Arquivo para a ‘Recursos comuns’ Categoria

Common sense and gratitude

10 Oct

The common sense from which Popper wrote is not the simple objectivity or subjectivity developed by idealist philosophy, or the intersubjectivity that connects the subjectivity of individuals or discourses, is the possibility of attaining knowledge of things, situations and people that leads to knowledge. in a way of knowing that they have cultural, social or even beliefs that lead them to proactive attitudes.
So you take acts done in isolation into a virtuous circle of attitudes, of course Popper did not speak of gratitude, but Marcel Mauss wrote in the 1920s the theory of giving, or the “gift” of simply rewarding or rewarding positive attitudes, But there is no problem in having remuneration, this is its idealistic aspect, even in this case there may be gratuity if made as a gift to those who receive the service.
What leads to gratitude rather than reward is how the word etymological origin is the notion of gratuitousness that must accompany even those acts for which there is just compensation, without being an instrumentalized or corrupting form of that act.
Thus collaboration, cooperation and even totally free actions that may involve values, such as paid wages, which should be thought of as acts of brotherhood and compassion as those involved in that act.
Just as continuous acts lead to an attitude, so continuous gratitude can lead to gratitude, can and should not because there is a difference in both cases that it is the fact that if it does not become an act and a social gratitude, even though attitude and gratitude can getting lost and leading to discontinuity of acts and gratitude, this is a problem in certain cultures.


Economy, common good and governance

27 Aug

Theories of value (or values, perhaps more accurately) have always been linked to the economic, the expression is strange to the Brazilian, but in Portugal if used in daily life “is more value”, meaning an increase of value,
This is different from the Marxist sense of value added to the profit-making product, which means extracting profit by giving the final value of a produced commodity the sum of the means of production plus the value of labor from which part of the profit is taken.
But a set of social and moral values can have a meaning much more linked to conscience than to the value paid or even considered by a sum of the product, plus the value of human labor and the means used for its production, there is a set of values that add to the “common good”, the “commons” as Elinor Ostrom, Nobel Prize winner in Economics called it.
This is important because it involves the current controversy over the Amazon, which Dr. Ostrom criticized was the fact that there is growing concern, she has already passed away 2012, was that there was a false impression that here it was a “commons governance” as the case of natural resources could not be governed as a “common good” because it would be a failure.
She criticized the foundations of the political analysis of what was called, there was a written text about it, like “Tragedy of the commons”, ie what is governed by all is always unsuccessful because it is nobody’s, so no value some.
The governance of natural resources used by many individuals in common is a matter of social nature and cannot be treated as a private or even public good in the sense of state control, she gathered a body of empirical data to demonstrate her thesis.
Unfortunately the excessive politicization of the Amazon issue, the vested interests that are not to see these natural resources as commons, has made the issue even more difficult.
Elinor, the first Nobel laureate in economics, has not been read or understood, and the “tragedy of commons” still reign in official speeches, as the economic interest behind discourses of all shades does not allow for a serene discussion of the issue.
What is certain is that water, air and nature itself cannot and should not be thought of with all that is available for the advancement of the economy, for it is a common good of humanity.
It would be good for a serene rereading of Elinor Ostrom, the governance of commons is important.
The following video explains in a simple way what commons are:


Pride, valor and nationalist populism

26 Aug

In the midst of international crises, such as problems ranging from ecological to corruption, we fight a dragon and appear 3, and there is no shortage of apocalyptics. drank, among them: Karl Marx, in fact, Adam Smith did not just write about the subject of economics, for which he is always remembered, he wrote about virtue, success, fortune, happiness, and even morality.
One of the interesting things he writes is about pride, for which he formulates two different patterns, a first one that he says is “the idea of exact convenience and perfection, as each of us can understand this idea.”.
That is, a distinctive ability to understand, but for someone who is really wise.
It says of this pattern: “imitating, however, the work of a divine artist, which can never be matched”, conscious of its weaknesses, one feels embarrassed when “for lack of attention, discernment and moderation, violated in words and actions, conduct and conversation, the exact rules of perfect convenience… “is in his work Theory of Moral Feelings.
The second pattern, which is the pride of the ignorant, is the lack of self-evaluation (in the Aristotelian sense, or if you want the most mundane sense): “it is that degree of approximation with this idea which is usually obtained from the world, which most our friends and mates, rivals and competitors, may have really hit, ”and so have we, of course.
It has a lot to do with contemporary populism, because it is grounded in ideas, beliefs, and beliefs that, while not true, await their leaders, but the frustrations that follow as soon as they are put into practice verify their lack of “theory.” and a deeper thought.
They are based on maxims that are generally popularly accepted, this situation has “no way out”, “violence is really needed”, “all politicians are corrupt”, “they are poor because they do not work” and there are no jobs and other popular dictates.
Nationalism of Wealth of Nations had historical justification, it is a step in the building of the wealth of countries that was necessary, but as soon as international trade prospered it became unrealizable, but international conflicts not due to trade but to protective barriers are reborn. , containment of markets in a few countries, and over-protectionist regulation.
Allied to national economic crises they seem to be a way out, but they are not, because without international regulation with egalitarian and fair criteria, there is no price control. Adam Smith argued that the use value and the exchange value were not directly related, but essentially both he and David Ricardo, who Marx also studied, said that the process of producing goods can be thought of with a series of human efforts. the Austrian School of Economics, especially with Carl Menger (1940-1921) who made this point clearer.


Utilitarianism, philosophy and goods

31 Jul

Utilitarianism essentially sees social logic only for the goods they produce, as well as many currents of modernity, what is important is objectivity, the actual relationship with objects, and the essence of Being, its relation to the Other, and its culture. .

It thus becomes a dispute for power, money and mobilizing forces for the production of goods, no matter how these goods are distributed among different people, in different positions on the social scale, from different religious or cultural postures.

Professor Julia Markovits of Cornell University’s class, which gives an introduction to the moral aspects of utilitarianism, explains that one of the reasons that a simple disappointment of football fans together could produce a greater devaluation than a person’s pain would mean loss of values ​​associated with the soccer team, while the pain is only of the person.

He explains that according to philosopher Robert Nozick, the “utility monster” can transform an extremely good person, who transforms resources in direct relation to happiness, when more money and food we give to this person, the happier he is, but in the limit this It does not transform all ordinary people into a happy “general collectivity” because of utility.

The answer to utilitarianism is that this will not happen, because the opposite is true, the more resources we have the less impact any additional resources will have on our happiness.

If we think about accumulation this is not what happens, how much impact it has on a mega tech company account, while the same $ 100 can make a difference to a child in a poor region of the planet.

The subject may seem psychological or even sociological, but Robert Nozick was interested in the discussion of the state, so his book is called “Anarchy, State and Utopia” (2011), its original version is from 1974, so long before the fall of the Berlin wall, changes in Russia and the western world.

Nozick’s unique argument is that man chose to leave the “state of nature” and set up a kind of state whose existing morality consists of a future Minimum State, where some “laws” would work automatically, since of course it is no longer possible.

Apart from Martha Nussbaum’s recent book on “The Monarchy of Fear,” little or no literature penetrates the current conjuncture about the return of states as a force of repression and “order” to re-establish possible harmony.

He says of victims of injustice, including those practiced by the state: “What is permissible for victims of injustice to do in order to rectify the injustices committed against them, including the large number of injustices committed by people acting through government? I do not know of a complete or theoretically sophisticated approach to these issues. ”(NORZICK, 2011, p. 195).

He is the only author to criticize John Rawls’s utilitarianism on the issue of distribution and the only author to include in his critique Bernard Williams’s text on the fact that the state’s only action on inequality is the question of disease, curiously. Obama’s health plan that was attacked by Donald Trump. Addressing even Utopia, Nozick states that: “Life is not a race where everyone competes for a prize pre-set by someone…” (NOZICK, 2011, p. 305).

NOZICK, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Sao Paulo: WMF Martins Fontes, 2011. The following video explains these arguments, the 3rd. Julia Markovitz’s class about utilitarism:


Utilitarianism, economy and moral

30 Jul

The idea that it was consumerism and the production of goods in modernity that led humanity to a wave of accumulation of goods or capital is not entirely true, the fact that this was done as a way of feeding a capital-based society is rather one part of the matter, the other is what is thought of as life and happiness.
This current as an ethical doctrine that argues that goods promote happiness is not the one that arises from the beginning, liberalism defends usury and capitalization at first, the novels by Honoré de Balzac, which even Marx liked to read, show this anatomy of society liberalism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, utilitarianism later matured with the idea that goods lead to greater happiness, notably with Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).
In Balzac’s novels the figures of Father Goriot, named in the Human Comedy organized by the Brazilian Paulo Rónai, received in the Portuguese edition the name of Uncle Goriot, is a novel that two ungrateful daughters take everything from their father after leaving him (they were not even on their deathbed) they spend their goods on true liberalism in Paris in 1819, the period of the restoration of the French Bourbon monarchy.
Father Gouriot says on his deathbed: “Ah, my friend, do not marry, have no children! you give them life and they give you death, ”as they see their daughters spend their accumulated possessions. It is not unique to this period, as in King Lear also we note that two daughters also abandon their father because of his throne and only one will follow faithful to their father, and the Shakespeare period to remember is around the year 1605.
Utilitarianism is thus a current born in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that influenced the idea that more goods is more happiness, from this the idea that more development must also be a greater social production of goods, not forgetting that this is only an aspect of happiness.
Mill was a member of the British Parliament in 1865, and defended individual rights, including petitioning to extend the vote to women, so this defense is initially the defense of a liberal right.
Even the studies of political economy were done by Mill, who was an economist, having studied Adam Smith, David Ricardo, the physiocrats and mercantilism, and is not, therefore, an exclusivity of Marx, which is in some way aligned with Mill’s thinking, essentially in the aspect of economicism and utilitarianism, they lack the human aspect.
Interestingly, Stuart Mill defends the distribution of wealth, he writes verbatim: “The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society,” which is in volume 2 of its Principles of Political Economy (1983).
Julia Markovits (Cornell University) presents video an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarismo:


Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.


Where does Europe go?

22 Jan

Three issues take over the European news: the upcoming European parliamentary elections in late May, the UK exit in March and the yellow jackets in France.
While this is the conference in Davos that does not seem to bother with these issues, the absences of France, the United Kingdom and the United States show something strange.
With regard to the European elections, Makron’s fragile situation in France and Merkel’s term come to an end, less so in Germany where a new leader seems to have emerged, the new leader of the newly elected Christian Democratic Union Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (AKK) with 99% of the votes and could become the next German chancellor in 2021.
“I learned that leadership has more to do with inner strength than with outside noise,” says AKK (pictured with Merkel) who rejects the title of “mini Merkel” that says they would not say this from a man, is more docile and more determined than Merkel, has 3 children and her husband always accompanies her.
Two European parties lead the bloc the EPP (European People’s Party which are in the Christian Democrats) which has 265 deputies and the S & D (Socialist and Progressive Democrats) with 184 deputies, but the right with liberals and reformists promises to grow, just look the scenario of the countries and the exit of the United Kingdom, that will be in March.
France and Germany lead in number of deputies, have respectively 96 and 74 deputies out of a total of 751, in addition the German leader AKK speaks French well, and this block is fundamental to fight the nationalist wave that can weaken the European Union. Brexit, leaving the UK less and less united and more fragmented because of leaving the European Union, affects the European bloc in the sense that it can create a wave and also because it has a significant number of left-center deputies due to its still very strong in a UK divided by Brexit itself.
The yellow jackets seem too organized to actually represent any social contestation, to some analysts it seems somewhat orchestrated to strengthen a new kind of nationalism that has little or nothing to do with the actual population, kept to the right proportions, somewhat reminiscent of the demonstrations of 2013 in Brazil.


Web Summit in Lisbon

08 Nov

One of the biggest events of the Web was this week, it was a side event, I could only follow videos and news, undoubtedly the biggest star was the founder of the Web Tim-Berners Lee who already has a great new project, although he has spoken between the lines.

He started an interview, which in fact he spoke at will without many questions saying the beginning of the Web and how his growth was also surprising for him, he told technical details like “I wrote the code of the first server and the code of the first browser, it was called “and was on

He then said that his concern is the same as everyone, after 25 years we should deal with: cyberbullying, misinformation, hate speech, privacy issues and said what many are talking about, “What the hell could go wrong?” to the public: “in the first 15 years … great things have happened. We had Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, blogs, we had cats, “he said jokingly, adding:” Connected Humanity should be more constructive, more peaceful, than Humanity disconnected”, but jnt (just not).

“Because we are almost at the point where half of the world will be online”, explained the British engineer was referring to the ’50 / 50′ moment, that is half the connected humanity expected in 50 years, but it should reach this point in May 2019.

After trying to argue the responsibilities of governments and companies, I believe they can happen but they will be slow, he spoke indirectly of his SOLID (Social Linked Data) project, stating that “as individuals we have to hold corporations and governments accountable for what is happening on the internet ” and “the idea is, from now on, everyone is responsible for making the Web a better place, “said encouraging start-ups too to get into this process.

Thinking about the development of interfaces where users know people from different cultures, but above all ensure the universality of the Web, according to Berners-Lee the main aspect should be (speaking indirectly again of SOLID) that the popular intervention at global level and that made the Web “just a platform, without attitude, that should be independent, can be used for any kind of information, any culture, any language, any hardware, software”, linked data may help this.

 Tim Berners-Lee presented the #ForTheWeb movement on the same day that his World Wide Web Foundation released the report “The Case for the Web”, the event had a superaudience, more than 30 thousand people, there are several videos, but the Opening Ceremony is one of the most outstanding and has Tim-Berners Lee as well, see on vídeo:


Child abandonment

17 Apr

I find, reading a Portuguese newspaper that the number of abandoned children worldwide reaches 220 million worldwide, one in ten, and the number caught my attention because it is practically the population of Brazil.

The news of 2016 says that only in Portugal about 8,600 children were removed from their families in 2015, and also very curious news that in three villages where these Portuguese children are referred (there is still much life and many villages in Portugal, which differs from small towns), the villages of Bicesse (photo), Guarda and Gulpilhares, they are integrated into a house with a “social mother” and cohabit with the other children as brothers.

What is the school success of the current 120 children? in all villages have already lived in these villages more than 500 children, the school success rate is 88%, do not report the metric, but I believe that is the approval, since they do not talk about evasion numbers.

The time I went to look for what are social mothers has turned out to be an even greater reality, the NGO SOS mothers was founded in Austria in 1949, and is already in 135 countries, with about 2000 programs in the areas of protection, prevention, health, education and emergency.

The program is one of these programs. In the case of Portugal, it aims at Family Empowerment through 130 biological families, who receive an “employment grant”, with parents selected through such a detailed profile: – age between 30 and 55 years old; – minimum schooling 9th year, preferably secondary education and training in the area of education; – experiences in daily management of care and teamwork; – personal availability, intense professional commitment with majority residency in the SOS Village; and, – determination, tolerance and perseverance; – resistance to frustration and conflict resolution; – flexibility: ability to adapt to different situations and individual characteristics; – communication and empathic skills.

Expression and understanding of the other’s feelings. – ability to work in team and organizational competence. It is not just a program for social families, it is a program for all families, but more importantly, besides being a social work, it is a source of income for families with the capacity to face the challenges of family education.


From Homeric times to barbarism

03 Jan

From the times of the epic romances of the Iliad and the Odyssey, to this ATroiaGregoday violence has been part of history, especially in Western civilization, which reads in the first verse of Iliad:
For many historians this is the founding work of Western civilization, where Alexander regards the cynical philosopher Diogenes who spent his life in a barrel, to whom he would have been told that if he were not an emperor, he would like to be like a filthy wanderer from Athens.
Petr Sloterijk will reconstruct (in our view) this cynicism and anger that are in an event to trace a fundamental part of his thinking in two founding works of his thought, the Critique of Cynic Reason (1983) and Ira and Tempo (2006) in Brazil by the Estação Liberdade, besides the first volume of the three of the Spheres.
In addition to cynicism and age do we want to launch the probability of the emergence of a new thought, in times of anger and cynicism, a sincere and universal solidarity that embraces the whole world, would be possible? perhaps, but not without human forces to propel it.
What humanism can be born or reborn today, since in our view the Renaissance was nothing more than a return to humanism with the help of classical antiquity, but neoliberalism and the Enlightenment took a different path.
To clarify the philosopher Byung-Chul Han in The Society of Cansaço (edited in Brazil by Voices 2017): “The society of fatigue and performance today has traces of a coactive society, each carries with it a field, a field of work . The specific characteristic of this field of work is that each one is both a prisoner and guardian, victim and tormentor, master and slave. We explore ourselves. “(Han, 2017, 115)
Politics has become cynical because what we want is what Saramago called “the colonization of the other,” I hope the other has the same opinion as his own, we enter into a field of psychopolitics, where coercion becomes all arms, and the same as for the method.
Dialogue is done with hypocrisy and proselytism, all we want is that “our truth” prevails, there is no hermeneutic, but only one method: coercion.
A global solidarity humanism does not have the strength to develop in this field, but only there can be our way out, ecology, ecology, politics and development will only develop on a world scale, where forces of economic coercion are controlled.