Arquivo para a ‘Museology’ Categoria

The issue of indistinction

29 May

The English word is difficult, it is not difference or distinction, so we use indistinction, but in the rest of the text we will use distinction even in the sense of not being the same as different.
Whoever imagines that this subject should begin with some question of races, genres or other important diversity, surprises itself with the book of Bordieu “The distinction: social critic of the judgment” that goes to the foundation of the culture with the esthetic and ethical question.
This is wise because nothing is more in check when we speak of difference as both issues, and so introduces the distinguished by what he has most essential.
Arguing on contemporary aesthetics, he says that in order to reconstruct his logic: “popular aesthetics appears as the negative reverse of Kantian aesthetics and that the popular ethos implicitly opposes a thesis that contradicts the analytic of Belo in each of its propositions. “(BORDIEU, 2008, page 43).
In his polemics with aesthetic “popular taste” he opposes the Kantian aesthetic, which sums up how: “Taste is always barbaric when the mixture of attractiveness and emotions comes together with satisfaction and, better yet, one can transform it into a measure of his assent “(Bordieu, 2008: 44), which refers to the Kantian text Critique of Judgment.
As the text advances, and it is done with great density and for this reason it is impossible to simplify or less write down all important passages, it goes to social space, then to lifestyles, the dynamics of the fields, another essential category of Bordieu who sees the “Areas” or “social spaces” in a less watertight and more dynamic way.
Until arriving at the production of tastes and their relationship with social stratification, and finally immerse themselves in Culture and Politics, where personal opinion and school and self-taught, topics that are highly relevant at the present time.
The high point for the subject matter of difference, already made the scores of Deleuze and Derridá, now in Bordieu go to the distinction, where he presents, from the point of view of the ruling class, three modes of distinction that brings out three items: “food, culture and expenses with presentation of self and with representation (clothing, beauty care, toiletries, service personnel)”.
In Bordieu, the logic of distinction applies to the system of inclusion and exclusion, whose relations are linked to the symbolic and economic aspects, although it seems a “stylization of life”, show that at the root of these “symbols” are the differential deviations, which he calls structures of homologies or oppositions, as a system of social significance.
BORDIEU, P. A distinção: critica social do julgamento. The distinction: social critique of judgment. Trad. Daniela Kern. São Paulo: Edusp, 2008.


The Easter of Humanity

19 Apr

It is certain that we live a dark time, not from the digital transformations that in their essence are not evil because they expanded the worldview by telecommunications and electronic networks, expanded the participation by MEDIAS of social networks, and made more Visible the great atrocities that have been practiced ever since: oppression, inequality and various types of social intolerances.
Only one passage is possible (a great Passover of death and resurrection), if we understand what must die and need to resurrect it.
The ideological construction that we conventionally call enlightenment has three pillars: the Kantian idealism sublimated by Hegel and used by many including Marx, the Enlightenment and the empiricist thought, who believed that true knowledge is in Senses, reason and science came from these pillars.
The Industrial revolution represented the departure of the rural worker who fought in communal regime for the city where it sells its workforce, at the beginning without rules and contracts of employment, then the Social contract of the state (read: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau) leaves the Famous 3 powers and goes to the working class, with concessions but insufficient.
Thus the religious thought was progressively abandoned, what Max Weber called “Disenchantment of the world”, but it is necessary to understand that the part that idealism calls subjective (relative to the subject) is his own and with Heidegger there is a twist Ontological.
Also the Enlightenment thought was already in crisis with Husserl, since the logicism had already been questioned by the Vienna Circle, but still without disattaching it.
The Husserl development elaborates the concept of world-of-life (Lebenswelt), but another central aspect little cited is that Husserl takes the problem of historicity of philosophy, undertaking profound teleological-historical analyses, pointing philosophy As able to review the essential aspects of modern science.
Ernest Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote The philosophy of the Enlightenment, and held a significant debate on the issue of Liberty and Kantian reason with Heidegger that reveals these issues, the central point of this debate is the questions of the exact and moral sciences of enlightenment.
In this plan philosophical thought may be able to rethink the Enlightenment model, and certainly no solution will be more national, cultural or religiously isolated, global problems need and can only be solved the light of global governance.
It takes a new thought, a new man who embrace the world and of course a new world culture that allows for social balance, with nature and with cultures.


The history of Easter

18 Apr

Easter is of Jewish origin, Passover (from Hebrew פסח – picture – meaning to go over or overlook) recalls the passage of slavery in Egypt around the year 1446 BC, and in the Jewish case is to remind the new generations the suffering in Egypt.
Jesus is going to celebrate Easter with his disciples, but it was common for the emperor to release some of the rebels at this time, and Jesus is arrested and tried in public, although the governor of Palestine Pilate lays hands, Barabbas is released and Jesus goes to live condemnation, torture and cruxification until death, but his body disappears, and for Christians he has risen, several later events will confirm this.
The Jews sacrifice a lamb and must be eaten after the supper full of symbolism (in picture), among them the cup of Elijah that remains untouchable, but Jesus at the last supper before being delivered will use it and pass it to the disciples at supper with their friends there is only bread, and Jesus asks that this be done in his memory, after washing the feet of his friends.
There begins his sacrifice like lamb, in substitution to the Jewish lamb, he becomes humble servant and begins its way to calvary when one of the disciples leaves to deliver it.
Foot-washing, as it is called the event of washing the feet for supper, something generally done by the slaves, but now done by someone who could be deemed important however does exactly the opposite of what human logic indicates, asks the disciples to do this by following their example, humility is a high value that must be recovered mainly by leaders and people holding positions so that humanity can find a new course.
Knowledge and pride impede advances, enslave people, and make social relations more tense and violent.
The following video, made in animated comics, is very illustrative of Easter.


Poetry, Notre Dame and Ignorance

16 Apr

I was preparing to write something about the first volume of Otto Maria Carpeaux on Western literature, curiously I dwell on the passage: “‘lirism’ is the true name for the divine and human order in the world of Sophocles, symptoms of a precarious balance because purely aesthetic “(Carpeaux, 2012, p. 49), which speaks of lyricism in Sophocles, the fire of Notre Dame robs me of lyricism, and certainly not only aesthetic but historical.
Certainly there will be some who think that they are stones and museums, the little appreciation for the religious question touches me, but I understand, but no appreciation for history, the first arches that extended the ceiling of the Gothic cathedrals, an engineering work that lasted almost 300 years, that used various styles of architecture that could be reviewed and understood, etc.
There is militant ignorance, appeals to practice, objectivism (which robs any lyrical or poetic possibility), what Byung Chull Han calls the culture of the “smooth”, flat, without wrinkles or details, which wants to abolish any environment, enhances or poetic license, the “challenge” culture.
I saw the works of Gaudi in Barcelona the contemporary opposite of the culture of the flat, a poetry, lyricism and a mystique made of stone as he intended, the internal lights of the Sagrada Familia are a spectacle to the part, it is not the digital that abolished this, much before modern objectivism.
Ignorance beyond questioning any concept, philosophy or theory, in addition to a pseudo appeal to practice, objectivity or any other argument, in fact without good method none of this can be successfully achieved, this ignorance has become militant and I wonder if would not be able to destroy mankind’s patrimony.
The Islamic State did this in Palmyra, but do not we do the same in our instrumentalizing, ideologized and militant practice, in fact, there is today a militious ignorance.
I want to imagine that the fire of Notre Dame was not a criminal, because it does the same thing as terrorism by destroying history, culture and the possibility of future generations understanding the long road that humanity has gone through, it is not possible to have a promising future by ignoring the past, not only the deeds, but also the mistakes and misunderstandings.
I accept this momentary death, this is my easter and easter of history, but I believe in future and in the culture.


Notre Dame on fire

15 Apr

Today the Notre Dame was been on fire in enourmous proportions. 
The present church was built in the year 1163, when the Romanesque church there was demolished because Bishop Maurice de Sully considered it unworthy of values and the technical innovations allowed new daring forms and arches and ceilings were erected.
The church of Notre Dame, which stands for Our Lady [and one of the oldest of the Gothic style, and the long process of construction that lasted until the mid-fourteenth century, and the various architects who participated in the construction justifies the stylistic differences present.
During the French Revolution several elements of the church were stolen, ending the space itself by serving as a warehouse for food, but Victor Hugo incorporated to it a romantic spirit and inclusion, the novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1831.
There are indications that the Celts would have celebrated ceremonies there and later the Romans would have made a temple of devotion to the god Jupiter, and still there would have existed one of the first churches of Christianity in Paris: the Basilica of Saint-Etienne, designed by Quildebert I by around 528 AD.
The fire destroys a patrimony of humanity, a historical document and the reconstruction will hardly maintain the original originality, is a great loss for the history.
In live now NBC News has a documentar about this:


The Interiority: garden, indifference or puppets

09 Apr

Following a great development of the idea of the Polis, the next movement of thought goes into interiority, Aristotle had been the preceptor of Alexander the Great, who built the first great empire of antiquity, but then came the Roman Empire, the polis was confined in ideas about law, wars of conquest and finally the Roman pax, which was the surrender to the great empire.
The thought will confine the interiority, Warburton will call the chapter on Garden Epicurus, because he ran his school in a house with a garden, and his basic ideas was how to make the philosophy practical to make life happy, the practical was so rules of how to work inner issues, and between them avoiding ideas about death.
A second school that emerged in this period were called skeptics, for their indifference in many relevant matters, or Stoics because they met at the gates of the cities called “stoa”, hence the name of the school.
The basic idea is captured by Warburton as: “Our attitude toward what happens is within the limits of our control, though whatever happens is not.”(Warburton: 2012, 32).
To a birth of reason, because the Stoics believed that we should not feel sad about something wrong that happens to us, when we are deceived or have emotions that would hinder our thinking, we should always eliminate it completely.
Thus, if contemporary philosophy can be said to be objectivist in the sense of the subjectivists, the influence of Cicero on the Enlightenment is recognized, especially in Locke, Hume, and Montesquieu.
Finally, Augustine’s view of Warburton as that which all reality as “puppets” of divine thought, nothing more unjust, Augustine tried to free himself from the Manichean thought that imprisoned him in a struggle between good and evil, and his conversion to Christianity was just that cristianism isn’t manichaeism view of life.
I know that even Christian scholars see it that way, and Manichaeism is still an influential part of religion.

Warburton, N. Uma história da filosofia. São Paulo: LP&M, 2012. (in portuguese).
The philosopher Massimo Pugliucci has interess in stoicism and explain this thinking:



The work of Lev Manovich

02 Apr

The what differentiates Manovich from other discourses is his understanding of computer language and his study of interfaces, this was reflected in his works such as the one presented at the Chelsea Art Museum in New York, the Finnish Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie in Karlsruhe, at The Walker Art Center (Minneapolis) and at the Museum of Contemporary Art Kiasma (Helsinki).
He has received numerous awards such as the Guggenheim Fellowship and the Digital Cultures Fellowship (University of California, Santa Barbara) and has been a reference professor of digital art at the California Institute of the Arts and the University of Arts and Design (Helsinki) and Arts Center Hong Kong), with a universal vision, therefore.
Without ignoring conventional readings and media, he shows that the reformulations of the categories for analysis of the current models function as a sort of genealogical map of the new media (I would say anthropological, but I understand the perspective of the author), where he seeks to sketch the possibilities and perspectives of the future.
In this way, both the perspective of the computer and its productive potential appear to be linked to its work as mediator of culture.
It appears in Manovich’s text: “Each stage in the history of computer media presents its own aesthetic opportunities as well as its own projection of the future: in short, its own ‘research paradigm’ “(Manovich, 2001).
And it points to the future by saying that some techniques: “At a later stage, these paradigms will be modified or even abandoned.
In this book, you wanted to the “new media research paradigm, during its first decade, before it falls asleep in invisibility,” which is where the ideas of interfaces should break.

The good self-presentation is this keynote: Museum without Walls: Using Big Cultural Data to Re-think Cultural History – Lev Manovich, in The Graduate Center, City University of New York, see the vídeo:



Another digital read

01 Apr

McLuhan in the 1960s (Understand Media) wrote about the transformation that the electronic era brought, however, the first integrated circuits (ICs, the chips that were in the bottom tiny transistors) just beginning to emerge, the first computer on the chip, the microprocessors only appeared in the 1970s.
The chips succeeded the Internet in the mid-1970s and the explosion of personal computers in the 1980s, only in 90 the Web was born, Lev Manovich was born in 1960.
His most influential book The language of new media was published in 2001 by MIT Press, as its name indicates is Russian, and his reflection goes beyond McLuhan because it speaks of the digital age, but as the name says it is with emphasis on language and analysis structures.
The author initially presents himself with his book, gives a presentation of Dziga Vertov’s Man with a Movie Camera (1929) to talk about the peculiarity of the new media, he is intelligent and daring his proposal since it goes from the word to the without losing sight of the language, his original question is What is new media?
What brought me closer to the book was the second chapter on interfaces, made in comparison to the cinema, in order to highlight the schemas of information organization (in a new sense, of course) and its role in today’s society, this is what called the book
What is technically called IHC (Human Computer Interaction), between the cinema and the printed word have a grammar (we say a syntax in computing) itself and without understanding it we run the risk of ignoring the interfaces with proper ownership, and that largely determine how the user (some thinkers also) relate to it, I make a metaphor, it would be like wanting to read a book thinking of it as having a mouse.
In 1993, he studied the origin of computational media and its relation with avant-garde art in the 1920s, we have already posited about Gustav Klimpt and others, finally worth reading.
Manovich, Lev. The language of new media. MIT Press, 2001.
The work of Gonçalo Marto made in the course of Communication Design of the Faculdade de Belas Artes em Lisboa (Faculty of Fine Arts of Lisbon) is good start:


The prodigal son

28 Mar

The prodigal son did Just as any text is subject to different interpretations, it is not different for the biblical text, the search for exegetes is debatable, especially for the hermeneutics that admits the diversity of interpretations, because to penetrate in the Mind of God is a little too arrogant, clear for the which admit the existence of God, to others, it suffices to see itself limited only.
A Dutch writer and priest Henri Nouwen, who died in 1996, worked at Harvard University and Yale, wrote 40 books including “The Return of the Prodigal Son” (1992), in which from the painting of Rembrandt Petersburg). Through the observation of a poster with details of the picture
The Return of the Prodigal Son, the author made a spiritual walk in which he analyzes the characters of the biblical parable in the light of his personal experience, but with new elements that is the vision of his brother old. In general, when one is accepted after a wandering life, however the older brother has difficulty accepting the situation, this is symbolic for so many people who have difficulty accepting the other and include it within a certain circle, not only in the religious environment but also cultural, are all resentful “older brothers”.
Not accepting it is in a way preventing its change of route, conscious or unconscious is what many do and so we enter a vicious circle where positive changes are almost totally blocked, of course these circles become stiff and arrogant. In a globalized world in which differences are noticed, coexisting and culturally present, it is impossible to make life more fluid and pleasant with the behavior of “older brothers”, the changes then become conflicted and can reach extremes.
The parable is the “prodigal son” and not the misplaced, inconsequential or some other stigma of exclusion that we wish to put to him.
Rembrandt’s beautiful son has a detail (detail in the photo), which is the paternal hand he receives and a more delicate hand that caresses, this is our hermeneutical approach.


Gustav Klimt: art and media

27 Mar

We have already said that the Des Lumières Gallery recently presented an immersive exhibition by Van Gogh and that its inaugural presentation had been the work of Gustave Klimt, which means his work, as well as being representative in the current Digital Arts and Media?
Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) was an Austrian symbolist painter and draftsman and one of the great names of art nouveau, but his fundamental characteristic was what was called the “Viennese Secession Movement”, that is to say the following a strong opposition to the classicism and academicism, and that despite alliance with symbolism in the arts, are at the same time something beyond our seeing.
But the work of Gustav Klimt, although united to an artist who opposed classicism, has a deeper rupture and, therefore, his art is easily shaped when the new arts and media are passed, for its complex plasticity and at the same time little static and linear.
That is why his work in the education of this French gallery linked to the new arts and media was timely and almost “natural” and will probably be a spearhead in digital art.
The creation of public murals with his art teacher emerged around the world, and at the age of 18 he was already producing many decorating works with his brother in his decorating studio.
His work began to gain notoriety already at a young age, and special to differentiate from others of the time, and diverse works emerged in its line and arrived at the new means.