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Arquivo para a ‘Antropotécnica’ Categoria

Community co-immunity

30 May

Sloterdijk, in developing the idea of co-immunity, criticizes old proposals of social groups where exclusion, judgment and therefore do not have the necessary democratic equality among its members.
Although he criticizes religious ideas as judgment through “heresies,” he also criticizes communism as a system where there is judgment, said that he prefers religious force in a way, so that it introduces a certain “pragmatism” of taking beliefs, with its proposal for a future where a link to co-immunity is possible.
Self-immunization is thought of as a program pursued by the sapiens, having as a component an individual asceticism, the pursuit of self-improvement through exercise.
It is curious that Sloterdijk, in saying that the process of “domestication of the human being” failed, in his reply to Heidegger’s Charter on Humanism, his classic book Rules for the Human Park, later admitted a kind of asceticism that allowed each person a self-improvement.
Although this is in his book on self-promises (a kind of religious purposes or vows) his ascesis is written in the book “The infinite mobilization” (Ed. Relógio D´Agua, 2002).
His question to Heidegger’s Dasein is “where are we if we are in the world?” And his answers are in the realm of intimacy, a true “archeology of intimacy,” in which we recognize a closeness to an author who wrote several books on this , which is Martin Bubber.
What there is is a kind of “institnto of the relation” written in the book “Me Tu” of Martin Buber, that we have when children, and disappears or weakens and thus we lose the “sociability”.
What happens when we go from the maternal womb to adulthood is what has already been called a “fantastic ontoanthropology” (quotation by Paulo Ghiraldelli), which we prefer to call onanthropic, in the sense that a set of activities and techniques of day-to- day that makes adult life move, and which does not always cooperate with a co-immunity.
The idea of “imaginary friends”, fantasy of some children, for teachers not always imaginary, for imaginary freedom, what Sloterdijk calls “interior designer”, always has the search to return to an “initial resonance” of the uterine phase.
In the trilogy of the spheres, Bubbles also means this, in German the name of amniotic sac is Fruchblase, to the letter of the fruit bubble or fruit of the bubble.
Man falls into the open, this being-there of Heidegger, then seeks new mechanisms of uterine protection and replacement of protected life, or immunization projects, in Sloterdijk’s view.

Co-immunism is therefore a word for this social immunity, which he prefers from a bi-unit, ie a two-pole resonance apparatus, and the sound term is not by chance, it is a Here and one with the same time, what could be the fetal-placental bond.
The globe that replaces the idea of the bubble of the second volume of Spheres, enters the theological and metaphysical projects, present in the history that has developed in modernity, The question is timely, the idea of co-immunity was important at the moment.

 

The rise of idealism and the spirit

05 Feb

The spirit seen outside the Noologia, name given by the Brazilian Writer Mario Ferreira dos Santos for noosphere studies, is pure idealism in philosophy, and spiritual falsification in theology. The influence on contemporary theology can be seen in the work of Karl Ranner, both in Hörer des Wortes (HW) in his Spanish translation Oyente de la palabra (Listener of the Word), and in the spirit of the world, his thesis of The spirit of the World (1967),

This word where despite the influence of Thomas Aquinas and even Heidegger, he does not completely abandon Kant. Francisco Taborda writes about Rahner: “What Rahner does in HW presages all his subsequent theological walk, characterized by the transcendental perspective that implies the presence of an internal philosophy to theology and carries the mark of the anthropological turn of modernity”.

That is, despite to try to reconcile his thoughts with Thomas Aquinas and Heidegger, his main matrix is ​​in “Listener of the Word” (1963), where he states: “If man stands before the God of a possible revelation, if this revelation, should it take place, must take place in human history … etc. “(RAHNER, 1967, p.223).

But discussing theology is complex today, and unfortunately simplification has led to fundamentalism, which is the worst of all tragedies, for God is Omniscient, so it is not simple, for Love is something so complex that no one ever codified it, poets tried. In philosophy.

The culmination of this idealistic attempt was the Phenomenology of the Spirit, practically an attempt to unravel the Trinity, using the in-itself, de-si and para-si categories, but whose concept of self-consciousness betrays it, for the to be beyond oneself, is actually a return to the self of self.

Thus the transcendent God is “dead” to Kant, for it is a pure relation of immanence, which is diagnosed by Hegel (2007, 173), thus generating the idea that the historical God, the same as that of Rahner, denying the aspect absolute, spiritual above the temporal, “the feeling that God Himself is dead” (idem).

Gadamer, in retelling Hegel, reveals this Spirit as an immanence: “It is an immanent progression, which does not intend to start from any imposed thesis, but to follow the self-motion of concepts, and to expose, dispensing entirely with every designated transition from the outside, the immanent consequence of thought in continuous progression. ” (GADAMER, 2000, p.11)  

This isn’ t the Trinitarian Holy Spirit, but a vision of spirit immanent only human.

 

GADAMER, Hans-Georg. La dialéctica Hegel: Cinco ensayos hermenéuticos. 5ª ed. Trad: Manuel Garrido. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra, 2000.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhem Friedrich. Fé e Saber. Trad: Oliver Tolle. São Paulo: Hedra, 2007.

RAHNER, Karl. Oyente de la Palabra: fundamentos para una filosofía de la religión.  Barcelona: Herder, 1967.

 

Nietzsche, biographies and idealism

16 Jan

As a biographer of Heidegger, I had the motivation to read Rudiger Safransky’s biography of this admirable critique of idealism, and to see him as a human as he would wish him, unlike Nietzsche in Turin (Irvin D. Yalom) and When Nietzsche cried (Brazilian film director Julio Bressane, 2001), which is contrary to even his philosophy in idealizing it, unfit for a criticism of idealism.
A very current subject, due to the emergence of Christian fundamentalism, to which Nietzsche opposed voraciously and with knowledge since he was from a family of Lutheran pastors, the author properly discusses the evolutionism of Charles Darwin and the “death of God”, proclaimed but not enacted , as for some non-idealistic theologians such as Teilhard de Chardin who offers a vision of a cosmic Christ, and the relation between Darwin’s “struggle for survival” is rightly modified by Nietzsche’s “struggle for domination.”
The valorization of aesthetics in Zaratrusta, although there may be those who disagree with the body of arguments, has a beautiful poetic construction, in which the prohibition of the “forbidden mountain of those excluded from divine grace”, irony of the author with exclusion within a Christianity sees in Zaratrusta a lesser prophet without the force of a Daniel who entered and left the den of lions, without the dignity of a John the Baptist, with the nobles and the rich, living from the feeding of locusts and wild honeycombs.
His aesthetic position, discussion of the last chapter, goes from the analysis of the birth of tragedy, fundamental in classical antiquity, to the discussion of Wagner’s music, where he emphasizes the influence on author as Jaspers, Heidegger, Thomas Man, Bergson, Adorno, Horkheimer, and Focault, and denies his influence on Nazi thought, despite the desire to appropriate his philosophy.
What some criticize in this biographical work on Nietzsche is in our view his great value, the fact that brings his life closer to his writings, going deep into the classical error of idealism, separating subject from object, separating thought from concrete life, as if this were possible, in this case vital tragedy that is diverse from the analysis of the Greek tragedy where since Aristotle, t is the fate of men, of society and its relation to the gods.
The tragedy of idealism is to propose a human, religious, and societal model that can not be realized since it is separated from “worldliness” only an “ideal”.

Rudiger Safranski, Nietzsche: biografia de uma tragédia (Nietzsche: biography of a tragedy). Translated by Lya Luft. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Geração Editorial, 2001.

 

Paths, artifact and art in Heidegger

14 Jan

The work Origin of the work  art (1936) is a text by Martin Heidegger, where the question of art and work, which moves to the artifact, and which is Heidegger himself in motion, when writing a collection Forest Paths.
Instead of writing a work written Forest Paths (Holzwege) in which an additive was added before the epilogue in 1956.
A view of Heidegger that the “artifact” of art, is a privileged way of revealing the quotidian, reveals itself as a poetic understanding of the world, and brings the idea of meaningless “way” of reach, duration and legitimacy of art.
Is this a question of knowing the origin of the work of art? Is the origin in the artifact, the observer or the artist? According to his question, “What is in the work, is it at work?” (Heidegger, 2002, 31), where it is possible to see the “way” already.
A medieval philosophy called a “quidity,” as it is, was about the nominalists like Ockham and Scotus Duns with the royalists, as they debated realists and ontologists like Thomas Aquinas, who began the discussion about the existence of universals, and the bottom is about what is essence.
For Heidegger is a source of information that is being, that is, its essence.
The origin of the algorithm of its essence, as well as its work on the provenance of its essence (Heidegger, 2002, p.7), which one wishes to extrapolate to technique and its relation to essence.
Heidegger in The Binding of a Work of Art follows the publication of the art article, the singular work, the emergence of the work of art from the artist’s creative medium, as well as the origin of the work is the artist (Heidegger, 2002, 61), but does not use the sense of anthropological origin.
As an example, the effect of aesthetic experience, a man observes the shoes on the picture (Van Gogh, 1886), in each time, the image itself is updated, it is a sense to the virtual, since the virtual is something that is updated, and the art was originated by the artist, but it completes itself in the observer and manifest on the artefact.
The updating of this ontological foundation of Heidegger, which sees the origin of the artist, is in Rancière when he speaks of the “Emancipated Spectator” (2008), which opens the discussion about “the theoretical presuppositions that put the spectator question at the heart of the discussion about relations between art and politics “(Rancière, 2012, p.8), essential for the present day.
Rancière shows two premisses about the spectator that are false, the first which is the spectator as opposed to knowing, and the second that is contrary to acting, and calls this the paradox of the spectator who is, in the case of theater, a “non-theater without spectator “(RANCIÈRE, 2012, p.8).
We propose in opposition to the ontotantropotechnical status of the work of art, or of its artifact, it exists while it is being, so the artist lends his ontological status as anthropos (man), and expresses it as a technique.

H

HEIDEGGER, M. A Origem da Obra de Arte, Lisboa: Edições 70, 2002 (Portuguese Edition).

RANCIÈRE, J. O espectador Emancipado, São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2012 (Brazilian Edition).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

11 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office.

It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
The scheme proposed by Lacan, although valid, has an ontological lacuna, because if on the one hand we can relate the Real, the Imaginary and the symbolic, that which belongs only to the symbolic-imaginary is actually human fantasy, exists as a Virtual possibility, but updates. Virtual is the Real that can be updated, in this sense it is “Virtus” that can exist while Being, but that is still only present, to be real needs updating. This gap emerges from what is new, which is still potential in the sense of the old ontology, and which is virtual in the sense of the ontology of the phenomenon, may make little sense since it is still part of the imaginary, having a primary symbolic representation (it may have several reinterpretations ) and it is on the plane of the unconscious both rejection and inhibition by the ignorance of novelty
LACAN, J. O Seminário, livro 11: Os quatro conceitos fundamentais da psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 1979 (in portuguese).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

10 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office. It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
In differentiating the relationship with God from the relation to the world, we do nothing more than give a relation that Descartes called a “res” (resg thing) or res extensa (extensive thing or body), but without separating them, they are present in relationship with the world.

The being should be thinking about the relationship with the other and with things.
It is not possible to be transcended by what is in fact our view of the world, as Heidegger asserts, reintegrating the ontology (Being) with his presence in the world his “dasein”, which is forgotten for an hour .

 

A re-reading of the three wise men

04 Jan

In times of fundamentalism and religious intolerance, a re-reading of the Magi that they have adopted and also “contemplating” the birth of Jesus is essential for dialogue.
The first necessary is that God has communicated with the “wizards” of the East, he can reopen closed hearts for reconnection (religion of the Latin verb religare which is to reconnect), for they were not even religious in the conventional sense, but
magicians and God reconnected them.
The second is that the divine communication was through stars, which means that they could understand this language and that God spoke in their human language, that is, there are forms beyond the dogmatic communication between God and men, even non-believers.
Cosmology is an ancient and fundamental part of philosophy, its evolution and composition studies the universe, and comes from antiquity, the pre-Socratics studied it, also seek the explanation of the origin and transformation of nature and the universe and build myths and divinity, creating a relationship between mortal and imortal beings.
So God is not so indiferente to this, a universal proposition should not disregard cosmology, and if one wishes to construct a cosmogony, that is the beginning and end of all life, then an eschatology is also constructed, and Christian eschatology may be
related to Is not this, after all, God the beginning and the end of everything?
Thesecond re-reading, the question about of the stars, in fact even today they are looking for cosmological evidences of
the star that the Magi followed, a star, a comet, this could help to date Christmas of a more precise date.
Theologians such as Teilhard Chardin did not fail to consider the cosmological hypothesis, and the notion of a Christ-centered universe helps a non-fundamentalist interpretation of a more complex eschatology, and so we have recourse in the previous post to St. Gregory of Nazianzen.
The third is that the magi were “contemplating” the boy-God, in addition to the active vita, Hannah Arendt also spoke of her in The Human Condition (published in 1956, with Brazilian edition of 2009), which comes from the conference Work, Work and Action (Brazilian publication of 2006), but already spoke of this question Aristotle in the bios politikos and the vita negotiosa or actuosa in Augustine, and, recently Byung Chull Han in The society of the fatigue.
But they did not come to worship only, where the element offered incense is essentially this, but also brought gold in the sense of wealth and myrrh in the sense of sacrifices offered.
Magi should signify the opening of Christianity to other languages ​​which are also an expression of the infinite, of the universe, and of the sacredly constructed life in all and in all.

 

Culture and christianity

03 Jan

One of the strong claims of modern scientists is the openness of thought to spirituality, to the metaphysical universe and to the mystery that even the most skeptical must recognize, more than 90% of the universe which is mass and dark energy are unknown.
Contemporary culture has separated the so-called scientific knowledge, but it is also cultural, of theological, spiritual and Christian knowledge, it has not always been so, and dialogue is always possible.
Even before the Roman period, they are Gregory Nazianzen (icon inside), was knowledgeable of Hellenism and the cultivator of ancient culture within Christian culture, so it was called Gregory Theologian, logos is study and so some systematics and methodology were necessary.
Gregory was born in Arianzo, in Cappadocia, near Nazianzo, he and his brother studied rhetoric and philosophy and then studied in Alexandria and Athens.
When we speak of rites of Nicaea and Constantinople, we are making the schisms of his time, and at the Council of Constantinople (381 AD), and it that Gregory was called by his archbishop to lead the attempt to unify the Christian faith at the Council of Antioch in 368 AD, and discuss the Trinity.
In the theological field beyond the contribution to the understanding of the Holy Spirit, for whom he coined a new word which was the “procession,” in his words: “The Holy Spirit is really a Spirit, truly coming from the Father, but not in the Son, for it is not by generation but by ‘procession’, “for this the Nicene-Constantonopolitan rite and creed are different.
But his theology, which is more compatible with the present day, will postpone it, the belief that at the end of time God will put all creation in harmony with the Kingdom of Heaven, compatible with the ideas of Teilhard Chardin and theologians who approach the sacred from the “profane”.
His concrete contribution to the contemporary world and the crisis of modernity is the vision of “active vita” and “contemplative vita” as unseen realities, and that the current philosopher Byung-Chull Han uses word to analyze the current society that claims to be the ” fatigue “by the absence of the contemplative vita.
The contemporary world has its own asceticism of the body, of idealism or of a faith without any spirituality, which Peter Sloterdijk calls “desispiritualizada”, made only of exercises, or as we prefer without interiorization.

The world that tried to break free of superstitions fell into the most ridiculous forms: throwing pebbles in a well, bathing in salt, wearing certain colors at the beginning of the year, avoiding black cats and even more ridiculous, “sapere aude” became “sapere ad ineptias” (knowing silly things).
Gregory Nazianzen rescued us.

 

Neither yes nor no, the third excluded

31 Dec

Among the books I will not read are those of William Davies, a sociologist and English political economist, who wrote “How Feeling Took Over the World” and the book by Steven Levitsky & Daniel Ziblatt “How Democracies Die “, New York Times best seller.
In addition to such trivialities as the discovery of the dishonesty of traditional politicians, journalists and executives, a criticism of the growing fury of growing conservatism, which generates a crisis of confidence, little or almost nothing says where we will go, except to combat corruption, but it would fit the question which one? The right was never honest.
Between the Yes and the No, between Fora and Fica (left say this in Brazil), there was never a third option except for the case of Iceland that made a constitution by crowdsourcing and let banks and big companies bankrupt practically banning the state trash.
Portugal is a different case, a competent left creates a “geringonça”, in Brazil could be a gambiarra, but to overcome the ranks of “outside” and “no” seems difficult, but it is not impossible, we would be able to dialogue, after all many speak in dialogia.
The growing wave of conservatism is a bubble, the problem is what can replace it, a comic left of the type of Venezuela and Nicaragua is doomed to failure, creates an even stronger state that wants to dominate all the ins and outs of society. I have seen a lecture by Florent Pasquier of the Sorbonne of Paris, which shows that the excluded third exists, starting from Aristotle’s law that any proposition, or it is true, or its negation is, it seems at this historical moment to have become false.
Nor is it true that the left is incorruptible, in the case of Portugal only await the condemnation of Socrates, ex-prime minister, in Brazil there are controversial, but it is certain that someone absurdly stole the state, under the eyes of the left, nor is it true that the right will fight.
The third way is no longer the purism of the greens, a new left or a right that says not to be just “manager” politics, a third way must come from a broad dialogue between forces that are and can be even more representative of the people of aware parcels of society.
That 2019 is more dialogical, less emotional, not twisted and organized claque (fans clubes), but people willing to listen and talk.

 

Between Aporia and Aletheia

11 Dec

The Greek word Aporia (Ἀπορία) meant in Greek Mythology impotence, difficulty and helplessness, or even the lack of means, was rethought by the Aristotelian school as impasse, paradox, doubt, uncertainty or even contradiction, its studies are called aporetic.

Aristotle defined it as “equality of contradictory conclusions” (Topics, 6.145.16-20).

It is important because it broke apart, albeit in a participatory way, as the logic of Being or Not Being, and there can be no contradiction, which came to be in contemporary idealism.

It is radically different from Aletheia, because it is cover-up, not contradiction and so was designated by the ancient Greeks as truth and reality, simultaneously.

Heidegger takes it back in the attempt to “unveil” the truth, it is considered an objective descriptive state, and therefore lacking a metaphysical or subjective movement.

Aporia was also used by contemporary authors, such as Derridá and Paul de Man, so in post-structuralist literary theory, is thus the very deconstructive reading of the text, which we have previously warned has nothing to do with denying the truth, but indeterminacy or undecidability .

The sense of putting them together here is precisely to seek a relationship that in contemporary theory is disconnected, being itself an aporia, the linguistic turn seems to have nothing and no connection with the ontological, so aporia and aletheia are disconnected, the Greeks little help because reading is in the past participle and not present participle.

It is curious, but it was Portugal who warned me of the fact, here is not used the gerund: someone is talking, it is saying they say, thus nothing will be, but it is being, said Priest Manuel Antunes: “mystical people, but not metaphysical” (Repensar Portugal).

While aporia is a past participle, it becomes fatalistic, undetermined as the search for truth, and aletheia while unveiling is a constant search for horizons, where there is no definitive truth, but truth in construction: being, revealing, happening.

Philosophical, political and especially religious determinism leads to various types of fundamentalism, from pure aporia to pure “truth”, there is neither dialogic nor unveiling.

Heidegger ‘s hermeneutic circle is not only a method, it is unveiling, to admit the idea that we all have a pre – concept is to unveil to the crisis of modernity, legalism and idealistic positivism gave what it gave, a no way out, but humanity itself points out ways, one already is clear: admitting that there are preconceptions is the only remedy and diagnosis capable of overcoming them.

Cultures, religions and political concepts are in shock this is aporetic, can and should enter into humanistic dialogic, ie unveiling and pursuit of horizons.