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Arquivo para a ‘SocioCibercultura’ Categoria

From biopolitics to psychopolitics

10 Aug

The form of power, while still centered on the state and its modern concept of state that comes from Hegel and not just the French Revolution, underwent changes in the 19th and 20th centuries, which philosopher Michel Foucault called biopower.
Literally the philosopher elaborates it this way: “The instruments that the government will give to achieve these ends [that are, in some way, immanent to the field of the population, will essentially be the population over which it acts. ” (Foucault, 1978, p. 277-293) that is in his work Microphysics of power, when it addresses the issue of governability.
Many who do not accept Foucault’s philosophy, for lack of reading or understanding, do not realize that what today is called public policy has this idea at its source. However biopower can be thought of more fully, including technologies that act on a local population or particular social demand, but always with the idea of establishing power and control over particular localities or social groups.
Byung Chul Han in three recent works (The Swarm, Psychopolitics, and What is Power) (explains that this form has been superseded by current psychopolitics, where local powers and policies are replaced by elaborate new techniques of power, Foucault also calls them that. With the problems of health, birth, mortality and life estimation (see this theme in welfare reform) the biopolitics aimed to control the “body” as well as the biopower.
Entering the digital age this evolves into psychopolitics, which leads us to a crisis of both freedom and identity, where psychically even one’s own will is struck. Byung Chul Han’s long analysis of What Is Power, returning to Nietzsche and even Kierkegaard (1813 – 1855), the philosopher reveals the subjective aspects that power has been working from the conception of the modern state.
He considers it essential to understand the digital age, even though he has criticism of technological appropriation, and places the latest Big Data technology as a key element in this process, and is therefore very current because it is the technology that reaches the psyche of the social subject, and of the individual ultimately: his interests, desires and worldviews.
I consider it important to return to Kierkegaard, although Chul Han does so on time, the ideas of this existentialist philosopher are deeply related to the concepts of the works of the Korean-German, in particular: the anguish in The Society of Bournout and the pursuit of happiness and pleasure in The agony of Eros.
The social scientist slovenian Renata Salecl’s obsession with choice addresses the issue of Kierkeegard’s updated anguish:
https://www.ted.com/talks/renata_salecl_our_unhealthy_obsession_with_choice/transcript?language=pt-br#t-97506  

 

Earth-planetarism, a planetary worldview

09 Jul

We have already mentioned that the worldview depends on a vision of the cosmos and life itself, there is still a citizen worldview, Edgar Morin called the land-fatherland and what I call earth-planetaryism. Seeing the planet as Patria, as “common house” in the religious mystical vision, as Gaia in a mythological view, incorporate this view, for the planet itself, living beings including animals and plants and cultures that are the citizenship of living peoples in the Planet.

Broaden a cosmos-planetary view of the Earth they inhabit. In Edgar Morin’s book he traces in chapters 2 and 3 what this planetary identity would be, and at the same time reveals an exhaustion and planetary agony, there is something that involves beyond the traditions and cultural issues at stake, the worldview depends on how man sees himself as a whole, and this implies an advanced worldview, which admits the new telescopes, which made the Copernican revolution, which are now the new media.

Terraplanism is the most extreme side of this view, but attachment to an earlier view of quantum physics, black holes, the view of a multi-verse implies that the planetary cosmovision is still enlightened and idealistic, stuck to an idea of ​​citizenship , of state and of planet that already is much surpassed, and agonizes in successive crises. In the book by Morin and Anne Brigitte Kern, they point out that the key phenomenon to understand this crisis of planetary proportions is “moral, psychic and intellectual underdevelopment” (Morin and Kern, 2011, 115), including development, and the proliferation of holistic “hollow” ideals and of mutilated visions, the loss of the global, the fundamental and the responsibility “(ibid.).

Broadening this vision requires abandoning pseudo-planetary principles that are Eurocentrists, third-worldists, imperialists and neocolonizers present in the “saviors of the homeland” are left or right, generally unrelated and limited worldview.

A new planetary vision, which respects nature itself, demands a vision of an even wider universe that was thought by Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and the Enlightenment, the eternal dualism materialism x idealism, the imperial religiosity of some religions.

Lack of wisdom to the humble and humility to the wise, it is time to rethink the thought, as Edgar Morin wanted, a time of transdisciplinarity of multi-verse (several universes).

MORIN, E., KERN, A.B. Terra Pátria (Earth homeland.) Trad. Paulo Neves. 6th. edition, Sulina Publishing, Brazil, 2011.

This presentation of the Edgar Morin in SESC in São Paulo Brasil, he talks about this subject:

 

Cosmology, Worldview and Dialogue

04 Jul

The origin of the Greek word “kosmos” is linked to the idea of order, universe (or multiverse), beauty and harmony, also the cosmos through the position of the stars helped to organize the calendar in the origin of human history, cosmogonies and visions of the beginning and end of the uni- multiverse, of nature and of man.
The absence of a worldview also impoverishes the view of Being, Emanuel Lévinas examining the theme in his book Ethics and Infinity, a radical critique of the category of totality, typical of Western philosophy that led to the cult of Same and Neutral, absolute thought which led to tyrannies and totalizing ideologies.
In Aristotelian physics, previous to modern physics and unthinkable at that time an astrophysics of the multiverse, he elaborated a static model, of eternal flow of the becoming, submitted to an order, the Copernican revolution put everything in motion, and modern astrophysics recovered the model of “Infinite”, where matter and dark energy dominate 96% of the universe.
The cosmogonies are fundamental to understand the formation of cultures and religious thoughts of diverse peoples, legends and myths can usually be thought around a metaphysics, and the beliefs that make them possible as an explanation of the world.
The worldview is present in any form of thought, so materialism, idealism and spiritualism are cosmovisions, as a partial apprehension of the totality and the solution and encounter of the Other are made in function of this worldview.
Thus, in a dialogue of cultures, imperative for a globalizing world and the demand of a global citizenship although not recognized, it is necessary clarifications of this cosmovision, of way totalizing and while admits the infinite like mystery and becoming.
We find in the Basic Dictionary of Philosophy (Jupiassu, Marcondes, 2008) that cosmology supposes the possibility of a knowledge of the world as a system and as an expression of a discourse, the postulate of a totalization of the world, if made by knowledge, of an eventual cosmology of knowledge itself.

JAPIASSÚ, Hilton e MARCONDES, Danilo. (2008) Dicionário Básico de Filosofia. (Basic Dictionary of Philosophy), 5a.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
The video below shows the Cosmic vision of David Southwood of ESA (European Space Agency):

 

The majority and the identitary

02 Jul

Few know this name, the opposite of transsexual is cis, also Christianity and the fact of being white can be a difficulty of dialogue with other groups, however, democracy and rights require that these dialogues are also made.
It is not only an ideological or partisan position, but this is how one sees most, in the religious case there is still one thing unique in Brazil that could be positive and is not, the so-called religious syncretism.
I would say more in the Brazilian case, the blacks if counted browns and mulattos are majority, what would be the ideological war that a good part of the right thinks, nothing more than the refusal of the dialogue.
The dichotomy that has established itself in Brazilian society is detrimental to all Brazilians, and the so-called “cultural war” can lead the country to extremes never before thought.
The identitary that in the American case led a certain right to power, the opposition is not quite a left, in the Brazilian case it can open deep cracks in the nation, thinking of people and not just patriotic symbols, without this leading to a short-term perspective. In the long term, only a resumption of dialogue will make possible new advances and new ways of democratizing rights and also duties to its citizens, building a new identity citizenship requires that we see the whole of society as it is: a miscegenation of peoples, races and religions.
The studies done by Mario de Andrade for Macunaíma may be a good start to this dialogue, although of course there will be those who make him demonic as well. The process of “estrangement” from Brazilian society with its own identity, which is undoubtedly a miscegenation, can have two ways to deny a half of the population with catastrophic effects, or to include the two halves and lead the country to an example of tolerance.
I twist and fight for the second case, although at this point it seems almost impossible.
Among the various reviews I found on the Web, Luana Werb is a good introduction to reading Macunaíma, if you are interested, access the link below:

 

Ontology and the Noosphere

21 Jun

Both intramundane and extramundane realities, and the latter exist can be interpreted differently, as as the Moebius curve (picture) it has only one side, the perspective of being internal or external depends on the observer, and both of the Noosphere.

We are immersed in a noosphere where the spirit is the set of contradictions that we live, the great human manifestations of faith, of cultures and politics are nothing other than the worldly manifestations of realities also extra world, and both depends on the world view that each group of this time, and all underline these visions.

To deny that there is a sphere of the mind or mind, the noon-sphere is to deny the reasons that are not avowedly confessed of these visions, either by difficulties of expressing them or because one wishes to conceal a part of the truth of what is really thought of these ” spheres “.

The first volume of the Peter Sloterdijk Bubbles Spheres trilogy, the only one translated into Portuguese yet, offers a philosophical-existential view of this question, the “intimate spaces” of man from the relations with his surroundings, that is, the next next are the people or the readings and information with which each personal view relates. Sloterdijk starts from a very sensitive analysis that is the mother-child duality, as originating and first relation with an inherent duality, the fetus is still intra-world uterus and the baby will already be an extraterrestrial world, the process of growth is to abandon this initial bubble.

This, in the more comfortable spaces of seeking autonomy, is a complex journey insofar as leaving a sphere that is always intimate, leaving the family, the country or in a wider way of the planet itself, one always goes to a sphere unknown.

In biblical terms, Jesus, after asking what “men” said to be him, asks the intimate question to the apostles in Luke 9:20: “And who do you say that I am?”, This is without a doubt the question that should be done with every religious worldview today.

There will be two equally incomplete answers to that of an intra worldly vision and that of another extra worldly vision, Teilhard de Chardin’s vision of the Noosphere, the two are partly correct, but both are lacking in the other, ontological terms, missing the Other.

The commandment “love thy neighbor” also refers to both, for it is “as unto itself.”

 

Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003

 

Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.

 

Community co-immunity

30 May

Sloterdijk, in developing the idea of co-immunity, criticizes old proposals of social groups where exclusion, judgment and therefore do not have the necessary democratic equality among its members.
Although he criticizes religious ideas as judgment through “heresies,” he also criticizes communism as a system where there is judgment, said that he prefers religious force in a way, so that it introduces a certain “pragmatism” of taking beliefs, with its proposal for a future where a link to co-immunity is possible.
Self-immunization is thought of as a program pursued by the sapiens, having as a component an individual asceticism, the pursuit of self-improvement through exercise.
It is curious that Sloterdijk, in saying that the process of “domestication of the human being” failed, in his reply to Heidegger’s Charter on Humanism, his classic book Rules for the Human Park, later admitted a kind of asceticism that allowed each person a self-improvement.
Although this is in his book on self-promises (a kind of religious purposes or vows) his ascesis is written in the book “The infinite mobilization” (Ed. Relógio D´Agua, 2002).
His question to Heidegger’s Dasein is “where are we if we are in the world?” And his answers are in the realm of intimacy, a true “archeology of intimacy,” in which we recognize a closeness to an author who wrote several books on this , which is Martin Bubber.
What there is is a kind of “institnto of the relation” written in the book “Me Tu” of Martin Buber, that we have when children, and disappears or weakens and thus we lose the “sociability”.
What happens when we go from the maternal womb to adulthood is what has already been called a “fantastic ontoanthropology” (quotation by Paulo Ghiraldelli), which we prefer to call onanthropic, in the sense that a set of activities and techniques of day-to- day that makes adult life move, and which does not always cooperate with a co-immunity.
The idea of “imaginary friends”, fantasy of some children, for teachers not always imaginary, for imaginary freedom, what Sloterdijk calls “interior designer”, always has the search to return to an “initial resonance” of the uterine phase.
In the trilogy of the spheres, Bubbles also means this, in German the name of amniotic sac is Fruchblase, to the letter of the fruit bubble or fruit of the bubble.
Man falls into the open, this being-there of Heidegger, then seeks new mechanisms of uterine protection and replacement of protected life, or immunization projects, in Sloterdijk’s view.

Co-immunism is therefore a word for this social immunity, which he prefers from a bi-unit, ie a two-pole resonance apparatus, and the sound term is not by chance, it is a Here and one with the same time, what could be the fetal-placental bond.
The globe that replaces the idea of the bubble of the second volume of Spheres, enters the theological and metaphysical projects, present in the history that has developed in modernity, The question is timely, the idea of co-immunity was important at the moment.

 

Statocentric policies and social networks

27 Feb

Yes, the word does not exist, but this was the great idealistic and liberal revolution promotes this concept, the idea that the state is the provider of all social guarantees, which may be above the cultures, the roots of the population and the original societies, that is, with their cosmological and eschatological visions.
The idea of social welfare, providence state or social state, vary in politics, degree and tonalities, but essentially it is the idea that it is the state of social promotion, organizer of economy and culture, which is more worrying and statocentric.
The idea that this was born during the Great Depression is not true, again it is the ignorance of what we call history-knowledge, it was the economist Joseph Schumpeter who developed the concept of social value in the years 1907-1907, as shown in his article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics
There is no idea of society as a living body, the citizen as the possessor of rights (only the one that the state establishes, the rest is illegal), and for this we emphasize in the previous post the idea of a free press, but now it expands to social media, society has always been a network, although the state generally does not see it as such.
The fact that there are media that can vitalize the enzymatic functions of the social fabric should lead to policies that contemplate these ideas, for example, it is common in Portugal to speak of neighborhood (bairrismo in Portuguese), not in the pejorative sense that exists in Brazil, but in the sense of social coexistence and to create nuclei and social spaces for this convivial, a cultural Portuguese characteristic.
The concept may seem too technical to some extent, but Levy Strauss, who researched social cultural roots, said: “Each of us is a kind of crossroads where things happen. (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1987, p.10).
Borgatti and Jones (1998), known for developing the powerful social networking tool Pajek, describes the term social capital, retrieving the term “group” from Wellmann and Bartram, but recalls that Putnam (1995) also develops the idea as a facet of good collective, still found in Coleman (1988, 1990) and Bourdieu (1886) and recalls that the classic tradition of authors such as Adam Smith and Alexis Tocqueville did not use the term directly but would do so today.
A measure of neighborhood, which are several, can be seen as “degrees” of proximity (figure), it is important to know by how many steps a node (or a person) can “reach” in a social network.
The concept may seem theoretical only, but this video shows how it becomes real, a video show this.

BORGATTI, S.P. & JONES, C. Network Measures of Social Capital. Carroll School of Management, Boston College Martin G. Everett University of Greenwich, CONNECTIONS 21(2):27-36, 1998.

LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude. Mito e significado. Lisboa: Edições 70, 1987.

 

 

The rise of idealism and the spirit

05 Feb

The spirit seen outside the Noologia, name given by the Brazilian Writer Mario Ferreira dos Santos for noosphere studies, is pure idealism in philosophy, and spiritual falsification in theology. The influence on contemporary theology can be seen in the work of Karl Ranner, both in Hörer des Wortes (HW) in his Spanish translation Oyente de la palabra (Listener of the Word), and in the spirit of the world, his thesis of The spirit of the World (1967),

This word where despite the influence of Thomas Aquinas and even Heidegger, he does not completely abandon Kant. Francisco Taborda writes about Rahner: “What Rahner does in HW presages all his subsequent theological walk, characterized by the transcendental perspective that implies the presence of an internal philosophy to theology and carries the mark of the anthropological turn of modernity”.

That is, despite to try to reconcile his thoughts with Thomas Aquinas and Heidegger, his main matrix is ​​in “Listener of the Word” (1963), where he states: “If man stands before the God of a possible revelation, if this revelation, should it take place, must take place in human history … etc. “(RAHNER, 1967, p.223).

But discussing theology is complex today, and unfortunately simplification has led to fundamentalism, which is the worst of all tragedies, for God is Omniscient, so it is not simple, for Love is something so complex that no one ever codified it, poets tried. In philosophy.

The culmination of this idealistic attempt was the Phenomenology of the Spirit, practically an attempt to unravel the Trinity, using the in-itself, de-si and para-si categories, but whose concept of self-consciousness betrays it, for the to be beyond oneself, is actually a return to the self of self.

Thus the transcendent God is “dead” to Kant, for it is a pure relation of immanence, which is diagnosed by Hegel (2007, 173), thus generating the idea that the historical God, the same as that of Rahner, denying the aspect absolute, spiritual above the temporal, “the feeling that God Himself is dead” (idem).

Gadamer, in retelling Hegel, reveals this Spirit as an immanence: “It is an immanent progression, which does not intend to start from any imposed thesis, but to follow the self-motion of concepts, and to expose, dispensing entirely with every designated transition from the outside, the immanent consequence of thought in continuous progression. ” (GADAMER, 2000, p.11)  

This isn’ t the Trinitarian Holy Spirit, but a vision of spirit immanent only human.

 

GADAMER, Hans-Georg. La dialéctica Hegel: Cinco ensayos hermenéuticos. 5ª ed. Trad: Manuel Garrido. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra, 2000.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhem Friedrich. Fé e Saber. Trad: Oliver Tolle. São Paulo: Hedra, 2007.

RAHNER, Karl. Oyente de la Palabra: fundamentos para una filosofía de la religión.  Barcelona: Herder, 1967.