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Arquivo para a ‘Neurociência’ Categoria

Bergson in body-mind relationship

05 Aug

To discuss consciousness and the relationship between body and mind must necessarily go through a contemporary philosopher who was Henri Bergson (1859-1941), who proposed a relationship between this one that is one of the roots of classical dualism, because contemporary is the object and the subject. Bergson opts in this sense for subjectivism, in our view remains a dualism, but his solution was very important for thinking at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
He will study life from the evolutionary process of life, and the study of memory, related to the humanities and biological sciences, in our view is close and very related to ontology and not by chance he will touch the subject. of Being and Time, a dear subject to Heidegger, though it has no direct relation to this philosopher.
The study of the brain and the psyche has gained enormous relevance in our time, I highlight two current thinkers, the Portuguese Antonio Damásio (Descartes’ error) and the American Terrence Deacon (Incomplete Nature).
Neuroscience was nascent in Bergson’s time, so his studies were grounded in psychology and evolutionary biology, but his insights were profound and still current, as he rereads the problems of the theory of knowledge of metaphysics.
Their metaphysical problems range from classic themes to the extent to which we are free, how we can overcome mechanistic worldviews, who is remembrance, and other essential questions of life, including life itself and what it really is.
The questions that interest us in particular, Being and Time, will be clarified by the Brazilian philosopher Leopoldo Leopoldo da Silva, explaining that time is not the linear scale as we know it, although the concept is different from Einstein’s theory of relativity. ceases to be contemporary.
Time in the sense of life happens what is called duration, and also knowledge as we conceive is not linked to this kind of life-time or Being, so Bergson will choose to understand the exercise of intuition,
The historian of science Jimena Canales tells the relationship Einstein and Berggson about Time:

 

Human intelligence beyond artificial intelligence.

15 Jul

Until very recently it was believed that a certain type of intelligence was preponderating to others, the famous IQ test, for example, determined the intelligence of a person in numbers, which fell a bit into disrepute, then came the phase of emotional intelligence , it exists because we are in time of stress.
With the advances of artificial intelligence, the advances of artificial intelligence and the point of singularity, at which point machines will go beyond Intelligence in man, but what is this intelligence, is little questioned, the specialists give answers ready, but …
Due to conjunctural, social and cultural factors, a type of intelligence is developed that is logic, memory capacity and great talent to deal with mathematics and logic in general, one can find solution of complex problems, say the neuroscientists that she is strongly attached to the right side of the brain.
The second type is motor intelligence, artists and athletes develop great talents with a body expression and notion of space, distance and depth very sharp, can perform complex, graceful and sharp movements, as the name says is related to motor ability.
People with good written and oral ability have a type of intelligence called linguistics, in addition to the expression has a degree of attention and sensitivity to meet the views of others, is visible its usefulness in today’s world.
People with great ability to imagine and draw both in 2D and 3D have a great talent for graphic art, it is space intelligence, just as linguistic intelligence has great sensitivity and creativity, but its universe is itself and the interaction with others is done precisely by his spatial vision.
Musical intelligence is one that makes us see through the “sounds”, are people with a great facility to listen to music or sounds in general and identify different patterns and musical notes.
Two types uncommon are intra and interpersonal intelligences, and statistics are the rarest among people and yet the closest to our “being,” intrapersonal intelligence has an enormous facility to understand what people think, feel and desire, while the intra has a strong component of “leadership” because they are people capable of causing great admiration in others, and with special active intelligence mobilize and get to take action and put others to accompany it.
Of course this is as schematic as other classifications, but it is precisely by the scheme that artificial intelligence is thought to be related to this, in fact human intelligence is quite complex while the artificial one is very schematic, even though it is a complex scheme.
The TED by Daniel Levitin has already surpassed 14 million views, and has an interesting point of view of a neuroscientist:

 

Worldview: soul, feelings and wisdom

12 Jul

One can think of soul as mind, as consciousness (it is only a reflection), or identity, according to post about Giddens this leads to interiority in a restricted sense.
That is why we call it the Noosphere, the sphere of the mind or the outside, in a sense of vision, feelings and wisdom, being limited to a worldview, which is evolving.
It is not possible to have a broad worldview, without a broad soul, more than a soul-world, a universal soul in the sense not only anthropological, but cosmological.
Feelings have a great appeal in the contemporary world, as functional logics have become much of the engaging of thought, it is possible and easy to manipulate opinions and people through these resources, but they are dangerous without soul and wisdom.
Wisdom is the most critical element of the noosphere, there are those who believe that through feeling and soul can walk quietly, there are therapies and even online courses to produce happiness, well-being and other promises without any wisdom, the result in short term is commendable, but in the long run it will prove ineffective will lack such sustainability.
Wisdom is also critical because many currents of thought and diverse forms of culture can lead to reductionism, and this will bring in the contemporary world a lack of seeing the Other, sometimes there is even intention, but the result is the result of the restricted world .
The teachers of the Law were in the time of Jesus, the Pharisees who knew the scripture, but whose practice was distorted, one of them addresses Jesus to ask how to have the eternal inheritance.
The great spiritual argument of Loving God is a resource of a certain kind of ignorance, but a good Bible reading is enough to realize that it is false, is in Luke 10: 26-27, and Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read? “He replied,” You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your intelligence; and your neighbor as yourself! ”
Jesus immediately binds the heart “feelings” to the soul, because it knows and respects the interiority, from where the soul drinks, and ends by asking for love of neighbor, the Other.

 

The supersapiens and the Artificial Intelligence

17 Jun

It is common from a simplistic analysis to demonize the use of new technologies and now with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence, the batteries are turned away, of course there are no ethical objections that are always recommended, but this is true for all areas, including science and religion.
The documentary Supersapiens by director and screenwriter Markus Mooslechner explores the most advanced potential of artificial intelligence, which would link one mind to another, showing that the world is moving towards a collective technological consciousness, the title is an allusion to homo sapiens evolution of the human mind.
In a different perspective Jean Gabriel Ganascia wrote about “The Myth of Singularity”, the idea that a machine can never surpass the human mind, but the film explores a totally new possibility a kind of “networked minds” that from the point of view of a metaphor (the film is not) n In the film, the experts interviewed say that the era we are entering is an era of experimenting with an artificial intelligence connecting minds and their consciousnesses.
In the past, human physical ability was to measure it’s productivity; even though it could be accumulated collectively, now in the information age, intellect and mind have come to fulfill this central role, and immersive technologies profoundly affect our experience.
Today, technologies are totally immersive, deeply affecting the way we experience life, begins with an account of human origin, 300 thousand years ago. The setting is Jebel Irhoud, a cluster of caves 100 kilometers from Marrakesh, Morocco, where some studies indicate that it is the beginning of human life on earth. It is late afternoon, 100,000 years before the emergence of the first modern humans, a group runs into a cave: dirty, shaggy yet human hair.
As this history was discovered, and in the 1960s, a mining group began operations in Jebel Irhoud.
An explosion revealed a cave filled with sediments from the Pleistocene epoch (period between 1.8 million and 126 thousand years ago), there and not now in 2019, our future begins to be drawn, technology is not a more anomaly the very relationship of man with nature and with its origin.
The video illustrates the documentary, not his trailer, but it’s interesting:

 

A humanitarian Pentecost

07 Jun

It was celebrated this week the landing of the Allied forces in Normandy, the end of a war that showed the limits of the human barbarism, but it is necessary not to forget the pump of Hiroshima that Michel Serres, died to a week, said to be his philosophy.
The crisis of humanitarian thought (and of practical actions of course) is evident not only by the return of old ideologies or by the emergence of authoritarian governments, this is a visible face of a failure of a form of humanism that has in its foundations the enlightenment and its resulting postulates: of man, of the state and of social equilibrium. Sloterdijk re-relays Heidegger’s Letters on Humanism to say that the project of “human pacification” has spoken, it is necessary to rethink it, and old scientific, religious, and cultural dogmas may seem like answers, but in a careful analysis they are not, they have already been tested .
Pentecost is a Christian feast that speaks of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, this metaphor is interesting for a “humanitarian turn” that can give a new breath to the human spirit, a look beyond prejudices, false prophets or skepticism.
A new spirit, really open to the dialogue of distinction, of all cultures and peoples, as well as group and collective dogmas, can give humanity a new breath.
Where can this come from, not from isolated actions, prophetic groups and “enlightened” but from a new way of thinking humanity, with a renewed spirit, coming from above. In the field of thought is undoubtedly the overcoming of idealism on one side and also the pragmatism of the other, the idea of the excluded third besides the A and the non-A, dualistic logic, or the third instructed as wanted by Michel Serres can lead to a third spirit in which contradiction is not a problem, but a solution.
In the biblical passage, 40 days after being cruxified and appearing resurrected always leaving peace, appears to the assembled disciples and says (Jn 20,21): “Again Jesus said:” Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you. ”
The ideas and mechanisms, including the technological ones, available for peacebuilding are already there, the amount of wealth produced would be sufficient for all peoples not to greed, what happens is the igorance of these mechanisms on the one hand, and on the other a certain abandonment of those proposals that initially seemed clear, here is the “sending”.
A new spirit on the actions for greater social justice, rebalancing the forces of nature (now will be necessary technology, the process is almost irreversible destruction) and a new impetus in actions against corruption, violence and disrespect to diversity are part of a new Pentecost for humanity, a renewed spirit is needed.
Organized cheering only favors A and not-A, it takes a third force, Maslow’s name in psychology, but here it means a broader, cultural sense.

 

transcendent and consciousness

20 May

We generally think that transcendent is what is linked to God or some aspect of religiosity, but the term actually comes from philosophy and can be used in Theology.
In general, in philosophy and in everyday life, transcendence is opposed to the immanent, with the idea of something belonging to another nature, simply to the Other, or even that which is of a higher order, the transcendental is of this order and is not the even if transcendent.
Transcendent in philosophy is what is beyond, a way of thinking the opposite is the immanent, which is connected to thing-in-itself, but in Kant’s transcendental idealism its opposite is dogmatic idealism, for example, thought by George Berkeley.
In idealist epistemology, transcendence is applied to the phenomena of objective reality, because they are incapable of showing themselves to men exactly as they are (our subjective capacity), they do not appear as things-in-themselves, but as subjective representations constructed by human cognitive capacities.
From the intentionality of Franz Brentano, the student of some classes Franz Brentano, he investigated a new path to philosophy, overcoming the modern modern idea that conceived of consciousness as a closed receptivity in itself, opening it to immanence to consciousness, reflecting the “enigma of transcendence”.
Husserl does not immediately break with idealistic transcendentalism, one must travel the path he has made, even return to Brentano’s intentionality which still has an empirical trait that breaks down to construct immanent objectivity.
When Husserl begins to walk the path of an idealistic transcendentalism, the criticism of his closest disciples will make him choose to be isolated in a position that seems to be overcome or to establish a new turn to phenomenological research. Hence, it is often difficult to understand Husserlian thinking.
His vast work has to be traversed at every stage, there is a philosophical course, where each moment of thought has its own questions, to the period of the intention to that of Logical Investigations (Logische Untersuchungen, first edition in 1900-1901), after elaborating some concepts- which led him to state that, in order to study the structure of consciousness, he distinguished between the act of consciousness and the phenomenon to which it is directed (the object-in-itself, transcendent to consciousness).
The idea of the mind as what occurs within it, the so-called physicalism still persists and with strong influence on neuroscience, one of the exponents is the Portuguese Antonio Damásio, his TED has 2M of views:

 

Philosophy or thought, human essence

15 May

If we investigate the origin of the term philosophy we find “friend” (philos) of wisdom (sophia), but modernity has confined it in the field of all other specialties, that is, queen of the sciences has become a specialty for some without value.
The basis of any specialty, area or field (I prefer this denomination because it is less watertight) has an organized form of thought, thus having a philosophy.
Socrates (469-399 BC) was so important that he divided classical thinking into two epochs, the pre-Socratics and the period of thought formation, Plato (428-348), which is in fact the only reference to Socrates, and the work The republic of Plato has undeniable influence to this day.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) a disciple of Plato, and together with him organized the idea of Polis, from which comes the word Politics, and the city-state, embryonic form of the modern state, from which comes the word “citizen.”
The thought “being is and not being is not,” besides logical principle A or not A, is also an ontological principle, although contemporary thought (or philosophy) also means the contradiction A and Not A as a possibility, breaking with classical thinking.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is important to understand the overcoming of Manichaeism, still present in political and religious thought until today, the abandonment of this theory (good and evil, Manicheanism) was the beginning of his conversion.
The medieval period had Boethius (480-524), which gave rise to the “quarrel of universals”, if we can think of universal and particular concepts today, was the fruit of a long medieval discussion between realists and nominalists.
Realist of this period is Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), with his thesis on the Ens (being) and the Essence, lost in the beginning of modernity, but taken up again by Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl through the question of intentionality, which we described in previous posts.
The renaissance was nothing more than the resumption of the ideas of classical antiquity, without the subsequent period of contractualists Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, we would not have the formation of the modern state.

Descartes’ rationalism and Kant’s idealism, as well as Locke’s empiricism, have built the science of modernity, although today criticized by positivism and the question of neutrality, the thinking of Heisenberg and Einstein helped to question it.

But modernity also went into crisis, the Vienna Circle in the prewar period brought to light a neologicism and the question of intelligent systems through Kurt Gödel, and a new thinking in law through Hans Kelsen .

The Frankfurt school, critical thinking, ontology and hermeneutics compose the framework of current thinking in the midst of a paradigmatic crisis in the West, where we will go. There will be no answer without thought, without philosophy.

The video below presents a thinker of the technological issue seen from a non-Manichean prism, without technophobia and constructive with ethics and social responsibility:

 

Husserl and the intentionality

14 May

We have already put some initial ideas of phenomenology, as well as the set of ideas (photo), now we analyze one of its foundations: intentionality. 

From the intentionality of his master Brentano, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) preserves the aspect of the experience of “being aware of something”, but will modify the empirical phenomenology, to make it transcendental, not in the still spiritual sense, but of living experiences cognitive (this is for example Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation of Ideas I).

To be faithful to his thought, Husserl states in Ideas of the Phenomenology: “that:” Experiences of knowledge possess, this belongs to its essence, an intentio, aim something, report in such a way or an objectivity, “but leaves the idea of ​​the empirical. Husserl retains the basic idea that intentionality is the peculiarity of the experience of being aware of something.

Husserl will maintain, throughout his course of approaching the Aristotelian-Thomist concept, an “immanent objectivity”. Husserl’s epoché, his suspension of judgment in relation to the facticity of the world, will make from the phenomenological reduction, a leap from the domain to that which is transcendent (in the sense of not being self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence absolute clarity, of self-giving), the pure phenomenon reveals itself to a sense-giving consciousness.

The sense of experience in Husserl is fundamental, must be understood by her everything that she finds in the flow of what is lived in general, intentional vivid:

[…] not only the intentional vividness, the actual and potential cogitationes taken in its full realization, but all the real moments (reellen is different of echt) that can be discovered in this stream and in its concrete parts. (Husserl.), this book first published in 1913.

In a series of lectures held at the Descartes Amphitheater at the famous Sorbonne in Paris between February 23 and 25, 1929, Husserl and his assistant Eugene Fink expanded the text of the initial lessons, which was published in French in 1931, the title is due only to references to Descartes, but may well introduce the thought of Husserl.

The fact that he never published the meditations in German generated doubts if he would not be satisfied with the text, the Husserl of maturity will publish the Crisis of the European sciences, his densest book.

Here are some ideas from his studies, in more academic view:

 

 

 

 

A forgotten connection with medieval philosophy

13 May

Concepts such as essence, being, ontology, and especially intentionality, fell into obscurity in the Renaissance until they were abandoned in modernity, until being reinvented by Franz Brentano (1838-1917) in 1874 in a work entitled Psychology from the empirical point of view, where he wants to understand the extent to which phenomena are physical or mental, in relation to objects.
In this book in the first chapter of Book II, he states: “All the data of consciousness are divided into two great classes: the class of the physical phenomenon and the class of the mental phenomenon” (Brentano, 1973), where it retrieves the idea of relation intentional relationship between mental acts and their objects, which comes from the work of Thomas Aquinas Quaestiones disputatae de veritate
Brentano characterizes this relationship from a reprint of the Aristotelian-Thomist conception of an “intentional in-existence” of an object, it is not a matter of not existing, but of existing in which it suggests a mode of immanence relationship between the intentional act and its object.
This is important because it recovers the subject and object relationship, lost by rational / idealism.
Phenomenology will use the concept of the suspension of judgment, the epoché that transforms into a place between parentheses, in this case is to suspend the facticity of the world has the judgment suspended by the phenomenological reduction, now that is transcendent (which is not self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence (the absolute clarification, of giving oneself, giving meaning).
This is fundamental in a post-truth world where facticity can hide the phenomenon in itself, and it is necessary to return to what Husserl will propose to return things themselves.
These are some applications of Dale Jacquette’s work on intentionality in Brentano:

BRENTANO, F. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

 

Thought, meditation and life

10 May

If thinking is difficult in contemporary society, meditation is almost impossible, even in spaces dedicated to it, it is pure exoterism that meditates, deepens a thought or a situation, that would lead us to do the activities with greater tranquility.

The Greeks called the stage in which we withdraw our judgments and pre-occupations from our head the “epoché”, the absence of judgment on things to initiate a thought.

The philosopher Husserl took up this concept to create his phenomenology and affirmed that this was one of the principles of the current crisis of science, beyond its logicist and positivist structure, it was necessary to return the thing itself, and affirmed that consciousness is “consciousness of something” .

Byung-Chul Han in the Society of Fatigue warns us that active life needs a complement that is the meditation life, without which we immerse ourselves in tiredness and can be led to Bournot syndrome, in which we live in eternal confusion.

This is not new of course, but the acceleration of society due to new technologies, haste and the lack of environments and situations of deep meditation has led to an emptying of life.

To take it back is urgent, it will give us consciousness of Being, it will allow us to face problems that exist for all people and in almost every situation, and it will give us a better life.

Sloterdijk in “you can change your life,” while ironizing the false spiritual exercises of our day, called them as unsprayed ascesis, just exercise. It is not an escape from reality, and developoment antropotechnic concept. 

In Christian spirituality it means to find the humanity of the historical and divine Jesus, for when his disciples ask to see God he has the answer: “he who sees me, sees the Father”, in general terms, is in the reality, it is necessary to clarify and see. The lecture Andy Peddicombe says that 10 minutes are enough to regain consciousness: