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Arquivo para a ‘Inteligência Artificial’ Categoria

Fear of machines is justified

14 Oct

In 1909, the British writer published the novel The Machine Stops ((England, Archibald Constable), spoke of a dark future in which we would be controlled and serviced by machines, so the fear is not of today.

Little or nothing is said about the educational gap around the world, the ignorance that classroom backgrounds have pushed ahead of social media and come to power in many countries, it is not unique to Brazil or the United States, nor is it even focused on the powers that be.

If there is social support, if there is social support, it means that there is a basis for this, and we analyze and explain this dystopian future.

Thus, it is not the exclusive problem of machines entering the industry, the so-called Revolution 4.0, but of an educational gap that can even be reversed using social media, artificial intelligence and the organization of information using technology, Web 3.0.

On the other side in 2018, Brand Smith and Harry Shum, respectively Microsoft President and Vice President (available in PDF The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and Its Role in Society) who said while sleeping, the virtual assistant, be it Cortana, Siri or Alexa Connected to other virtual devices in a “smart home” ensures that when you wake up there will be a breakfast to your liking, is still imaginary, as in general the devices and environments change.

I mention the case of a mouse designed for engineering and architecture that took the place of the promised light pen, which seemed to be the most suitable device for personal computers, also not promised in many futuristic essays.

Another case is the Semantic Web, which with users’ adherence to Web 2.0 (blogs, twitters, websites), has led to a scenario of growing misinformation, but that Web 3.0 could reverse the course.

We can and will be ready for a Web 4.0 with artificial intelligence helping to filter and organize information in the very near future, what relationship may with intelligent machines the holographic future with avatars and social multi-presence is uncertain but will come.

It is more worthwhile to think about preventing the dangers and looking forward with hope, to imagine that it is possible to block or end an initiated stage of technological development.

There are dangers, yes, there have always been, but the danger of a new world war is more related to great world interests than machines, of course they can and are already used by them.

In 2011 a documentary about Machine Stops was made and it talked about war, not about machines controlling men, but about human warfare.

 

 

 

 

Ad Astra and the worldview

07 Oct

Writer James Gray’s vision of our cosmic futures towards the stars, ie Ad Astra, goes through a psychological-worldview of the contemporary world, I recall Byung Chull Han’s psycho-politics, and that in the future with machines prepared for this.

In the future there will be, in addition to the physical and technical tests we already do in various fields of sport to air pilots, also the psychics will be done for certain missions, in the case of the film, the evaluation of Roy McBridge (Brad Pitt), the space engineer for a trip to meet his father Clifford McBridge (Tommy Lee Jones) may still be alive there, although they say he was lost on a trip to Neptune.

Brad Pitt’s artistic competence helps the film, the film can be considered an approximation of Aliens, as when visiting a lost ship they encounter killer primates, or close to Apolipse now describing a future war scenario, where there is Space pirates on the military bases of the moon, purposely placed on the dark side of our lone satellite.

The parallel that I consider best is that of Blade Runner 2049, where the psychological climate overcomes the purely technological issue, and the psychopower becomes more visible and deeper, and the technological issue is the idea that improper use of propulsion energy now causes waves as violent forms, and this wave itself is then used to return to Earth.

It is true that the writer Gray’s worldview is of a war scenario, even for the trip McBridge will have to fight with military colleagues in order to make the trip against his father, since the psychological test evaluates that the son is affected by the filial relationship.

He can travel with the help of Lorraine (Kimberly Elise) who had his family murdered by his father, who had to fight a mutiny by the ship’s crew, who under psychological pressure wants to return to Earth, paradoxically Lorraine is one of the first born on Mars, since their parents lived in the military base of the planet.

After all, he finds his father, finds out that he was not exactly a hero, and that the version made for him was only to maintain the economic interests of the mission, and in the end they do not return to earth together, because their father found it difficult to go to the ship.

In return, he asks to be thrown into the infinity of space with which he had always dreamed. Despite the good acting, Brad Pitt’s nomination for awards would be more by the weight of the actor, the special effects are no big deal, there is a curious scene in which to reach the return ship, it shields a panel easily torn from a space artifact and then through one of Saturn’s rings like pebbles hitting the shield.

The interesting thing about the film is the existential and psychological aspect, so we seek in the universe answers that for our existence and the farther our worldview, the more possible to lose and lose contact with the “earth” can become reality, as the McBridge’s father, the first to land on planets where the man had not yet stepped.

 

 

The Machine Learning

30 Sep

Trend Even from the 21st century artificial intelligence was in a great crisis, could do a lot of logical reasoning, treat and rationalize equations, make inferences, but the volume of “human” data was small, the emergence of the Web and the adhesion of billions. of people enabled a new scenario: Big Data, a large amount of human data.

This large and complex data can be processed with large-scale accurate results, so that it can be processed by machine so that the machine “learns” trends, this (not by) machine learning is called “Machine Learning”.

With this it is possible to identify opportunities and avoid mistakes such as insisting on “logical” discourses but out of trend, it is not a question of going into fashion, but rather identifying it to correct it or propose other alternatives, and that is the opportunities Real.

Big data identifies data patterns, creates and analyzes the connections between them, and makes the execution of a given also smarter, whether or not it can rely on human supervision. In these two types, supervised and unsupervised, machine “learning” will always be essential, in supervised there is human interaction controlling the input and output of data and thus directly interfering with machine training, while in unsupervised algorithms use deep learning to handle and solve complex tasks without human intervention.

An important algorithm for semantic searches was made by a GitHut team: Hamel Husain. Ho-Hsiang Wu and Tiferet Gazit, and two Microsoft researchers: Miltiadis Allamanis and Marc Brockschmidt, who assess the state of evolution of semantic search algorithms and even make the code available through the GitHub site.

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.09436v1.pdf

 

Human intelligence beyond artificial intelligence.

15 Jul

Until very recently it was believed that a certain type of intelligence was preponderating to others, the famous IQ test, for example, determined the intelligence of a person in numbers, which fell a bit into disrepute, then came the phase of emotional intelligence , it exists because we are in time of stress.
With the advances of artificial intelligence, the advances of artificial intelligence and the point of singularity, at which point machines will go beyond Intelligence in man, but what is this intelligence, is little questioned, the specialists give answers ready, but …
Due to conjunctural, social and cultural factors, a type of intelligence is developed that is logic, memory capacity and great talent to deal with mathematics and logic in general, one can find solution of complex problems, say the neuroscientists that she is strongly attached to the right side of the brain.
The second type is motor intelligence, artists and athletes develop great talents with a body expression and notion of space, distance and depth very sharp, can perform complex, graceful and sharp movements, as the name says is related to motor ability.
People with good written and oral ability have a type of intelligence called linguistics, in addition to the expression has a degree of attention and sensitivity to meet the views of others, is visible its usefulness in today’s world.
People with great ability to imagine and draw both in 2D and 3D have a great talent for graphic art, it is space intelligence, just as linguistic intelligence has great sensitivity and creativity, but its universe is itself and the interaction with others is done precisely by his spatial vision.
Musical intelligence is one that makes us see through the “sounds”, are people with a great facility to listen to music or sounds in general and identify different patterns and musical notes.
Two types uncommon are intra and interpersonal intelligences, and statistics are the rarest among people and yet the closest to our “being,” intrapersonal intelligence has an enormous facility to understand what people think, feel and desire, while the intra has a strong component of “leadership” because they are people capable of causing great admiration in others, and with special active intelligence mobilize and get to take action and put others to accompany it.
Of course this is as schematic as other classifications, but it is precisely by the scheme that artificial intelligence is thought to be related to this, in fact human intelligence is quite complex while the artificial one is very schematic, even though it is a complex scheme.
The TED by Daniel Levitin has already surpassed 14 million views, and has an interesting point of view of a neuroscientist:

 

Theory of Information or Signals

07 May

David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for Mathematics to solve, among them the 2nd. problem was the consistency of Arithmetic to solve problems (which started the idea of algorithm). Later from 1910 to 1913 Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russerl published the 3 volumes of Principia Mathematica recalling Isaac Newton’s Principia (Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica) of 1980, but logic has shown contradictions.
It was Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) who showed the contradictions of logic by demonstrating that a mathematical system is either complete or consistent, a problem that was discussed by Alan Turing and Claude Shannon at Bell Labs in the late 1930s amidst World War II .
Both were in secret projects, Turing was to decipher the Enigma machine, captured from the German army, and Shannon build the System X machine to encode messages from Roosevelt and Churchill from the allied troops.
Both spoke at the lab meetings about Gödel’s problem, and wondered if the machine could think. Boole’s circuits and the Turing machine are at the origin of modern computers, this information theory is actually information in another context, Shannon himself would call it a message, and modern computing calls it signals.
The computation evolved with the construction of the first computer by von Neuman, and we initiate at the moment to ask again if the machine will surpass the human, the philosopher Sam Harris has a opinion:

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AI will help fight fires

21 Feb

The famous US Department of Defense (DoD), which is also on the internet, has launched a program to use artificial intelligence (AI) for drone data analysis to improve how forest attacks are fought, the news is on Wall Street Journal this week.
The project uses algorithms that evaluate photos and videos, being themselves the ways of forest fuels and improving efforts to contain them, data on resources in helicopters, but also using drones and other cyberspace data on the administrative functions of as part of efforts to improve its efficiency.
A program to monitor and attack forests in California and other parts of the country is one of two pilot projects the Pentagon released on Tuesday.
The program, solved the Pentagon, oriented strategies to establish new innovation strategy of artificial govern, that must to work performance with the academy and the industry for better to advanced information management and data application.
The reason for the fires is clear, also in the Portuguese rhodians, which are a combination of vulnerabilities in the work plans of children can issue fires, such as the serious happened at Camp Fire in 2018 in California, see CNBC vídeo:

 

Even waves can go to AI

20 Feb

The OpenAI project, although it is said to be “non-profit” and is really open, just enter the blog of the project to check the progress and the possibilities, in fact even pointed the experts when publishing a system that writes news / texts, theoretically fictions, but that can be classified as fake, or as they are being called: faketexts.  Also the code is open and available on the GitHub site for developers. 
Natural language processing systems can perform tasks such as answering questions, machine conversion, reading comprehension, and text summarization, which are already typically addressed with supervised learning in task-specific data sets, but text search in GPT2 is wider in quantity.
GPT2, the successor to the GPT that was just a producer of texts from basic texts, can now read up to 40 GB of existing text on the Web, and what it has produced frightens a little, for clarity, depth and worst of all, pure fiction or more clearly: fakes.
Among its syntactic characteristics, it is superior to others of the sort, writing passages that make sense with the previous text and maintains the style, without getting lost in long sentences. The problem is that it can generate fakenews that can now be longer, becoming faketexts, a report from The Guardian shows the novelty and the problems:

 

Markham in Canada: smart city

13 Feb

Ignorance of the benefits that smart and rational use can bring to many cities make many public policies inefficient and unnecessarily expensive, a serious problem is the infrastructure to monitor cities. In a partnership project, Bell Canada and IBM Canada want to make the city of Markham,
Ontario in Canada, with approximately 330,000 inhabitants, a model for using networks to make it a “smart city,” according to the Financial Post
The city government will use Bell’s broadband networks and IBM data analysis, collecting sensor data placed throughout the city to decide on investments in various aspects of infrastructure: pipeline leaks, flood-prone regions (Lake Ontario), problems that arise in storms, effective use of energy and tracking.
The projects do not fail to include social improvements and ecological aspects that also depend on the good use of technology and energy,
Many environmentalists are unaware that the results of Medellin were also achieved using Smart Cities concepts, being the first case in Latin America.
South. Similar trials and projects are being conducted in Canada and other parts of the world in view of which a number of multi-provider services may be preparing services that best cost and prevent service disruption.

 

Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence

24 Oct

Having already almost surpassed the point of singularity (see our post), the point that the machine would surpass human intelligence, the question now turns to consciousness and a well-considered point is the question of consciousness.
In this sense the main criticism is the perpetuation of prejudices, which would avoid what I call hermeneutics, but it is an incorrect view of the evolution of digital technology, for example, the use of Digital Ontologies and the ability to seek scientific studies outside of Wikipedia.
This is what recently announced an article in The Verge, and the most serious omission after researching scientists who are omitted from Wikipedia, was to note that 82% of written biographies are about men.
In a blog post, according to The Verge website, John Bohannon, director of science at Primer, explains the development of Quicksilver tool to read 500 million original documents, sift through the most cited numbers and then write a basic article about the work of these scientists not mentioned in Wikipedia.
Two examples of illustrious women found and written for AI are Teresa Woodruff, a scientist who designed mice ovaries using 3D printers, was cited by Time magazine in 2013 with one of the most influential people in the world scientist, and the other case is that of Jessica Wade, a physicist at Imperial College London, who wrote the new entry for Pineau.
Wade was one of the scientists who said “Wikipedia is incredibly tantalizing, and the underrepresentation of women in science is particularly bad,” and praised Quicksilver stating that with it you can quickly find large amounts of information very quickly.
Wikipedia will have to evolve with Machine Learning tool, this may happen in the coming years, the fact that there are specific tools for this does not invalidate Wikipedia, shows that it has weaknesses and should be corrected

 

The paraconsistent logic

25 Sep

Kurt Gödel’s paradox, that a complete system is inconsistent was fundamental to a new phase in formal logical principles, and cooperated with the emergence of the computer.

It was the Peruvian philosopher Francisco Miró Quesada, unknown to many Latin American scholars, who coined the word paraconsistent in 1976.

The Brazilian Newton da Costa who developed this theory has become very important in several areas, including philosophy and Artificial Intelligence. In the figure, the axis to the side that goes from u 0  and u  1 ,  is called degree of belief, but the truth has points A for consistent and C for inconsistent, having a lot of application to everyday life.

The study applied to semantics mainly explores paradoxes, for example, it can be said that a blind man sees certain circumstances, also the study of different forms of perception and abilities can help the parameters of the deep mind.

We have already stated that neologicism can precisely help AI in this phase of deep intelligence, for example, in the study of natural languages, the language of everyday life.

The idea that A and non-A could exist was inconceivable in Western philosophy, is the principle of the excluded third, which comes from Parmenides and was consolidated in Aristotle. Paraconsistent logics are purposively more “weak,” terms to refer to this break with classical logic, for they solve few valid propositional inferences in the classical sense of logic The logic of paraconsistent languages, however, are more conservative than those of classical counterparts, and this changes Alfred Tarski‘s hierarchy of metalanguage.

The influence on natural language was anticipated in 1984 by Solomon Feferman who stated “… natural language abounds in expressions directly or indirectly self-referential, although seemingly harmless, all of which are excluded from the, because in daily life, in truth we are paraconsistentes