”.

Alan Turing and Claude Shannon working on coding machines (for US government messages) and decoding (a machine called Enigma was captured from Hitler’s army), as both projects were secret, found in meals and work breaks as indicated The book by James Gleick and talk about the problem proposed by Hilbert and not solved by Gödel, a secret document proves this passage of Turing, who was English, by Bell Laboratories, where he worked on deciphering the Enigma machine code.

Shannon at that time worked as a monitor at MIT in Vannevar Bush’s laboratory, who had proposed a “read” machine called MEMEX (it appeared in TIME magazine) was not a computer itself, but a machine to cross information from books.

Vannevar Bush suggested to Claude Shannon Boole’s Algebra..

Later using the model of the mathematician Alonzo Church that finalized the design of Alain Turing, and the call Turing Machine is actually based on Turing / Church model.
Norbert Wiener’s model were electronic models of feedback machines, although he founded Cybernetics, the idea was to create models for movements and turn them into problem-solving models, they were contemporary with Vannevar Bush of MIT


The holograms arrived

15 Aug

Although they are recent and there is still a lot of technology to become “augmented”AoHologram realities in our daily lives, the holograms have come down the path that is the fastest to anticipate, the art world.
In many recent environments headseats are needed to merge the hologram with the real world, and create what has become known as augmented reality, others use 2D projections or mirrors to trick our brains and see the figures in mid-air, but now the Leap into the future was audacious.
According to artist Joanie Lemercier, he imagined the technique thought in the films Minority Report and the saga Star Wars, to give life to the “no-attainment”, the vision that has of the augmented reality, and to make the visitors of his “installations” enjoy The content in its own perspective without depending on specific equipment, and for the time being, are geometric projections and forms produced in sensing (for example, a human body or an artistic piece), geometric shapes and dynamic movements to entertain the public.
But it uses “traditional” monitoring technologies such as image analysis and depth sensors to make shapes properly designed.
While the industry scenario continues to be sophisticated, this simpler scenario seems to be more effective as it resorts to existing technologies, and by creating virtually human forms (see one of Lemercier’s projections), it seems more effective.
The artist himself predicts that in the very near future, he thinks of using compressed gas and mists with fine particles of water to display projections in an environmentally harmless environment, and that they will be simulating volumetric impressions in immersive environments


Expert systems, trust and faith

10 Aug

The whole theory of Giddens, reviewed in some aspects in the previous posts, isalmoco_1932 conditioned to the structuring and what he calls expert systems, but these in turn are based on what he calls trust also already explained in the posts, highlighting the question of faith .
Expert systems, as seen by Giddens, are the most important undocking mechanism, described as “systems of technical excellence or professional competence that organize large areas of the material and social environments in which we live today.” Although most lay people consult, only periodically, professionals but all of them under great suspicion, for this reason so many new theories and so many “alternative systems”.
Although the author admits that faith: “Trust is inevitably partly an article of faith” (Giddens, 1991, page 39), but adds: “There is a pragmatic element in faith, based on the experience that these systems [experts] usually work as they are expected to do “(idem).
Finally, he admits that although faith and trust “are closely linked” makes a distinction between the two, and the distinction Luhmann makes in his work on Trust and Power (Chichester: Wiley, 1979) is based. very vague.
It is important to say that this faith is not the exclusive property of Western cosmo-gonies (not cosmologies), in fact all religions, even non-Western religions, will have some form of faith, which it is necessary to distinguish from belief as belief in one God (monotheistic religions) or in many (Polytheists), where not only humans but also animals, plants, rocks, natural characteristics have “soul” without differentiating them from the physical world.
Faith is an adherence to some hypothesis that the person accepts without any rational proof and this is in the etymological origin of the Latin fide, reason here does not have the modern meaning, but the one of reasoning done in the mind, so it would not be blind, but only Before any reasoning, a modern epoché, that is, it has a form of reason that is to accept things beyond our preconceptions.
It means ultimately a step forward not in the dark, but in the mystery and even more importane than this is to find it forward, it means to move beyond the boundary of the “system.”
Most people take this step by meeting (apparently) an abyss, an emptiness, but they could do it consciously (so it is not totally blind) if you believed in what lies ahead, like you do and have faith that everything the RCA Rockefeller Center, taken on Sept. 20, 1932 and published in the New Herald Tribune on October 2 of that year, is like the classic photo of workers on a suspended beam in what would be today.


A large iceberg separates from Antarctica

24 Jul

One of the top ten came from Antarctica, the icy continent of the South Pole, Antarcticato the point where this continent could change its geography by losing one end, said Adrian Luckman, a professor at the University of Swansea and principal investigator of the Midas Project, which monitors his platform since 2014.

According Luckman “the iceberg is one of the largest recorded and its future progress is difficult to predict,” and added that this ice island, “may continue to be assembled in a single piece, but is more likely to separate into fragments.

Some of the ice can continue in the area for decades and parts of the iceberg can float north and into warmer watert“the iceberg weighs more than one trillion tons, and measures 5,800 square kilometers (an area that is, for example, four times bigger than the city of São Paulo or equivalent to the Brazilian Federal District), has been released from the ice shelf Larsen C of Antarctica, between On 10 and 12 July 2017, according to researchers from Universities of Swansea and Aberystwyth, Wales, and the British Antartic Research Institute (BAS).

The Midas project website does not state that Whether due to global warming, this “scientific” proof is a bit more complex.

The event, although something similar happened in 2013, makes unquestionable global warming and the consequences that can be devastating over the years if we continue in climatic imbalances, such as the fires recorded in Europe and cold in southern Latin America, As we did last week.

 It is good to remember that the Trump administration unilaterally broke the climate agreements, and despite all pressure, especially the European, remains reluctant against the evidence that we must make the planet sustainable, and that we can move towards a huge climatic catastrophe with consequences In the life of the whole planet.h.


The Roman Republic

20 Jul

The Romans initially believed that the king’s origin was divine and established ImperieRomanthe Monarchy, but later in 509 BC, they overthrown the Etruscan king Tarquinius the Great and founded the Roman Republic by establishing two magistrates as a government.
At the beginning of the Republic, Roman society was divided into four classes: Patricians, Clients, Plebeians and Slaves, generally peoples who were defeated in wars.
Among these wars, it stands out more than 100 years against Carthage, the Punic Wars and then wars in the Iberian Peninsula (conquest that took more than 200 years), Gaul and the Eastern Mediterranean.
The occupied territories were transformed into provinces, they were forced to pay taxes to the government of Rome and gradually, the Roman army became an unbeatable group.
Its military organization was formed by three types of people:
– Citizens of Rome, territories, colonies and Latin tribes who also had Roman citizenship
– Communities whose members did not have full Roman citizenship (could not vote or be voted on)
– Autonomous allies (they made treaties of alliance with Rome).
The army built roads throughout the Italian peninsula also contributed to explain the Roman conquests, were experts in mounting fortifications.
Military discipline was severe and punishment consisted of beatings and beheadings. The winning soldiers received awards and honors and the general was honored, while the losers were beheaded in prisons.
Successive victories provoked great social, economic and political changes in Rome, but already in the fourth century AD, there were signs of decay.




(Português) A sociedade grega antes de Sócrates

17 Jul

Sorry, this entry is only available in Português.