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Arquivo para a ‘Social Network’ Categoria

Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003

 

Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.

 

Playing with the mind: Claude Shannon

06 May

It was time to pay tribute at the time of Claude Shannon’s contribution and genius, two journalists wrote in 2017 a book about the one that, in our vision with Vannevar Bush of whom he was a MIT lecturer, created Information Theory, although the name might be different, he knew he used information like “machine.”

In the book the information will be called a message, but it could be a sign. I did not read the book, but it was studying the Boolean Algebra that Shannon started to make a digital world, but opposing the analog is the second misconception because everything we do is analog, the clock for example, there is an analogy with the movement of the sun and of course, the rotation of the earth.

In his master’s thesis, in 1937 he analyzed electric circuits that were based only on “yes” or “no”, with connectives “and” or “and” and “not”, and it will be only in his 1948 work that his “Mathematical Theory of Communication”, became Information Theory.

The basic idea was based on calculations of the amount of information needed for a message (I prefer a signal) so that information (of human origin, transmitted by a channel or physical medium) does not lose its original relevance.

Few books have so many citations in relevant works, the book cites 91,000, and virtually the entire theory of “signal processing,” “imaging,” and any information transformed into digital “signal” must use its theory.

The central contribution of his work is called “sampling theory”, which states that in any system the maximum sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency of the signal to be transmitted.

For example, an audible sound to the human ear, which reaches the maximum at 20 KHz, should have a sampling rate of at least 40 KHz. In addition to anticipating the computer along with Alan Turing, also the first Machine Learning, quite simple, but sophisticated for that time, a mouse robot in a maze:

 

 

 

 

Postmodern, Late Modernity, and Life

01 May

The period of post-war was followed by a period of mass culture, with the reaction of the counterculture and resistance to the war in Vietnam, this was even before the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Union, before the birth of internet, and therefore there was already a crisis in Western thinking since Kieekgaard, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.
Stuart Hall, in The Culture Identity in Postmodernity (2000) attempts to assess what would be happening with a crisis of (social) identity and that this led to the fragmentation of the individual generating new identities, subject to a concrete plan of history and no longer with the perception of the previous stages, in our view, nationalism and conservatism are a strong reaction to this aspect, or the attempt to return to an identity before the crisis.
The process that has taken place since the 1980s, where there was already a mass culture, now occurs on a global scale, a true world-system, which is influenced by globalization without doubt, but the background is now a mass culture world, where national, ethnic and social identities are confused, and the Web is just a media of this process, the mass culture of the previous process prepared this stage.
Stuart Hall’s attempt is to analyze the cultural plan, if it is economic truth that we are in a late modernity, for those who look at the ongoing change is in the art plane that one can try to understand the movement that one makes and where one goes.
Today artists even have greater possibilities of communicating, but the enormous amount of tendency and languages makes impossible some formal unicity, then dialog and compose.
Aesthetics are also products and consequences of the production and circulation of the same, and unlike the movement of art, as Byung Chul Han says “everyone wants to be different from each other”, which forces “to produce itself” said in the conference in 2018 in Barcelona, because only those who open themselves to the Other can appreciate the different and respect.
The speech of hatred is made in the group of equals, speak in dialogue without hearing soon find an excuse for intolerance, resentment and attack.
The networks that were to put us together, put together the equals that are reinforced, as Byung Chul Han says, “in the desert, or in hell, of the equal”, sometimes with sweet words and sometimes with declared hatred.
The African TED Seconde Nimenya clarifies why we want to be equal, when we are different and this should be normal, but it is not:

 

The smooth, linear and non-life

30 Apr

Certainly most people feel uncomfortable with the amount of activities, of course there is another type (which is not the opposite) that is passivity or procrastination, the fact that someone is in paralysis, the panic or anxiety syndrome is exactly this.
What is tiredness, it is not only social, intellectual, political activism or hyperactivity, that is attributed to children, but there are numerous workaholic, compulsive and tense adults.
What impels us to this, contrary to what one might imagine to be a confused life, or the loss of focus (there are innumerable books on this, and others of self-help for aspects that are not the central ones), is a “life of exercises, “would say Peter Sloterdijk, or the society of fatigue Byung Chul Han, where this comes from and why we arrived in this state seems unanswered.
The idea of linearity, “focus” or personal management, emotional intelligence and so many other jargon do not escape a life even though “straight” continues to take us to the bottom of the pit.
The network represents complexity, but even opening the possibility of a universe of relationships (in fact only 6 relationships, called the six degrees of separation are needed) does not improve the deteriorated degree of relationships, explains Byung Chul Han in a lecture made in Barcelona , in 2018:
“We are on the Net but we do not listen to the other, we just make noise,” said Byung-Chul Han, saying that only travels the necessary, does not do conventional tourism “to not participate in the flow of goods and people,” he said at the Culture Center Contemporary of Barcelona.
This led psychiatrist Steven Berglas of Harvard Medical School’s Department of Psychiatry to elegantly protest: “To be fair to (… a certain author …) and other self-help authors, there is much useful material in their works and much of the damage done by such literature is due to the fact that these books are not read or even read. Many people cite insights from books based on a hurried reading of the fourth covers or titles, in “Reclaiming the Fire” of the 2001.
The psychiatrist Albert Ellis claims that most of the problems of modern society arise because are based on absolutist beliefs of “I must” or “have” about oneself, about others, he created a Therapy Rational Emotional of Conduct (TREC), the TED of Jules Evans clarifies the therapy:

 

The Easter of Humanity

19 Apr

It is certain that we live a dark time, not from the digital transformations that in their essence are not evil because they expanded the worldview by telecommunications and electronic networks, expanded the participation by MEDIAS of social networks, and made more Visible the great atrocities that have been practiced ever since: oppression, inequality and various types of social intolerances.
Only one passage is possible (a great Passover of death and resurrection), if we understand what must die and need to resurrect it.
The ideological construction that we conventionally call enlightenment has three pillars: the Kantian idealism sublimated by Hegel and used by many including Marx, the Enlightenment and the empiricist thought, who believed that true knowledge is in Senses, reason and science came from these pillars.
The Industrial revolution represented the departure of the rural worker who fought in communal regime for the city where it sells its workforce, at the beginning without rules and contracts of employment, then the Social contract of the state (read: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau) leaves the Famous 3 powers and goes to the working class, with concessions but insufficient.
Thus the religious thought was progressively abandoned, what Max Weber called “Disenchantment of the world”, but it is necessary to understand that the part that idealism calls subjective (relative to the subject) is his own and with Heidegger there is a twist Ontological.
Also the Enlightenment thought was already in crisis with Husserl, since the logicism had already been questioned by the Vienna Circle, but still without disattaching it.
The Husserl development elaborates the concept of world-of-life (Lebenswelt), but another central aspect little cited is that Husserl takes the problem of historicity of philosophy, undertaking profound teleological-historical analyses, pointing philosophy As able to review the essential aspects of modern science.
Ernest Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote The philosophy of the Enlightenment, and held a significant debate on the issue of Liberty and Kantian reason with Heidegger that reveals these issues, the central point of this debate is the questions of the exact and moral sciences of enlightenment.
In this plan philosophical thought may be able to rethink the Enlightenment model, and certainly no solution will be more national, cultural or religiously isolated, global problems need and can only be solved the light of global governance.
It takes a new thought, a new man who embrace the world and of course a new world culture that allows for social balance, with nature and with cultures.

 

Arrogance, nets and feet-washed

17 Apr

It is a holy week, a fact that goes unnoticed, but it is fundamental in the spirituality that is said to be “Christian” (yes, for the society in crisis, everything is confused: democracy, freedom, moral, ethics and also the principles and values of certain cultures) a detail is the foot-washing ceremony, the master is lowered to a function made by slaves and washes the feet of the disciples.
There is no greater contradiction in the contemporary world, for the idea of power, wealth and arrogance without measures make the Other object of manipulation, desire and submission, and almost no circle escapes, from the power of the state to the periphery of cities, through schools, churches and various types of associations.
Behind this idea is to always see the Other as smaller, less prepared or less capable, the networks have reversed this and disorganized a vertical power structure, clear with exaggerations, but the central, often even established and democratic power too, see the censures of the ministers of the Brazilian STF (Tribunal Superior Judge), who were supposed to defend the constitution.
Yes the networks also exaggerate, but without the exercise they will never learn, is now given a power that only the editorial groups, the centers of power and the wealthy had, manipulate the truth in their favor, and were already fake news, I was going to ask where the truth was then.
Feet-washing puts this logic, will power or power Nietszche, something that seems natural, but for sick reasons evolve in times of crisis.
To wash the feet of prisoners, as did Pope Francisco in last year, to go to those who will not be able to reciprocate, to open their arms and pockets to those who need it, and in the case of Christian Easter, to give their lives for their friends, love, started with washing the feet.
Most people do not recognize the gesture, Peter did not want Jesus to do this, or think it is a false feeling, or that the person himself does not give himself the courage, never that [voluntary and conscious: washing the feet of those who could by some logic being below us.
Few do, in a society in crisis is more than a gesture, it is necessary, it is healing.
While the Brazilian thinker Leandro Karnal thinks that humility does not get well, Mario Sérgio Cortela said that is humility:

 

 

The Interiority: garden, indifference or puppets

09 Apr

Following a great development of the idea of the Polis, the next movement of thought goes into interiority, Aristotle had been the preceptor of Alexander the Great, who built the first great empire of antiquity, but then came the Roman Empire, the polis was confined in ideas about law, wars of conquest and finally the Roman pax, which was the surrender to the great empire.
The thought will confine the interiority, Warburton will call the chapter on Garden Epicurus, because he ran his school in a house with a garden, and his basic ideas was how to make the philosophy practical to make life happy, the practical was so rules of how to work inner issues, and between them avoiding ideas about death.
A second school that emerged in this period were called skeptics, for their indifference in many relevant matters, or Stoics because they met at the gates of the cities called “stoa”, hence the name of the school.
The basic idea is captured by Warburton as: “Our attitude toward what happens is within the limits of our control, though whatever happens is not.”(Warburton: 2012, 32).
To a birth of reason, because the Stoics believed that we should not feel sad about something wrong that happens to us, when we are deceived or have emotions that would hinder our thinking, we should always eliminate it completely.
Thus, if contemporary philosophy can be said to be objectivist in the sense of the subjectivists, the influence of Cicero on the Enlightenment is recognized, especially in Locke, Hume, and Montesquieu.
Finally, Augustine’s view of Warburton as that which all reality as “puppets” of divine thought, nothing more unjust, Augustine tried to free himself from the Manichean thought that imprisoned him in a struggle between good and evil, and his conversion to Christianity was just that cristianism isn’t manichaeism view of life.
I know that even Christian scholars see it that way, and Manichaeism is still an influential part of religion.

Warburton, N. Uma história da filosofia. São Paulo: LP&M, 2012. (in portuguese).
The philosopher Massimo Pugliucci has interess in stoicism and explain this thinking:

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Judge not to be judged

05 Apr

In addition to the resentment that holds the will to change and the renewal of relationships, the most criminal and cruel human sentiment is to judge, these days Hubert Nathan Myers and Uncle Clifford Williams Jr were released after 43 years in prison on charges of a crime.
Today they are 61 and 76, they were 18 and 34 when they were detained, the United States will indemnify them with 1.78 million euros, enough money? even if it were ten times as long as the young people who were still and lost were to be replaced, they hugged each other at the end of the prison.
Judging crimes is necessary, but justice exists precisely for this and to avoid abuses, especially against races, cultures and religions, the idea of conceiving a certain culture, race or creed as inferior or malignant in relation to others is that in fact evil .
Also in human relationships when we are unable to see what is good and positive in certain people make relationships poisoned and even those that are healthy can deteriorate through some hasty judgment.
We rarely know the set of facts, that is, what leads a person to a particular crime or problem, and it is not enough to propose a solution to it, you must give him the means to get out of the web that is often and can not detach itself .
The adulterous woman, who at the time of Jesus could be stoned in public, is saved when the Master asks those who wish to do so if anyone there had not sinned, they all go out and then he asks the woman John 8: 10-11: “Woman, where are they?” No one has condemned you? ” She replied, “No one, Lord.” Then Jesus said to him, “Neither do I condemn you.
You can go, and from now on sin no more, “that is, he acquitted her. That is, a family, a community, a society or a country begins to collapse if the judgment no longer finds a stopping point, and then begins to punish everyone.
Domestic violence is a disgusting type of violence, but violence itself is, there is a TED to show that it exists in many so-called “civilized” countries, but why does it exist?

 

What I learned from Portugal

04 Apr

I travel back to Brazil, already with great longing, it is always difficult to leave behind strong bonds that are built during life, I recognize that everything that thought of Portugal little stood, it is a fact that colonized Brazil, as it is also a fact which were the first great empire of modernity, an ability to fight and win as unique and commendable people.
Among the strong contacts I had with Portuguese culture I emphasize his love of culture, especially the music not only of fact but also popular and modern songs, his poetry and literature of Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Eça de Queiroz and many current as Saramago.
I highlight a man, a mystic and also a man of culture, who he knew at a glance, since he had read on the Web his book Repensar Portugal, which reads:
“Mystical people, but little metaphysical; lyric but little gregarious people; active but not very organized people; an empirical people, but a little pragmatic “, I emphasize” cohabiting people, but easily segregated by the arts of those who lead them “(Father Manuel Antunes, Repensar Portugal, 37).
His work is immense and includes Revista Brotéria, a whole work on education in his book Paidéia, influences that he maintains until today, at the Open University through Dr. José Eduardo Franco, who keeps alive his memory.
The revitalization of Lisbon, Oporto and small towns, here called villages, the eternal participation and preservation of the people of culture in the arts, cuisine, folklore and innumerable cultural centers, theaters and even TV programs dedicated to this.
I learned from this that there is a positive way of loving one’s own culture and fellow citizens, very different from an unhealthy, xenophobic and prejudiced nationalism. By the way, Portugal welcomes many peoples and nations and has curious connections with the Orient, such as Macau and Goa.
Lastly, I leave my gratitude, my love and my respect to the Portuguese people public, they are from now on my second homeland, chosen for love and reciprocity.
I leave this little video of Portugal for those who still do not know this beautiful country: