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Arquivo para a ‘Computer Science’ Categoria

The informational impact

08 May

Society, information abundance, information turnaround and other appeals to the novelty that arose not with the internet, but with the computer and the possibility of handling the data in volume (Big Data) certainly brought a new perspective.

Anyone who wanted to understand eighteenth-century society should study the industrial revolution and its impact on manpower and the production of serial products, today anyone who wants to analyze contemporary society cannot lose sight of the volume of data they are produced to try to make this volume accessible to society.

But it is not so, because together with this volume came by previous process, it is only to check with history, not the romantic dreamed by idealists, but the real one and to realize that the problem of both Information in volume and depth, made it difficult to digging and knowing what is essential.

We have already posted here Karl Kraus, who complained to journalists in the midst of the threat of a second world war because of misunderstood news highlighting only interests. In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, Peter Sloterdijk also warned that “it is difficult to think of contemporary society,” Byung Chul Han his disciple alert to “active vita” (Chul-Han)

The phenomenon we witnessed in which information became practically a commodity, started with the digital model of Shannon (photo) and the Turing machine in the 1930s, and accelerated with the construction of modern computers.

What we witnessed and did not always participate in an “active” and reflexive way, able to elaborate thinking about information, is the fragmentation of knowledge accelerated by new gadgets, but which was initiated by a crisis in the thinking of Western society, which only deepened over the years, its initializing in modernity.

The Movie The game of imitation (2015) illustrates the life of Alain Turing and his theory:

 

 

 

Web Summit in Lisbon

08 Nov

One of the biggest events of the Web was this week, it was a side event, I could only follow videos and news, undoubtedly the biggest star was the founder of the Web Tim-Berners Lee who already has a great new project, although he has spoken between the lines.

He started an interview, which in fact he spoke at will without many questions saying the beginning of the Web and how his growth was also surprising for him, he told technical details like “I wrote the code of the first server and the code of the first browser, it was called WorldWideWeb.app “and was on info.cern.ch.

He then said that his concern is the same as everyone, after 25 years we should deal with: cyberbullying, misinformation, hate speech, privacy issues and said what many are talking about, “What the hell could go wrong?” to the public: “in the first 15 years … great things have happened. We had Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, blogs, we had cats, “he said jokingly, adding:” Connected Humanity should be more constructive, more peaceful, than Humanity disconnected”, but jnt (just not).

“Because we are almost at the point where half of the world will be online”, explained the British engineer was referring to the ’50 / 50′ moment, that is half the connected humanity expected in 50 years, but it should reach this point in May 2019.

After trying to argue the responsibilities of governments and companies, I believe they can happen but they will be slow, he spoke indirectly of his SOLID (Social Linked Data) project, stating that “as individuals we have to hold corporations and governments accountable for what is happening on the internet ” and “the idea is, from now on, everyone is responsible for making the Web a better place, “said encouraging start-ups too to get into this process.

Thinking about the development of interfaces where users know people from different cultures, but above all ensure the universality of the Web, according to Berners-Lee the main aspect should be (speaking indirectly again of SOLID) that the popular intervention at global level and that made the Web “just a platform, without attitude, that should be independent, can be used for any kind of information, any culture, any language, any hardware, software”, linked data may help this.

 Tim Berners-Lee presented the #ForTheWeb movement on the same day that his World Wide Web Foundation released the report “The Case for the Web”, the event had a superaudience, more than 30 thousand people, there are several videos, but the Opening Ceremony is one of the most outstanding and has Tim-Berners Lee as well, see on vídeo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkzNZKCxM

 

Consciousness between epistemology and method

13 Jan

It is common sense that what we call interpretation is intimately bound up with theMetodo method and worldview that we have, but in practice we stay in the “it’s my opinion.”
Gadamer goes deeper into this theme by saying that “what modern consciousness assumes precisely as ‘historical consciousness’ – a reflective position in relation to all that is transmitted by tradition.” (page 18), that is, “historical no longer beatifically hears the voice that comes to him from the past, but when he reflects on it, he re-places it in the context in which it originated, in order to see the relative meaning and value that are proper to it “(idem) .
And this sentence of interpretation “goes back to Nietzsche, according to which all statements derived from reason” are susceptible of interpretation “(p. 21).
However, he returns to Hegel to clarify that “the human sciences possess with the natural sciences, a link that distinguishes them precisely from an idealistic philosophy: the human sciences also pretend to constitute themselves as legitimate empirical sciences, free from all metaphysical intrusion, and They reject all philosophical construction of universal history (idem), and here we enter into the question of method.
The idea of adopting scientific methods of the natural sciences prevented the human sciences from taking a “radical consciousness of themselves” (idem), and asks at the end of the paragraph: “Why not rather the old Greek concept, Of method should prevail ? “(Page 21)
Aristotle uses this to explain the question of method: “The idea of a single method, which can be determined even before investigating the thing, constitutes a dangerous abstraction, it is the very object that must determine the proper method to investigate it”
The Brazilian translation has 71 pages, is easy and simple to read, and I consider it useful for an introduction to Gadamer’s masterpiece “Truth and Method”.

Hans-Georg Gadamer, “The Problem of Historical Consciousness,” in “H.-G. Gadamer,” special issue, Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 5:1, 1975, page number is brazilian edition
Consciência entre a epistemologia e o método
Sabe-se no senso comum que o que chamamos de interpretação está intimamente ligado ao método e visão de mundo que temos, mas na prática, ficamos no “é minha opinião”.
Gadamer vai mais fundo neste tema, ao colocar que “aquilo que a consciência moderna assume precisamente como ‘consciência histórica´- uma posição reflexiva com relação a tudo que é transmitido pela tradição.” (pag. 18), ou seja, “a consciência histórica já não escuta beatificamente a voz que lhe chega do passado, mas, ao refletir sobre a mesma, recoloca-a no contexto em que ela se originou, a fim de ver o significado e o valor relativos que lhe são próprios” (idem).
E sentencia: “esse comportamento reflexivo diante da tradição chama-se interpretação” (pag. 19), e explica que essa noção de interpretação“ remonta a Nietzsche, segundo o qual todos os enunciados provenientes da razão“ são suscetíveis de interpretação” (pag. 21).
Entretanto retorna a Hegel para esclarecer que “as ciências humanas possuem com as ciências da natureza, vinculo que as distingue precisamente de uma filosofia idealista: as ciências humanas possuem igualmente a pretensão de se constituir como legítimas ciências empíricas, livres de toda intrusão metafísica, e recusam toda construção filosófica da história universal (idem), e aqui entramos na questão do método.
A ideia de adotar métodos científicos das ciências da natureza, impediram que as ciências humanas tivessem procedessem a uma tomada de “consciência radical acerca de si mesmas” (idem), e pergunta ao final do parágrafo: “Porque não antes o conceito antigo, grego, de método deveria prevalecer?” (pag. 21)
Utiliza Aristóteles para explicar a questão de método: “a ideia de um método único, que se possa determinar antes mesmo de investigar a coisa, constitui uma perigosa abstração, é o próprio objeto que deve determinar o método apropriado para investiga-lo” (idem).
A tradução brasileira tem 71 páginas, é de leitura fácil e simples, e considero útil para uma introdução na obra prima de Gadamer “Verdade e Método”.
GADAMER, H.G. O problema da consciência histórica, 3ª. Edição. Rio de Janeiro: FGV, 2006.