Arquivo para a ‘Noosfera’ Categoria

Apodítico e epoché in Husserl

23 Apr

Words strange and of high significance for the philosophy of Husserl, apoditic we use much in the day-to-day only that of improper way, something that we think evident and it is not God, the life, the death, finally a series of concepts that seem to be evident and are not, as you see them, hylé appears.
Subjective matter, the sense given by the Greeks to what seems material, to Husserl possesses a veiled truth, this composes a subjective matter attached to any perception, or what he defined as “returning the thing itself”, in the sense of having a intention about it.
Thus Husserl calls “the intention” the meaningful content of something, the intention of a book on it, though the intention does not have the flesh-and-blood presence of the book.
When we have a “meaningful intention” (“Bedutungsintention”) we mean with an intention the book and the table, that is, the object without even considering its presence, for example, if we have the meaningful content of that book, in this sense “intuition” Is  “evidence.”
Although for Husserl words are used interchangeably, intuition is the fulfillment of an intention, or consciousness of it, this is important for its thought, since the perfect filling between intention and intuition will never be fully satisfied.
In this, it immerses itself in the concept of consciousness, that is, the “consciousness of something”, to make explicit its method, which consists in traversing the phenomenon, using phenomenological reduction, or epoché, which for Greeks is the suspension of judgment. empirical evidence), and for Husserl it is a place between parentheses.
This consists in provisionally leaving aside all preconceptions, theories, definitions and pre-judgments, and only then gradually give meaning to the things that seek their “originality.”
This introduction to Husserl’s Phenomenology for Phenomenology, may clarify:


The history of Easter

18 Apr

Easter is of Jewish origin, Passover (from Hebrew פסח – picture – meaning to go over or overlook) recalls the passage of slavery in Egypt around the year 1446 BC, and in the Jewish case is to remind the new generations the suffering in Egypt.
Jesus is going to celebrate Easter with his disciples, but it was common for the emperor to release some of the rebels at this time, and Jesus is arrested and tried in public, although the governor of Palestine Pilate lays hands, Barabbas is released and Jesus goes to live condemnation, torture and cruxification until death, but his body disappears, and for Christians he has risen, several later events will confirm this.
The Jews sacrifice a lamb and must be eaten after the supper full of symbolism (in picture), among them the cup of Elijah that remains untouchable, but Jesus at the last supper before being delivered will use it and pass it to the disciples at supper with their friends there is only bread, and Jesus asks that this be done in his memory, after washing the feet of his friends.
There begins his sacrifice like lamb, in substitution to the Jewish lamb, he becomes humble servant and begins its way to calvary when one of the disciples leaves to deliver it.
Foot-washing, as it is called the event of washing the feet for supper, something generally done by the slaves, but now done by someone who could be deemed important however does exactly the opposite of what human logic indicates, asks the disciples to do this by following their example, humility is a high value that must be recovered mainly by leaders and people holding positions so that humanity can find a new course.
Knowledge and pride impede advances, enslave people, and make social relations more tense and violent.
The following video, made in animated comics, is very illustrative of Easter.


Arrogance, nets and feet-washed

17 Apr

It is a holy week, a fact that goes unnoticed, but it is fundamental in the spirituality that is said to be “Christian” (yes, for the society in crisis, everything is confused: democracy, freedom, moral, ethics and also the principles and values of certain cultures) a detail is the foot-washing ceremony, the master is lowered to a function made by slaves and washes the feet of the disciples.
There is no greater contradiction in the contemporary world, for the idea of power, wealth and arrogance without measures make the Other object of manipulation, desire and submission, and almost no circle escapes, from the power of the state to the periphery of cities, through schools, churches and various types of associations.
Behind this idea is to always see the Other as smaller, less prepared or less capable, the networks have reversed this and disorganized a vertical power structure, clear with exaggerations, but the central, often even established and democratic power too, see the censures of the ministers of the Brazilian STF (Tribunal Superior Judge), who were supposed to defend the constitution.
Yes the networks also exaggerate, but without the exercise they will never learn, is now given a power that only the editorial groups, the centers of power and the wealthy had, manipulate the truth in their favor, and were already fake news, I was going to ask where the truth was then.
Feet-washing puts this logic, will power or power Nietszche, something that seems natural, but for sick reasons evolve in times of crisis.
To wash the feet of prisoners, as did Pope Francisco in last year, to go to those who will not be able to reciprocate, to open their arms and pockets to those who need it, and in the case of Christian Easter, to give their lives for their friends, love, started with washing the feet.
Most people do not recognize the gesture, Peter did not want Jesus to do this, or think it is a false feeling, or that the person himself does not give himself the courage, never that [voluntary and conscious: washing the feet of those who could by some logic being below us.
Few do, in a society in crisis is more than a gesture, it is necessary, it is healing.
While the Brazilian thinker Leandro Karnal thinks that humility does not get well, Mario Sérgio Cortela said that is humility:



Shut me up, the stones will speak

12 Apr

It is not illusionism, pure utopia (Thomas Morus’s Utopia is the desire for a world with fairness), it is about understanding and respecting the mystery, of being aware that we do not know everything. It was not Einstein, but Heisenberg who first announced the quantum theory, which inspired Dali in his Mystical Manifesto, which changed the idea of ​​science, space, and time.

The image of the real black hole is just the tip of the iceberg of a mysterious universe, which surprises us and shows us our limitation.

Much of the contemporary regression is the incomprehension of cosmology and cosmogony, which in a different way are present in all cultures and religions.

Scientism, determinism, and materialism wanted to abolish the subjective thinking of cosmogonies, but it survived, and the discovery of the black hole is the enlargement of scientific cosmogony.

Says the biblical Reading (Lk 19:40) “if they shut me up, the stones will speak,” in the passage that the religious themselves asked Jesus not to speak of his eschatology, his mission and his end in the hands of the powerful. The quantum computation is explained by Shohini Ghose in 10 minutes:



Philosophy: consolation, island and infinite

10 Apr

The section in which he analyzes the philosophy of Boethius, Anselm and Thomas Aquinas, Warburton shows his lack of appreciation of the religiosity of both, and the aspects analyzed: the consolation of Boethius’ philosophy and Anselm’s theological argument, which is not the same as Thomas Aquinas, and the absence of this analysis is presumed that perhaps it was for Warburton, are private.
Boethius (480-524 AD) is indeed important to be remembered, his discourse on Philosophy, an imaginary person in the period that is imprisoned as a consolation, although important, for it is his main known speech, his contribution through a fragment found of his writings: whether or not they exist universally, is his most important contribution. Important because it is about the issue will be the debate between realists and nominalists, whether the universals are things or merely words (for the nominalists).
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) was a realist and his argument about rationalism as a complement to faith, is his most strongly theo-ontological argument, and his thesis on the being and the essence, his deeper contribution to philosophy.
But back to a brief History of the Philosophy of Nigel Warburton, when speaking of the ontological argument of Saint Anselm (1033-1109), about the existence of God, he presents as a counterpoint the “perfect island” of the monk Gaunilo de Marmoutier, an imaginary island that would so perfect that we could not imagine that there is a more perfect one than she, although no one was there.
His argument, which proves that such an island would not exist, in contrast to Anselm’s that there is nothing beyond God, for an imagined God cannot be greater than an existing God (Warburg, 2012, 52).
Now the island is finite, and God or the Universe or something that exists as a whole, an therefore ontological argument, “what is,” exists even though we can discuss what kind of being is.
What is the island’s faulty argument, then, is that it being finite may not have perfections of existing islands, and as an island it is “isolated” which is typical of positivist empiricism.
What Boethius, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas did in the long period of maturing of philosophy and science, still remembered the scribes and offices in the monasteries, was the building of the basis for a rationalism that is not opposed to faith but ut complements it.
The vídeo shows ideas about The Consolation of Philosophy of the Boethius:


The Interiority: garden, indifference or puppets

09 Apr

Following a great development of the idea of the Polis, the next movement of thought goes into interiority, Aristotle had been the preceptor of Alexander the Great, who built the first great empire of antiquity, but then came the Roman Empire, the polis was confined in ideas about law, wars of conquest and finally the Roman pax, which was the surrender to the great empire.
The thought will confine the interiority, Warburton will call the chapter on Garden Epicurus, because he ran his school in a house with a garden, and his basic ideas was how to make the philosophy practical to make life happy, the practical was so rules of how to work inner issues, and between them avoiding ideas about death.
A second school that emerged in this period were called skeptics, for their indifference in many relevant matters, or Stoics because they met at the gates of the cities called “stoa”, hence the name of the school.
The basic idea is captured by Warburton as: “Our attitude toward what happens is within the limits of our control, though whatever happens is not.”(Warburton: 2012, 32).
To a birth of reason, because the Stoics believed that we should not feel sad about something wrong that happens to us, when we are deceived or have emotions that would hinder our thinking, we should always eliminate it completely.
Thus, if contemporary philosophy can be said to be objectivist in the sense of the subjectivists, the influence of Cicero on the Enlightenment is recognized, especially in Locke, Hume, and Montesquieu.
Finally, Augustine’s view of Warburton as that which all reality as “puppets” of divine thought, nothing more unjust, Augustine tried to free himself from the Manichean thought that imprisoned him in a struggle between good and evil, and his conversion to Christianity was just that cristianism isn’t manichaeism view of life.
I know that even Christian scholars see it that way, and Manichaeism is still an influential part of religion.

Warburton, N. Uma história da filosofia. São Paulo: LP&M, 2012. (in portuguese).
The philosopher Massimo Pugliucci has interess in stoicism and explain this thinking:



A Relaxed History of Philosophy

08 Apr

Among the books I promised to read (post), Nigel Warburton’s Brief History of Philosophy (L & PM Pocket, 2017) was the first, had other priorities.

It is a relaxed and cheerful way of reading philosophy, it has the advantage of being easy for readers who are not initiated, but in my view lack some depth and some authors, just to name two Husserl and Heidegger, however the rest of the set is consistent.

It begins properly with Plato and Socrates, with the suggestive and philosophical title “The Man Who Asked” and from the beginning makes the reader reason to show the difference between being immoral and deceitful in a dialogue between Socrates and Euthydemus, which shows the reader the importance concepts and dialogue as a method of educating.

He will explain in a dialogue with Queroponte that when asking an old wise woman an oracle of Delphi, if there was someone wiser than Socrates receives the answer “No” and will say it to Socrates, who wonders about the fact since “I knew so little.”

He thus clarifies what philosophy is, as “love of wisdom” and from there his disciple will leave (in fact only Socrates is known by Plato), say that the wise should rule, and this will be how the Platonic school will begin, and then more later that of his disciple Aristotle.

The chapter of Aristotle has the title “The true happiness”, a curious and intelligent trait of Warburton that is to give soon in the title a key of reading, again which is simplistic, but it helps the reader and creates an interest in the subject.

The third that I comment on here, also a wise choice, is Pyrrhus, for he was the most skeptical of that time (365 BC), which is important for opposing dogmatism.

It is possible to elect this author because avoiding too much reading, which few people do today, is able to teach lay readers in the subject, for this is seen as popularizer of the philosophy.


The prodigal son

28 Mar

The prodigal son did Just as any text is subject to different interpretations, it is not different for the biblical text, the search for exegetes is debatable, especially for the hermeneutics that admits the diversity of interpretations, because to penetrate in the Mind of God is a little too arrogant, clear for the which admit the existence of God, to others, it suffices to see itself limited only.
A Dutch writer and priest Henri Nouwen, who died in 1996, worked at Harvard University and Yale, wrote 40 books including “The Return of the Prodigal Son” (1992), in which from the painting of Rembrandt Petersburg). Through the observation of a poster with details of the picture
The Return of the Prodigal Son, the author made a spiritual walk in which he analyzes the characters of the biblical parable in the light of his personal experience, but with new elements that is the vision of his brother old. In general, when one is accepted after a wandering life, however the older brother has difficulty accepting the situation, this is symbolic for so many people who have difficulty accepting the other and include it within a certain circle, not only in the religious environment but also cultural, are all resentful “older brothers”.
Not accepting it is in a way preventing its change of route, conscious or unconscious is what many do and so we enter a vicious circle where positive changes are almost totally blocked, of course these circles become stiff and arrogant. In a globalized world in which differences are noticed, coexisting and culturally present, it is impossible to make life more fluid and pleasant with the behavior of “older brothers”, the changes then become conflicted and can reach extremes.
The parable is the “prodigal son” and not the misplaced, inconsequential or some other stigma of exclusion that we wish to put to him.
Rembrandt’s beautiful son has a detail (detail in the photo), which is the paternal hand he receives and a more delicate hand that caresses, this is our hermeneutical approach.


To navigate is need, we must live too.

25 Mar

The phrase is not from Fernando Pessoa nor from a Brazilian composer, it was General Pompeu’s phrase to encourage his fearful sailors saying: “Navigare necesse, vivere non est necesse” and later it was also the Italian poet Petrarca in the fourteenth century.
The verses of Fernando Pessoa had the sense of confining his sense of way to creation, and in this sense of life is that we can make a parallel with the current Web browsers.
Besides the Web we have the GPS and numerous navigation instruments for ships, airplanes and spacecraft, which will soon also be tourist trips thanks to Tesla company (post).
Reflections for today must involve fears (there is a book by Martha Nussbaum), the options with many possible paths, the question of security and the transitions to a possible Web that fights the fake news, remembering that these are all problems previous to the Internet (1975) and the Web (1990), since it comes from the industrial revolution.
The issue of life that involves is the Society of Tiredness, put our mind and body under a barrage of stimuli that may seem beneficial but also lead to stress.
The modern man, the pause, the respite, or what Byung-Chull Han calls the “aroma of time”, I thank Portugal who gave me back this possibility for the rhythm of life, social security and especially the Portuguese lyrical soul.
All of this brings life back to life, but to put it in an agitated life without “aroma” is an effort that demands virtues, in the sense of virtue and in the sense of virtuous circles.
But navigating is necessary, almost for everything in life today and living, pausing and breathing as well.

This vídeo is commentary about tips for navigating a Websites:


From Dali to Gaudi

20 Mar

The first contact with Gaudi would not be the first post, it was the experience I did that made me reverse the post, yesterday separated them to notice the end of the conception of objective reality.
Yes the historical path of these two Catalans is the reverse, in the Virtual Multimodal Gallery that I did, you can find 2 works of the last Dali that bring you closer to the current virtual universe (not objective therefore), while Gaudi had a great dialogue with Gothic and naturalism.
Alias for physical reasons, Gaudi was always a vegetarian long before this was fashionable.
I would say that they are complementary, but Antonio Gaudi i Cornet (1852-1926) will only impress us if we walk through his work, we feel his “aroma”, and his connection with Dali can be found in a lecture at Park Güell in 1956, for on the occasion of the feast of Mercy, the complete text in Spanish can be found on the Gaudi Club website.
In this conference Dali in defending him was 52 years old, when he died he was 22 years old.
Gaudi designed the interior of the cathedral in the form of a cross, in a stylized way the cross is present in all his works, the novelty of this church is that the representative biblical figures are all out of the church, inside there is a harmony of light, colors and sounds (above the picture I took) with the tube organs that were later placed, but certainly were in Gaudi’s imaginary, which we have already said has a cosmogony that goes beyond Christianity.
The church outside is what he wanted “a catechesis of stone,” and perhaps the height does what was his purpose “I will make all look to heaven.”
The proposal of finalization is for the year 2026, when it will be the centenary of Dali, it is also expected his canonization by the Catholic Church, nothing more just.