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Arquivo para a ‘Antropotécnica’ Categoria

From biopolitics to psychopolitics

10 Aug

The form of power, while still centered on the state and its modern concept of state that comes from Hegel and not just the French Revolution, underwent changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, which philosopher Michel Foucault called biopower.
Literally the philosopher elaborates it this way: “The instruments that the government will give to achieve these ends [that are, in some way, immanent to the field of the population, will essentially be the population over which it acts. ” (Foucault, 1978, p. 277-293) that is in his work Microphysics of power, when it addresses the issue of governability.
Many who do not accept Foucault’s philosophy, for lack of reading or understanding, do not realize that what today is called public policy has this idea at its source. However biopower can be thought of more fully, including technologies that act on a local population or particular social demand, but always with the idea of establishing power and control over particular localities or social groups.
Byung Chul Han in three recent works (The Swarm, Psychopolitics, and What is Power) (explains that this form has been superseded by current psychopolitics, where local powers and policies are replaced by elaborate new techniques of power, Foucault also calls them that. With the problems of health, birth, mortality and life estimation (see this theme in welfare reform) the biopolitics aimed to control the “body” as well as the biopower.
Entering the digital age this evolves into psychopolitics, which leads us to a crisis of both freedom and identity, where psychically even one’s own will is struck. Byung Chul Han’s long analysis of What Is Power, returning to Nietzsche and even Kierkegaard (1813 – 1855), the philosopher reveals the subjective aspects that power has been working from the conception of the modern state.
He considers it essential to understand the digital age, even though he has criticism of technological appropriation, and places the latest Big Data technology as a key element in this process, and is therefore very current because it is the technology that reaches the psyche of the social subject, and of the individual ultimately: his interests, desires and worldviews.
I consider it important to return to Kierkegaard, although Chul Han does so on time, the ideas of this existentialist philosopher are deeply related to the concepts of the works of the Korean-German, in particular: the anguish in The Society of Bournout and the pursuit of happiness and pleasure in The agony of Eros.
The social scientist slovenian Renata Salecl’s obsession with choice addresses the issue of Kierkeegard’s updated anguish:
https://www.ted.com/talks/renata_salecl_our_unhealthy_obsession_with_choice/transcript?language=pt-br#t-97506  

 

Earth-planetarism, a planetary worldview

09 Jul

We have already mentioned that the worldview depends on a vision of the cosmos and life itself, there is still a citizen worldview, Edgar Morin called the land-fatherland and what I call earth-planetaryism. Seeing the planet as Patria, as “common house” in the religious mystical vision, as Gaia in a mythological view, incorporate this view, for the planet itself, living beings including animals and plants and cultures that are the citizenship of living peoples in the Planet.

Broaden a cosmos-planetary view of the Earth they inhabit. In Edgar Morin’s book he traces in chapters 2 and 3 what this planetary identity would be, and at the same time reveals an exhaustion and planetary agony, there is something that involves beyond the traditions and cultural issues at stake, the worldview depends on how man sees himself as a whole, and this implies an advanced worldview, which admits the new telescopes, which made the Copernican revolution, which are now the new media.

Terraplanism is the most extreme side of this view, but attachment to an earlier view of quantum physics, black holes, the view of a multi-verse implies that the planetary cosmovision is still enlightened and idealistic, stuck to an idea of ​​citizenship , of state and of planet that already is much surpassed, and agonizes in successive crises. In the book by Morin and Anne Brigitte Kern, they point out that the key phenomenon to understand this crisis of planetary proportions is “moral, psychic and intellectual underdevelopment” (Morin and Kern, 2011, 115), including development, and the proliferation of holistic “hollow” ideals and of mutilated visions, the loss of the global, the fundamental and the responsibility “(ibid.).

Broadening this vision requires abandoning pseudo-planetary principles that are Eurocentrists, third-worldists, imperialists and neocolonizers present in the “saviors of the homeland” are left or right, generally unrelated and limited worldview.

A new planetary vision, which respects nature itself, demands a vision of an even wider universe that was thought by Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and the Enlightenment, the eternal dualism materialism x idealism, the imperial religiosity of some religions.

Lack of wisdom to the humble and humility to the wise, it is time to rethink the thought, as Edgar Morin wanted, a time of transdisciplinarity of multi-verse (several universes).

MORIN, E., KERN, A.B. Terra Pátria (Earth homeland.) Trad. Paulo Neves. 6th. edition, Sulina Publishing, Brazil, 2011.

This presentation of the Edgar Morin in SESC in São Paulo Brasil, he talks about this subject:

 

Cosmology, Worldview and Dialogue

04 Jul

The origin of the Greek word “kosmos” is linked to the idea of order, universe (or multiverse), beauty and harmony, also the cosmos through the position of the stars helped to organize the calendar in the origin of human history, cosmogonies and visions of the beginning and end of the uni- multiverse, of nature and of man.
The absence of a worldview also impoverishes the view of Being, Emanuel Lévinas examining the theme in his book Ethics and Infinity, a radical critique of the category of totality, typical of Western philosophy that led to the cult of Same and Neutral, absolute thought which led to tyrannies and totalizing ideologies.
In Aristotelian physics, previous to modern physics and unthinkable at that time an astrophysics of the multiverse, he elaborated a static model, of eternal flow of the becoming, submitted to an order, the Copernican revolution put everything in motion, and modern astrophysics recovered the model of “Infinite”, where matter and dark energy dominate 96% of the universe.
The cosmogonies are fundamental to understand the formation of cultures and religious thoughts of diverse peoples, legends and myths can usually be thought around a metaphysics, and the beliefs that make them possible as an explanation of the world.
The worldview is present in any form of thought, so materialism, idealism and spiritualism are cosmovisions, as a partial apprehension of the totality and the solution and encounter of the Other are made in function of this worldview.
Thus, in a dialogue of cultures, imperative for a globalizing world and the demand of a global citizenship although not recognized, it is necessary clarifications of this cosmovision, of way totalizing and while admits the infinite like mystery and becoming.
We find in the Basic Dictionary of Philosophy (Jupiassu, Marcondes, 2008) that cosmology supposes the possibility of a knowledge of the world as a system and as an expression of a discourse, the postulate of a totalization of the world, if made by knowledge, of an eventual cosmology of knowledge itself.

JAPIASSÚ, Hilton e MARCONDES, Danilo. (2008) Dicionário Básico de Filosofia. (Basic Dictionary of Philosophy), 5a.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
The video below shows the Cosmic vision of David Southwood of ESA (European Space Agency):

 

The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:

 

Community co-immunity

30 May

Sloterdijk, in developing the idea of co-immunity, criticizes old proposals of social groups where exclusion, judgment and therefore do not have the necessary democratic equality among its members.
Although he criticizes religious ideas as judgment through “heresies,” he also criticizes communism as a system where there is judgment, said that he prefers religious force in a way, so that it introduces a certain “pragmatism” of taking beliefs, with its proposal for a future where a link to co-immunity is possible.
Self-immunization is thought of as a program pursued by the sapiens, having as a component an individual asceticism, the pursuit of self-improvement through exercise.
It is curious that Sloterdijk, in saying that the process of “domestication of the human being” failed, in his reply to Heidegger’s Charter on Humanism, his classic book Rules for the Human Park, later admitted a kind of asceticism that allowed each person a self-improvement.
Although this is in his book on self-promises (a kind of religious purposes or vows) his ascesis is written in the book “The infinite mobilization” (Ed. Relógio D´Agua, 2002).
His question to Heidegger’s Dasein is “where are we if we are in the world?” And his answers are in the realm of intimacy, a true “archeology of intimacy,” in which we recognize a closeness to an author who wrote several books on this , which is Martin Bubber.
What there is is a kind of “institnto of the relation” written in the book “Me Tu” of Martin Buber, that we have when children, and disappears or weakens and thus we lose the “sociability”.
What happens when we go from the maternal womb to adulthood is what has already been called a “fantastic ontoanthropology” (quotation by Paulo Ghiraldelli), which we prefer to call onanthropic, in the sense that a set of activities and techniques of day-to- day that makes adult life move, and which does not always cooperate with a co-immunity.
The idea of “imaginary friends”, fantasy of some children, for teachers not always imaginary, for imaginary freedom, what Sloterdijk calls “interior designer”, always has the search to return to an “initial resonance” of the uterine phase.
In the trilogy of the spheres, Bubbles also means this, in German the name of amniotic sac is Fruchblase, to the letter of the fruit bubble or fruit of the bubble.
Man falls into the open, this being-there of Heidegger, then seeks new mechanisms of uterine protection and replacement of protected life, or immunization projects, in Sloterdijk’s view.

Co-immunism is therefore a word for this social immunity, which he prefers from a bi-unit, ie a two-pole resonance apparatus, and the sound term is not by chance, it is a Here and one with the same time, what could be the fetal-placental bond.
The globe that replaces the idea of the bubble of the second volume of Spheres, enters the theological and metaphysical projects, present in the history that has developed in modernity, The question is timely, the idea of co-immunity was important at the moment.

 

The rise of idealism and the spirit

05 Feb

The spirit seen outside the Noologia, name given by the Brazilian Writer Mario Ferreira dos Santos for noosphere studies, is pure idealism in philosophy, and spiritual falsification in theology. The influence on contemporary theology can be seen in the work of Karl Ranner, both in Hörer des Wortes (HW) in his Spanish translation Oyente de la palabra (Listener of the Word), and in the spirit of the world, his thesis of The spirit of the World (1967),

This word where despite the influence of Thomas Aquinas and even Heidegger, he does not completely abandon Kant. Francisco Taborda writes about Rahner: “What Rahner does in HW presages all his subsequent theological walk, characterized by the transcendental perspective that implies the presence of an internal philosophy to theology and carries the mark of the anthropological turn of modernity”.

That is, despite to try to reconcile his thoughts with Thomas Aquinas and Heidegger, his main matrix is ​​in “Listener of the Word” (1963), where he states: “If man stands before the God of a possible revelation, if this revelation, should it take place, must take place in human history … etc. “(RAHNER, 1967, p.223).

But discussing theology is complex today, and unfortunately simplification has led to fundamentalism, which is the worst of all tragedies, for God is Omniscient, so it is not simple, for Love is something so complex that no one ever codified it, poets tried. In philosophy.

The culmination of this idealistic attempt was the Phenomenology of the Spirit, practically an attempt to unravel the Trinity, using the in-itself, de-si and para-si categories, but whose concept of self-consciousness betrays it, for the to be beyond oneself, is actually a return to the self of self.

Thus the transcendent God is “dead” to Kant, for it is a pure relation of immanence, which is diagnosed by Hegel (2007, 173), thus generating the idea that the historical God, the same as that of Rahner, denying the aspect absolute, spiritual above the temporal, “the feeling that God Himself is dead” (idem).

Gadamer, in retelling Hegel, reveals this Spirit as an immanence: “It is an immanent progression, which does not intend to start from any imposed thesis, but to follow the self-motion of concepts, and to expose, dispensing entirely with every designated transition from the outside, the immanent consequence of thought in continuous progression. ” (GADAMER, 2000, p.11)  

This isn’ t the Trinitarian Holy Spirit, but a vision of spirit immanent only human.

 

GADAMER, Hans-Georg. La dialéctica Hegel: Cinco ensayos hermenéuticos. 5ª ed. Trad: Manuel Garrido. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra, 2000.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhem Friedrich. Fé e Saber. Trad: Oliver Tolle. São Paulo: Hedra, 2007.

RAHNER, Karl. Oyente de la Palabra: fundamentos para una filosofía de la religión.  Barcelona: Herder, 1967.

 

Nietzsche, biographies and idealism

16 Jan

As a biographer of Heidegger, I had the motivation to read Rudiger Safransky’s biography of this admirable critique of idealism, and to see him as a human as he would wish him, unlike Nietzsche in Turin (Irvin D. Yalom) and When Nietzsche cried (Brazilian film director Julio Bressane, 2001), which is contrary to even his philosophy in idealizing it, unfit for a criticism of idealism.
A very current subject, due to the emergence of Christian fundamentalism, to which Nietzsche opposed voraciously and with knowledge since he was from a family of Lutheran pastors, the author properly discusses the evolutionism of Charles Darwin and the “death of God”, proclaimed but not enacted , as for some non-idealistic theologians such as Teilhard de Chardin who offers a vision of a cosmic Christ, and the relation between Darwin’s “struggle for survival” is rightly modified by Nietzsche’s “struggle for domination.”
The valorization of aesthetics in Zaratrusta, although there may be those who disagree with the body of arguments, has a beautiful poetic construction, in which the prohibition of the “forbidden mountain of those excluded from divine grace”, irony of the author with exclusion within a Christianity sees in Zaratrusta a lesser prophet without the force of a Daniel who entered and left the den of lions, without the dignity of a John the Baptist, with the nobles and the rich, living from the feeding of locusts and wild honeycombs.
His aesthetic position, discussion of the last chapter, goes from the analysis of the birth of tragedy, fundamental in classical antiquity, to the discussion of Wagner’s music, where he emphasizes the influence on author as Jaspers, Heidegger, Thomas Man, Bergson, Adorno, Horkheimer, and Focault, and denies his influence on Nazi thought, despite the desire to appropriate his philosophy.
What some criticize in this biographical work on Nietzsche is in our view his great value, the fact that brings his life closer to his writings, going deep into the classical error of idealism, separating subject from object, separating thought from concrete life, as if this were possible, in this case vital tragedy that is diverse from the analysis of the Greek tragedy where since Aristotle, t is the fate of men, of society and its relation to the gods.
The tragedy of idealism is to propose a human, religious, and societal model that can not be realized since it is separated from “worldliness” only an “ideal”.

Rudiger Safranski, Nietzsche: biografia de uma tragédia (Nietzsche: biography of a tragedy). Translated by Lya Luft. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Geração Editorial, 2001.

 

Paths, artifact and art in Heidegger

14 Jan

The work Origin of the work  art (1936) is a text by Martin Heidegger, where the question of art and work, which moves to the artifact, and which is Heidegger himself in motion, when writing a collection Forest Paths.
Instead of writing a work written Forest Paths (Holzwege) in which an additive was added before the epilogue in 1956.
A view of Heidegger that the “artifact” of art, is a privileged way of revealing the quotidian, reveals itself as a poetic understanding of the world, and brings the idea of meaningless “way” of reach, duration and legitimacy of art.
Is this a question of knowing the origin of the work of art? Is the origin in the artifact, the observer or the artist? According to his question, “What is in the work, is it at work?” (Heidegger, 2002, 31), where it is possible to see the “way” already.
A medieval philosophy called a “quidity,” as it is, was about the nominalists like Ockham and Scotus Duns with the royalists, as they debated realists and ontologists like Thomas Aquinas, who began the discussion about the existence of universals, and the bottom is about what is essence.
For Heidegger is a source of information that is being, that is, its essence.
The origin of the algorithm of its essence, as well as its work on the provenance of its essence (Heidegger, 2002, p.7), which one wishes to extrapolate to technique and its relation to essence.
Heidegger in The Binding of a Work of Art follows the publication of the art article, the singular work, the emergence of the work of art from the artist’s creative medium, as well as the origin of the work is the artist (Heidegger, 2002, 61), but does not use the sense of anthropological origin.
As an example, the effect of aesthetic experience, a man observes the shoes on the picture (Van Gogh, 1886), in each time, the image itself is updated, it is a sense to the virtual, since the virtual is something that is updated, and the art was originated by the artist, but it completes itself in the observer and manifest on the artefact.
The updating of this ontological foundation of Heidegger, which sees the origin of the artist, is in Rancière when he speaks of the “Emancipated Spectator” (2008), which opens the discussion about “the theoretical presuppositions that put the spectator question at the heart of the discussion about relations between art and politics “(Rancière, 2012, p.8), essential for the present day.
Rancière shows two premisses about the spectator that are false, the first which is the spectator as opposed to knowing, and the second that is contrary to acting, and calls this the paradox of the spectator who is, in the case of theater, a “non-theater without spectator “(RANCIÈRE, 2012, p.8).
We propose in opposition to the ontotantropotechnical status of the work of art, or of its artifact, it exists while it is being, so the artist lends his ontological status as anthropos (man), and expresses it as a technique.

H

HEIDEGGER, M. A Origem da Obra de Arte, Lisboa: Edições 70, 2002 (Portuguese Edition).

RANCIÈRE, J. O espectador Emancipado, São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2012 (Brazilian Edition).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

11 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office.

It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
The scheme proposed by Lacan, although valid, has an ontological lacuna, because if on the one hand we can relate the Real, the Imaginary and the symbolic, that which belongs only to the symbolic-imaginary is actually human fantasy, exists as a Virtual possibility, but updates. Virtual is the Real that can be updated, in this sense it is “Virtus” that can exist while Being, but that is still only present, to be real needs updating. This gap emerges from what is new, which is still potential in the sense of the old ontology, and which is virtual in the sense of the ontology of the phenomenon, may make little sense since it is still part of the imaginary, having a primary symbolic representation (it may have several reinterpretations ) and it is on the plane of the unconscious both rejection and inhibition by the ignorance of novelty
LACAN, J. O Seminário, livro 11: Os quatro conceitos fundamentais da psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 1979 (in portuguese).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

10 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office. It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
In differentiating the relationship with God from the relation to the world, we do nothing more than give a relation that Descartes called a “res” (resg thing) or res extensa (extensive thing or body), but without separating them, they are present in relationship with the world.

The being should be thinking about the relationship with the other and with things.
It is not possible to be transcended by what is in fact our view of the world, as Heidegger asserts, reintegrating the ontology (Being) with his presence in the world his “dasein”, which is forgotten for an hour .