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Arquivo para a ‘SocioCibercultura’ Categoria

Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003

 

Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.

 

Community co-immunity

30 May

Sloterdijk, in developing the idea of co-immunity, criticizes old proposals of social groups where exclusion, judgment and therefore do not have the necessary democratic equality among its members.
Although he criticizes religious ideas as judgment through “heresies,” he also criticizes communism as a system where there is judgment, said that he prefers religious force in a way, so that it introduces a certain “pragmatism” of taking beliefs, with its proposal for a future where a link to co-immunity is possible.
Self-immunization is thought of as a program pursued by the sapiens, having as a component an individual asceticism, the pursuit of self-improvement through exercise.
It is curious that Sloterdijk, in saying that the process of “domestication of the human being” failed, in his reply to Heidegger’s Charter on Humanism, his classic book Rules for the Human Park, later admitted a kind of asceticism that allowed each person a self-improvement.
Although this is in his book on self-promises (a kind of religious purposes or vows) his ascesis is written in the book “The infinite mobilization” (Ed. Relógio D´Agua, 2002).
His question to Heidegger’s Dasein is “where are we if we are in the world?” And his answers are in the realm of intimacy, a true “archeology of intimacy,” in which we recognize a closeness to an author who wrote several books on this , which is Martin Bubber.
What there is is a kind of “institnto of the relation” written in the book “Me Tu” of Martin Buber, that we have when children, and disappears or weakens and thus we lose the “sociability”.
What happens when we go from the maternal womb to adulthood is what has already been called a “fantastic ontoanthropology” (quotation by Paulo Ghiraldelli), which we prefer to call onanthropic, in the sense that a set of activities and techniques of day-to- day that makes adult life move, and which does not always cooperate with a co-immunity.
The idea of “imaginary friends”, fantasy of some children, for teachers not always imaginary, for imaginary freedom, what Sloterdijk calls “interior designer”, always has the search to return to an “initial resonance” of the uterine phase.
In the trilogy of the spheres, Bubbles also means this, in German the name of amniotic sac is Fruchblase, to the letter of the fruit bubble or fruit of the bubble.
Man falls into the open, this being-there of Heidegger, then seeks new mechanisms of uterine protection and replacement of protected life, or immunization projects, in Sloterdijk’s view.

Co-immunism is therefore a word for this social immunity, which he prefers from a bi-unit, ie a two-pole resonance apparatus, and the sound term is not by chance, it is a Here and one with the same time, what could be the fetal-placental bond.
The globe that replaces the idea of the bubble of the second volume of Spheres, enters the theological and metaphysical projects, present in the history that has developed in modernity, The question is timely, the idea of co-immunity was important at the moment.

 

Statocentric policies and social networks

27 Feb

Yes, the word does not exist, but this was the great idealistic and liberal revolution promotes this concept, the idea that the state is the provider of all social guarantees, which may be above the cultures, the roots of the population and the original societies, that is, with their cosmological and eschatological visions.
The idea of social welfare, providence state or social state, vary in politics, degree and tonalities, but essentially it is the idea that it is the state of social promotion, organizer of economy and culture, which is more worrying and statocentric.
The idea that this was born during the Great Depression is not true, again it is the ignorance of what we call history-knowledge, it was the economist Joseph Schumpeter who developed the concept of social value in the years 1907-1907, as shown in his article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics
There is no idea of society as a living body, the citizen as the possessor of rights (only the one that the state establishes, the rest is illegal), and for this we emphasize in the previous post the idea of a free press, but now it expands to social media, society has always been a network, although the state generally does not see it as such.
The fact that there are media that can vitalize the enzymatic functions of the social fabric should lead to policies that contemplate these ideas, for example, it is common in Portugal to speak of neighborhood (bairrismo in Portuguese), not in the pejorative sense that exists in Brazil, but in the sense of social coexistence and to create nuclei and social spaces for this convivial, a cultural Portuguese characteristic.
The concept may seem too technical to some extent, but Levy Strauss, who researched social cultural roots, said: “Each of us is a kind of crossroads where things happen. (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1987, p.10).
Borgatti and Jones (1998), known for developing the powerful social networking tool Pajek, describes the term social capital, retrieving the term “group” from Wellmann and Bartram, but recalls that Putnam (1995) also develops the idea as a facet of good collective, still found in Coleman (1988, 1990) and Bourdieu (1886) and recalls that the classic tradition of authors such as Adam Smith and Alexis Tocqueville did not use the term directly but would do so today.
A measure of neighborhood, which are several, can be seen as “degrees” of proximity (figure), it is important to know by how many steps a node (or a person) can “reach” in a social network.
The concept may seem theoretical only, but this video shows how it becomes real, a video show this.

BORGATTI, S.P. & JONES, C. Network Measures of Social Capital. Carroll School of Management, Boston College Martin G. Everett University of Greenwich, CONNECTIONS 21(2):27-36, 1998.

LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude. Mito e significado. Lisboa: Edições 70, 1987.

 

 

The rise of idealism and the spirit

05 Feb

The spirit seen outside the Noologia, name given by the Brazilian Writer Mario Ferreira dos Santos for noosphere studies, is pure idealism in philosophy, and spiritual falsification in theology. The influence on contemporary theology can be seen in the work of Karl Ranner, both in Hörer des Wortes (HW) in his Spanish translation Oyente de la palabra (Listener of the Word), and in the spirit of the world, his thesis of The spirit of the World (1967),

This word where despite the influence of Thomas Aquinas and even Heidegger, he does not completely abandon Kant. Francisco Taborda writes about Rahner: “What Rahner does in HW presages all his subsequent theological walk, characterized by the transcendental perspective that implies the presence of an internal philosophy to theology and carries the mark of the anthropological turn of modernity”.

That is, despite to try to reconcile his thoughts with Thomas Aquinas and Heidegger, his main matrix is ​​in “Listener of the Word” (1963), where he states: “If man stands before the God of a possible revelation, if this revelation, should it take place, must take place in human history … etc. “(RAHNER, 1967, p.223).

But discussing theology is complex today, and unfortunately simplification has led to fundamentalism, which is the worst of all tragedies, for God is Omniscient, so it is not simple, for Love is something so complex that no one ever codified it, poets tried. In philosophy.

The culmination of this idealistic attempt was the Phenomenology of the Spirit, practically an attempt to unravel the Trinity, using the in-itself, de-si and para-si categories, but whose concept of self-consciousness betrays it, for the to be beyond oneself, is actually a return to the self of self.

Thus the transcendent God is “dead” to Kant, for it is a pure relation of immanence, which is diagnosed by Hegel (2007, 173), thus generating the idea that the historical God, the same as that of Rahner, denying the aspect absolute, spiritual above the temporal, “the feeling that God Himself is dead” (idem).

Gadamer, in retelling Hegel, reveals this Spirit as an immanence: “It is an immanent progression, which does not intend to start from any imposed thesis, but to follow the self-motion of concepts, and to expose, dispensing entirely with every designated transition from the outside, the immanent consequence of thought in continuous progression. ” (GADAMER, 2000, p.11)  

This isn’ t the Trinitarian Holy Spirit, but a vision of spirit immanent only human.

 

GADAMER, Hans-Georg. La dialéctica Hegel: Cinco ensayos hermenéuticos. 5ª ed. Trad: Manuel Garrido. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra, 2000.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhem Friedrich. Fé e Saber. Trad: Oliver Tolle. São Paulo: Hedra, 2007.

RAHNER, Karl. Oyente de la Palabra: fundamentos para una filosofía de la religión.  Barcelona: Herder, 1967.

 

From water to wine

18 Jan

The human artifact is not bad, but it is dangerous use.

The fact that it happened at the wedding of Canaan in Galilee, the first public miracle of Jesus, anticipating his time of public life, at the request of Mother Mary, brings at least three non-fundamentalist findings that cast their eyes, the first evident is wine.

Jesus liked wine, the fact narrated in John (John 2: 1-11), means that the Master not only liked parties and wine, but also wanted him in good quantity, to the point of responding to his mother’s request, but not without first contesting it, the second non-fundamentalist evidence, the mother said (John 2: 4): “Woman, why do you say this to me? My time has not yet come.”

There is no doubt that drinking causes not only accidents of traffic, fights and confusions as it disintegrates family, alcoholism and addiction are a disease of course, but there are those who know how to drink and establish limits to their actions after drinking.

But the most fundamental fact is that in choosing wine and later bread to leave its memory, it means that it not only uses the children of nature or the earth, but the artifacts, that is, what I need of human interference to become, if food, the wheat transformed into bread, the grape transformed into wine.

This means that the “divine” spiritual nature does not deny and instead values ​​the work and the fruit of the human hands, does not deacrate the human, but in contrast to value it makes it more dignified, and one could say more divine.

Thus every human artifact produced by a good of humanity brings with it a dignity and an appreciation which must not be disregarded, and therefore there is no separation or tenuousness between what is sacred and what is human.

The unspraced asceticism of the contemporary world is nothing more than “a life of exercises” as Peter Sloterdijk says, devoid of human meaning in the deepest sense, even of what we mean by joy and pleasure.

It was the emptying of the sense of Being that led to an idealistic spirituality and out of the meaning of life, transforming it from water to wine will mean therefore to understand that wine came naturally from the water and needed the human artifact to turn the crushed grape into wine and then it meant, therefore, to understand that the wine came naturally from the water and needed the human artifact to turn the crushed grape into wine and then to serve it as a gift from the gods.

 

Nietzsche, biographies and idealism

16 Jan

As a biographer of Heidegger, I had the motivation to read Rudiger Safransky’s biography of this admirable critique of idealism, and to see him as a human as he would wish him, unlike Nietzsche in Turin (Irvin D. Yalom) and When Nietzsche cried (Brazilian film director Julio Bressane, 2001), which is contrary to even his philosophy in idealizing it, unfit for a criticism of idealism.
A very current subject, due to the emergence of Christian fundamentalism, to which Nietzsche opposed voraciously and with knowledge since he was from a family of Lutheran pastors, the author properly discusses the evolutionism of Charles Darwin and the “death of God”, proclaimed but not enacted , as for some non-idealistic theologians such as Teilhard de Chardin who offers a vision of a cosmic Christ, and the relation between Darwin’s “struggle for survival” is rightly modified by Nietzsche’s “struggle for domination.”
The valorization of aesthetics in Zaratrusta, although there may be those who disagree with the body of arguments, has a beautiful poetic construction, in which the prohibition of the “forbidden mountain of those excluded from divine grace”, irony of the author with exclusion within a Christianity sees in Zaratrusta a lesser prophet without the force of a Daniel who entered and left the den of lions, without the dignity of a John the Baptist, with the nobles and the rich, living from the feeding of locusts and wild honeycombs.
His aesthetic position, discussion of the last chapter, goes from the analysis of the birth of tragedy, fundamental in classical antiquity, to the discussion of Wagner’s music, where he emphasizes the influence on author as Jaspers, Heidegger, Thomas Man, Bergson, Adorno, Horkheimer, and Focault, and denies his influence on Nazi thought, despite the desire to appropriate his philosophy.
What some criticize in this biographical work on Nietzsche is in our view his great value, the fact that brings his life closer to his writings, going deep into the classical error of idealism, separating subject from object, separating thought from concrete life, as if this were possible, in this case vital tragedy that is diverse from the analysis of the Greek tragedy where since Aristotle, t is the fate of men, of society and its relation to the gods.
The tragedy of idealism is to propose a human, religious, and societal model that can not be realized since it is separated from “worldliness” only an “ideal”.

Rudiger Safranski, Nietzsche: biografia de uma tragédia (Nietzsche: biography of a tragedy). Translated by Lya Luft. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Geração Editorial, 2001.

 

Paths, artifact and art in Heidegger

14 Jan

The work Origin of the work  art (1936) is a text by Martin Heidegger, where the question of art and work, which moves to the artifact, and which is Heidegger himself in motion, when writing a collection Forest Paths.
Instead of writing a work written Forest Paths (Holzwege) in which an additive was added before the epilogue in 1956.
A view of Heidegger that the “artifact” of art, is a privileged way of revealing the quotidian, reveals itself as a poetic understanding of the world, and brings the idea of meaningless “way” of reach, duration and legitimacy of art.
Is this a question of knowing the origin of the work of art? Is the origin in the artifact, the observer or the artist? According to his question, “What is in the work, is it at work?” (Heidegger, 2002, 31), where it is possible to see the “way” already.
A medieval philosophy called a “quidity,” as it is, was about the nominalists like Ockham and Scotus Duns with the royalists, as they debated realists and ontologists like Thomas Aquinas, who began the discussion about the existence of universals, and the bottom is about what is essence.
For Heidegger is a source of information that is being, that is, its essence.
The origin of the algorithm of its essence, as well as its work on the provenance of its essence (Heidegger, 2002, p.7), which one wishes to extrapolate to technique and its relation to essence.
Heidegger in The Binding of a Work of Art follows the publication of the art article, the singular work, the emergence of the work of art from the artist’s creative medium, as well as the origin of the work is the artist (Heidegger, 2002, 61), but does not use the sense of anthropological origin.
As an example, the effect of aesthetic experience, a man observes the shoes on the picture (Van Gogh, 1886), in each time, the image itself is updated, it is a sense to the virtual, since the virtual is something that is updated, and the art was originated by the artist, but it completes itself in the observer and manifest on the artefact.
The updating of this ontological foundation of Heidegger, which sees the origin of the artist, is in Rancière when he speaks of the “Emancipated Spectator” (2008), which opens the discussion about “the theoretical presuppositions that put the spectator question at the heart of the discussion about relations between art and politics “(Rancière, 2012, p.8), essential for the present day.
Rancière shows two premisses about the spectator that are false, the first which is the spectator as opposed to knowing, and the second that is contrary to acting, and calls this the paradox of the spectator who is, in the case of theater, a “non-theater without spectator “(RANCIÈRE, 2012, p.8).
We propose in opposition to the ontotantropotechnical status of the work of art, or of its artifact, it exists while it is being, so the artist lends his ontological status as anthropos (man), and expresses it as a technique.

H

HEIDEGGER, M. A Origem da Obra de Arte, Lisboa: Edições 70, 2002 (Portuguese Edition).

RANCIÈRE, J. O espectador Emancipado, São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2012 (Brazilian Edition).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

11 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office.

It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
The scheme proposed by Lacan, although valid, has an ontological lacuna, because if on the one hand we can relate the Real, the Imaginary and the symbolic, that which belongs only to the symbolic-imaginary is actually human fantasy, exists as a Virtual possibility, but updates. Virtual is the Real that can be updated, in this sense it is “Virtus” that can exist while Being, but that is still only present, to be real needs updating. This gap emerges from what is new, which is still potential in the sense of the old ontology, and which is virtual in the sense of the ontology of the phenomenon, may make little sense since it is still part of the imaginary, having a primary symbolic representation (it may have several reinterpretations ) and it is on the plane of the unconscious both rejection and inhibition by the ignorance of novelty
LACAN, J. O Seminário, livro 11: Os quatro conceitos fundamentais da psicanálise. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 1979 (in portuguese).

 

Ideology, world view and ontology

10 Jan

It is not possible transcendence by the simple connection with objects, that is fetish, reification (res thing), or only a misunderstanding of what the thing is, but the negation of the relation with this thing, or by the idealistic transcendence (separation of subjects and objects) or by the dualistic relation, as the things of the world and the things of the sky, are also bad relations.
The fact that there is corruption is because there is greed, that is, people who find it “fair” to have more to occupy a position or function in society, than something other than salary or even having a legal but immoral salary, as people who earn above 35 thousand reais (something close to 10 thousand dollars) using public office. It is the poorer societies these people appear to be, the result of great inequality, so combating corruption without combating inequality is not eliminating the root of evil, which is the immense inequality in some poor countries.
This is not ideology, but justice, ideologies exist almost everywhere, for certain group closure schemes can, and usually do, happen because we live in circles or bubbles (when they are ephemeral) that seek to maintain their “values.” Religion should represent on the one hand a broader view of this limitation of relationship with other people, with the world and with objects, they are part of the world, and of course in this is included all the technology that emerge in certain contexts.
The relation with the objects through the idealistic transcendence is that which makes a separation between subjects and objects, typical of the modern society, is also a misrepresentation with the objects (money, personal objects and the things of the nature) being also a religion with misconceptions , which justifies social inequality and even “sacralization”, as if wealth were “God’s gift”.
In differentiating the relationship with God from the relation to the world, we do nothing more than give a relation that Descartes called a “res” (resg thing) or res extensa (extensive thing or body), but without separating them, they are present in relationship with the world.

The being should be thinking about the relationship with the other and with things.
It is not possible to be transcended by what is in fact our view of the world, as Heidegger asserts, reintegrating the ontology (Being) with his presence in the world his “dasein”, which is forgotten for an hour .