RSS
 

Arquivo para a ‘Neurociência’ Categoria

The question of consciousness

11 Nov

The big issue for artificial intelligence was until recently autonomy, robots, autonomous machines and now autonomous cars, with all the controversy the project evolves, Germany, for example, already provides a line of autonomous cars for the next decade that will begin.

The new issue is the question of consciousness, it has occupied the minds of philosophers for over a century, and can conceptualize in general terms the ability to take actions and consequences of these actions, which has to do with autonomy, because autonomy It is to analyze the consequences of acts performed by machines, the limits of dangerousness and privacy.

In the context of social or historical consciousness, this was Gadamer’s great debate with Dilthey, to which he attributed a conception of romantic consciousness for the absence of a “historical mediation” from facticity, and asks “how will the task of hermeneutics ”and finds a common ground between Schleiermacher and Hegel” (Gadamer, 2002, Truth and Method, p. 256), with the concepts of reconstruction and integration, and according to him, Dilthey makes the intermediate path between them.

Gadamer explains: “Schleiermacher and Hegel could present the two extreme possibilities of answering this question.

Their answers could be assigned to the concepts of reconstruction and integration. For both Schleiermacher and Hegel, in the beginning there is the awareness of a loss and alienation from tradition, which is what drives hermeneutic reflection” (idem).

However, he will say, each of them will determine the task of hermeneutics differently, and what Gadamer calls reconstruction and integration means the separation of preconceptions and alienation from tradition, and therefore rebuild and integrate.

Schleiermacher’s famous thesis is “What matters is to understand a better author than one would have understood himself,” Gadamer thought about the work of art, but Schleiermacher is stuck with his conception of “history of the spirit” which is his concept.

What Hegel says, according to Gadamer, is the creation of a category by stating that the essence of the historical spirit is not the restitution of the past, but the mediation of thought with the present life, which is the prevalence and idealism of the ideal over the factual questions.

And the origin of consciousness, as it happened, is that Terence Deacon is right in claiming that the mind came from matter, and with it came consciousness, if it is true, it is possible to think that somehow the machine, on the levels of intelligence artificial, you may have “consciousness” and then you will know that it is machine and that we humans are not.

What we relate in the videos of Gadamer and Peter Sloterdijk was to introduce this question, and the question of truth is proposed as the genesis of historical consciousness (Gadamer, 2002, p. 265), so machine consciousness cannot have this level.

GADAMER H. G.(2002) Verdade e Método (Truth and Method), 4th ed., Tr. Flavio P. Meurer. Petrópolis: Vozes (Brazilian edition).

 

Anguish and the philosophy

30 Oct

A characteristic feeling of a crisis, of a philosophy, science or culture in crisis is anguish, it is so influential in philosophy that it gives meaning even to thinking, one would say philosophical anguish is part of deep feeling. of thinking.
The artist also has this feeling, but the aesthetic directs him, the image of the “scream” is the feeling expressed in Edvard Munch’s painting (1863-1944) portrays the anguish. Anguish, distress, and anxiety are related, and we live in a time when they become increasingly part of the plane of human existence, of scientific and social reflection, and relating it only to poverty is even greater poverty, although there is affliction yes.
According to Adam it was the anguish that preceded Adam’s sin by eating the forbidden fruit of paradise, but before he even knew what sin was, and this caused him to sin, it may seem like a paradox, but it is not, although this is only a metaphor.
It is kierkegaard himself that explains this, the fact that we have possibilities of choice, if we are not fixed in the state of non-self-conscious immediacy, is what leads us to reflection and with it the same possibility that we have of a conscious act without reflection it is that we have an unconscious act and that does lead us to sin, I would say the “true sin”.
It is the possibilities of choice, of our self-knowledge and personal responsibility, leading us from a state of non-self-conscious immediacy to self-conscious reflection, so reflection / anguish is good and makes us conscious in deeds.
Anguish is not despair, although it may be on the brink of it; on the contrary, it is hope.

The reflection of Brazilian professor Dr. Oswaldo Giacóia Jr about Kierkegaard is interesting for the topic:

 

Overworked and true empathy

29 Oct

Always smiling and needing to be happy can be altruism and even heroism of many people, which should give us confidence and empathy should be transparency, which is not always empathic. Of course, this does not mean being rude or rude, nor deviation from personality, but the relief of inner dualism in the face of truth, even when it is not sympathetic, makes one have greater internal coherence, which is not confused with identity.
Identity may be personal, group or cultural, sometimes confused with being conniving or convenient, but at the root this is falsehood, so empathy has its place in the face of truth and being, not always the social ethics that dictate rules of convenience. and “legality,” which has come to be called politically correct, but could well be politically convenient.
Since the 1930s, the Brazilian has been spoken of as the “cordial man”, although there is a great anthropological and historical distance from the politically correct, this would not be just the update.
Empathy should then be a good mood in the sense that the ability to calmly get into controversial issues and issues with a strong possibility of polarization, the world today needs this, and therefore confusing it with hypocrisy, easy smile or just tolerance can be “ cordial ”and may not be a true feeling.
In fact, doing to the other what we would like it to do for us, is not the empathic system, what neuroscience shows is that we have a set of neurons called mirror neurons that say that imitating the other is a more natural empathic form than To do something to another simply because we would like it done to us, deep down we are “asking” for something we want.

Empathy means the gift that everyone has to be able to feel what the other feels, so to speak of the Other is the true way of both finding an innate gift of humanity, neuroscience reveals, as well as making this truth explicit, we exist and feel the Other.
We only deny it by denying the self that has empathy as a natural “skill”, just by a constant denial training. There is, therefore, no true self without the Other, without the empathy with the Other, natural and not forced, which is thus made a staging and the Other will feel, empathy is thus ontological, part of Being.
The vídeo of  TedX by psyquiatrist Helen Riess is very interesting:https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=23&v=baHrcC8B4WM

 

 

Burnout Society 2: Procrastination

16 Oct

Several references to Byung Chul Han’s book have already been posted here: The Society of Burnout the Pressure of Performance, the “Disciplinary Systems”, but especially the excess of activism leads many people to fall into borderline situations: mental tiredness, panic syndrome can reach Burnout’s syndrome, but only the simple “contemplative vita” solves, I don’t think so. 
One effect of when our life around us begins to become disorganized, it is impossible to always stay organized, is that the difficulty of knowing where to start can lead to procrastination. So both contemplation and action must come with some rationality that does not limit both of extending their limits in the positive sense, having passion in action, and having “emptiness” and breathing in contemplation, it is very common that neither are in fact well done.
One of the reasons that day to day can be driven to procrastination is because activity becomes totally routine and blaming the machines for this is entering the Fordist system, where activities and attitudes are routine and there is no creative way to do it. them.
Also creativity can be misleading, if we have to make a cake every day, of course it is possible to improve, but we must remember that our “cake” is well made in a way, so what is needed is to put a dose of satisfaction, of love and even greater care than before, for example, make it more hygienic, adjust sugar and salt, choose the best flour.
Contemplation too, I discovered after many years of reading, had the technique of making it paused and without “gluttony”, but I discovered very recently that I skipped “passages” that I didn’t like or disagree with, now I see that they are the most important for me they make me think.
I read these days, because I received the Nobel Prize of Literature a thought from Austrian writer Peter Handke: “A good thing, all of a sudden, forgetting the story, the past, stop feeling that present happiness is threatened by what it used to be.”
This means that I should not just focus on reading what I like, I must also leave the attachments and longings of the past, to live the present happiness, it is not just the hurts or joys we have from the past, we really need to cut and live the gift.
Thus we can organize the demand for what is disorganization, combat the abatement and procrastination of what we have to do, and finally do each action as a meditation, that is my addition to Byung Chul Han’s deep thinking, the action can be contemplative.

 

Gratitude, the question of science and common sense

09 Oct

A person may be grateful without understanding the goals of gratitude, but they will not understand the goals if they do not know the true motivations of gratitude, that is, remaining in gratitude can be free of knowledge, but have gratitude (make it a habit healthy) requires going beyond the simple gratuitous act, knowing it and cultivating it to work in society.
Thus, it is necessary to separate appreciable common sense from objective knowledge, which is to dissect the object of knowledge that can be done both inductively and intuitively, both paths are valid, so it is not necessary conventional but intentional science.
To talk about science we need to talk about Karl Popper, he also speculated about being things, said about common sense is valid, but upholding the truths of it is something bigger. But objective knowledge, he said, was an eternal pursuit of his life, in his words: “The essays in this book break with a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle – the tradition of this common sense theory of knowledge.
I am a great admirer of common sense, which I claim is essentially self-critical ”, But to uphold it as truth requires more: “… if I am willing to uphold to the end the essential truth of common sense realism, I regard the common sense theory of knowledge as a subjectivist blunder.
This blunder has dominated Western philosophy, ”as understood by feelings, passions, and even sustaining nonobjective questions.
He goes on: “I have been trying to eradicate it and replace it with an objective theory of knowledge, essentially conjectural. This may be a bold claim, but I do not apologize for it ” (Popper, 1975, p. 07).
Popper’s division into three worlds shows a weakness in his theory by separating knowledge into three worlds: P1 the world of nature (or physical in the sense of physis), the world of minds (World 2) and the world of ideas (World 3), prioritizes the latter.
In a solution to a problem, people can attack or accept the solution found, but not the person who presented it, so it gives a greater value than the world of ideas (World 3) has to Popper, rather than the World of minds (World 2) who developed them.
Gratitude is just the opposite, because the minds that develop solutions to the problem (World 2) are more important than the ideas that drive them (World 3), although subjectivism, which is proper to the subject, may also have weaknesses.
What embraces these three distinct aspects: Nature, Knowledge and Ideas, are ontological aspects, for the three are proper to Being, gratitude is one of these aspects.

Popper, K. (1975) Conhecimento objetivo (Objective Knowledge). Brazil, São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo.

 

Ad Astra and the worldview

07 Oct

Writer James Gray’s vision of our cosmic futures towards the stars, ie Ad Astra, goes through a psychological-worldview of the contemporary world, I recall Byung Chull Han’s psycho-politics, and that in the future with machines prepared for this.

In the future there will be, in addition to the physical and technical tests we already do in various fields of sport to air pilots, also the psychics will be done for certain missions, in the case of the film, the evaluation of Roy McBridge (Brad Pitt), the space engineer for a trip to meet his father Clifford McBridge (Tommy Lee Jones) may still be alive there, although they say he was lost on a trip to Neptune.

Brad Pitt’s artistic competence helps the film, the film can be considered an approximation of Aliens, as when visiting a lost ship they encounter killer primates, or close to Apolipse now describing a future war scenario, where there is Space pirates on the military bases of the moon, purposely placed on the dark side of our lone satellite.

The parallel that I consider best is that of Blade Runner 2049, where the psychological climate overcomes the purely technological issue, and the psychopower becomes more visible and deeper, and the technological issue is the idea that improper use of propulsion energy now causes waves as violent forms, and this wave itself is then used to return to Earth.

It is true that the writer Gray’s worldview is of a war scenario, even for the trip McBridge will have to fight with military colleagues in order to make the trip against his father, since the psychological test evaluates that the son is affected by the filial relationship.

He can travel with the help of Lorraine (Kimberly Elise) who had his family murdered by his father, who had to fight a mutiny by the ship’s crew, who under psychological pressure wants to return to Earth, paradoxically Lorraine is one of the first born on Mars, since their parents lived in the military base of the planet.

After all, he finds his father, finds out that he was not exactly a hero, and that the version made for him was only to maintain the economic interests of the mission, and in the end they do not return to earth together, because their father found it difficult to go to the ship.

In return, he asks to be thrown into the infinity of space with which he had always dreamed. Despite the good acting, Brad Pitt’s nomination for awards would be more by the weight of the actor, the special effects are no big deal, there is a curious scene in which to reach the return ship, it shields a panel easily torn from a space artifact and then through one of Saturn’s rings like pebbles hitting the shield.

The interesting thing about the film is the existential and psychological aspect, so we seek in the universe answers that for our existence and the farther our worldview, the more possible to lose and lose contact with the “earth” can become reality, as the McBridge’s father, the first to land on planets where the man had not yet stepped.

 

 

Bergson in body-mind relationship

05 Aug

To discuss consciousness and the relationship between body and mind must necessarily go through a contemporary philosopher who was Henri Bergson (1859-1941), who proposed a relationship between this one that is one of the roots of classical dualism, because contemporary is the object and the subject. Bergson opts in this sense for subjectivism, in our view remains a dualism, but his solution was very important for thinking at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
He will study life from the evolutionary process of life, and the study of memory, related to the humanities and biological sciences, in our view is close and very related to ontology and not by chance he will touch the subject. of Being and Time, a dear subject to Heidegger, though it has no direct relation to this philosopher.
The study of the brain and the psyche has gained enormous relevance in our time, I highlight two current thinkers, the Portuguese Antonio Damásio (Descartes’ error) and the American Terrence Deacon (Incomplete Nature).
Neuroscience was nascent in Bergson’s time, so his studies were grounded in psychology and evolutionary biology, but his insights were profound and still current, as he rereads the problems of the theory of knowledge of metaphysics.
Their metaphysical problems range from classic themes to the extent to which we are free, how we can overcome mechanistic worldviews, who is remembrance, and other essential questions of life, including life itself and what it really is.
The questions that interest us in particular, Being and Time, will be clarified by the Brazilian philosopher Leopoldo Leopoldo da Silva, explaining that time is not the linear scale as we know it, although the concept is different from Einstein’s theory of relativity. ceases to be contemporary.
Time in the sense of life happens what is called duration, and also knowledge as we conceive is not linked to this kind of life-time or Being, so Bergson will choose to understand the exercise of intuition,
The historian of science Jimena Canales tells the relationship Einstein and Berggson about Time:

 

Human intelligence beyond artificial intelligence.

15 Jul

Until very recently it was believed that a certain type of intelligence was preponderating to others, the famous IQ test, for example, determined the intelligence of a person in numbers, which fell a bit into disrepute, then came the phase of emotional intelligence , it exists because we are in time of stress.
With the advances of artificial intelligence, the advances of artificial intelligence and the point of singularity, at which point machines will go beyond Intelligence in man, but what is this intelligence, is little questioned, the specialists give answers ready, but …
Due to conjunctural, social and cultural factors, a type of intelligence is developed that is logic, memory capacity and great talent to deal with mathematics and logic in general, one can find solution of complex problems, say the neuroscientists that she is strongly attached to the right side of the brain.
The second type is motor intelligence, artists and athletes develop great talents with a body expression and notion of space, distance and depth very sharp, can perform complex, graceful and sharp movements, as the name says is related to motor ability.
People with good written and oral ability have a type of intelligence called linguistics, in addition to the expression has a degree of attention and sensitivity to meet the views of others, is visible its usefulness in today’s world.
People with great ability to imagine and draw both in 2D and 3D have a great talent for graphic art, it is space intelligence, just as linguistic intelligence has great sensitivity and creativity, but its universe is itself and the interaction with others is done precisely by his spatial vision.
Musical intelligence is one that makes us see through the “sounds”, are people with a great facility to listen to music or sounds in general and identify different patterns and musical notes.
Two types uncommon are intra and interpersonal intelligences, and statistics are the rarest among people and yet the closest to our “being,” intrapersonal intelligence has an enormous facility to understand what people think, feel and desire, while the intra has a strong component of “leadership” because they are people capable of causing great admiration in others, and with special active intelligence mobilize and get to take action and put others to accompany it.
Of course this is as schematic as other classifications, but it is precisely by the scheme that artificial intelligence is thought to be related to this, in fact human intelligence is quite complex while the artificial one is very schematic, even though it is a complex scheme.
The TED by Daniel Levitin has already surpassed 14 million views, and has an interesting point of view of a neuroscientist:

 

Worldview: soul, feelings and wisdom

12 Jul

One can think of soul as mind, as consciousness (it is only a reflection), or identity, according to post about Giddens this leads to interiority in a restricted sense.
That is why we call it the Noosphere, the sphere of the mind or the outside, in a sense of vision, feelings and wisdom, being limited to a worldview, which is evolving.
It is not possible to have a broad worldview, without a broad soul, more than a soul-world, a universal soul in the sense not only anthropological, but cosmological.
Feelings have a great appeal in the contemporary world, as functional logics have become much of the engaging of thought, it is possible and easy to manipulate opinions and people through these resources, but they are dangerous without soul and wisdom.
Wisdom is the most critical element of the noosphere, there are those who believe that through feeling and soul can walk quietly, there are therapies and even online courses to produce happiness, well-being and other promises without any wisdom, the result in short term is commendable, but in the long run it will prove ineffective will lack such sustainability.
Wisdom is also critical because many currents of thought and diverse forms of culture can lead to reductionism, and this will bring in the contemporary world a lack of seeing the Other, sometimes there is even intention, but the result is the result of the restricted world .
The teachers of the Law were in the time of Jesus, the Pharisees who knew the scripture, but whose practice was distorted, one of them addresses Jesus to ask how to have the eternal inheritance.
The great spiritual argument of Loving God is a resource of a certain kind of ignorance, but a good Bible reading is enough to realize that it is false, is in Luke 10: 26-27, and Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read? “He replied,” You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your intelligence; and your neighbor as yourself! ”
Jesus immediately binds the heart “feelings” to the soul, because it knows and respects the interiority, from where the soul drinks, and ends by asking for love of neighbor, the Other.

 

The supersapiens and the Artificial Intelligence

17 Jun

It is common from a simplistic analysis to demonize the use of new technologies and now with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence, the batteries are turned away, of course there are no ethical objections that are always recommended, but this is true for all areas, including science and religion.
The documentary Supersapiens by director and screenwriter Markus Mooslechner explores the most advanced potential of artificial intelligence, which would link one mind to another, showing that the world is moving towards a collective technological consciousness, the title is an allusion to homo sapiens evolution of the human mind.
In a different perspective Jean Gabriel Ganascia wrote about “The Myth of Singularity”, the idea that a machine can never surpass the human mind, but the film explores a totally new possibility a kind of “networked minds” that from the point of view of a metaphor (the film is not) n In the film, the experts interviewed say that the era we are entering is an era of experimenting with an artificial intelligence connecting minds and their consciousnesses.
In the past, human physical ability was to measure it’s productivity; even though it could be accumulated collectively, now in the information age, intellect and mind have come to fulfill this central role, and immersive technologies profoundly affect our experience.
Today, technologies are totally immersive, deeply affecting the way we experience life, begins with an account of human origin, 300 thousand years ago. The setting is Jebel Irhoud, a cluster of caves 100 kilometers from Marrakesh, Morocco, where some studies indicate that it is the beginning of human life on earth. It is late afternoon, 100,000 years before the emergence of the first modern humans, a group runs into a cave: dirty, shaggy yet human hair.
As this history was discovered, and in the 1960s, a mining group began operations in Jebel Irhoud.
An explosion revealed a cave filled with sediments from the Pleistocene epoch (period between 1.8 million and 126 thousand years ago), there and not now in 2019, our future begins to be drawn, technology is not a more anomaly the very relationship of man with nature and with its origin.
The video illustrates the documentary, not his trailer, but it’s interesting: