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Psychopolitics and power

07 Aug

In reading Byung Chul Han’s book, I came across the idea that I couldn’t talk about his arguments without going back and commenting on his psychopolitics of power. In his book Psychopolitics – neoliberalism and the new techniques of power (figure), the Korean-German philosopher demonstrated that the techniques of oppression used now.
It is not those that were politically thought out by Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism, so we talk about him last week, or Big Brother’s super-surveillance (not the unreal reality show), but what he called smartphone surveillance.
It states verbatim: “The confession obtained by force has been replaced by voluntary disclosure,” i.e., “Smartphones have been replaced by torture chambers.”, And it is not that the tortures have disappeared in Guantanamo or Venezuela.
It is possible by rereading (in the case of this blog a reading, as we have not done so) of Nietzsche’s will to power and the microphysics of Power that Chul Han does in his pamphlet “What is power” (HAN, 2019).
It rereads the word by saying that the meaning of things is not a “is-so,” but the meaning is given “as you name things, determining yours where and for what” (Han, 2019, p. 56). ), until the truth is ultimately “is allied with power” (Han, 2019, p. 57) thus being “the victory and the duration of a certain kind of truth” (idem) by quoting Nietzsche himself.
After quoting Foucault he will say “power is ultimately what it represses” (p. 62), and makes a brief historicity of this concept by stating that Hegel was the first to see it like this (I make a note with the state as an idolatry). ), then Freud and Reich, in my point in a stricter sense, that of psychology.
But he will object to an ever-negative view of power, in his right consideration: “power, however, is not based on repression” (Han, 2019, p. 63), and quoting Foucault himself, “power is productive, and produces the real ”(HAN, 2019, p. 64).
As he notes, it is a rarely referenced note by Foucault, for he “distrusts” a “nature” or an “essence” (p. 65), which the author deepens.


What is power

06 Aug

Power is not related, at least in common sense, to power, but to the idea of domination and coercion, yet Byung Chull Han wrote: “It is a mistaken belief that power acts only by repression or distribution” (Han, 2019, p. 19 ), and quoting Luhmann, adds that even in the communication: “power is the ‘ability’ to ‘increase the likelihood of unlikely decision-making’ (Han, idem), roughly the ability to change people’s minds in confrontation situations.
I remember an electoral clash that one person insisted on offending a certain opponent that I didn’t like either, but at one point the arguments he made were so blunt that it made me wonder if he would convince a single opponent, but in turn attracted even more to his own. the hate.
Chul Han always works with the concept of negativity, which is not an authoritarian one, but that the “yes of those who are subject to power should not be a jubilatory yes” (Han, 2019, p. 21).
Thus the negative arises not as non-compulsory, but as “from a negative perception” (idem), and then cites Max Weber’s definition: “Power means the opportunity, within a social relationship, to impose one’s own will also against resistance, no matter on which such an opportunity is based” (Han, 2019, p. 22), not by chance will define the concept of power. as ‘amorphous’, of course different from domination.
It makes a profound difference between violence and coercion, since violence can take many forms, and taking up Luhmann: who associates power with: “social relationship in which it would be possible for both sides to act otherwise” (Han, 2019, p. 23).
One might imagine that this is too selfless, but Nelson Mandela when he comes to power “if you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with him. Then he will become your partner”, and that’s what he did when he came to power.
Mandela said he knew when he got out of prison that hatred was behind him or he would remain in prison.

HAN, Byung Chul (2019). O que é poder. Brazil, Petrópolis: Vozes.


The treasure and the passing things

01 Aug

Of the many things we see around us, few actually seem to have treasure value, it seems that everything succumbs to time and human carelessness, if we do not choose the essentials everything seems disposable and little seems treasure.
Attachment to luxury, fleeting values and not the essentials is none other than the fact that we do not really know where the treasures are, one can reverse the biblical saying, but what is right is “where is the treasure, there is yours heart ”(Matt. 6:21) and not the other way around, for the heart knows where it is.
There are many legends or truths, little is known about the treasures of Edward Teach (1680-1718), the BlackBeard specializing in the sacking of ships, or the treasure left by the escaping Spaniards of Peru (1820), or where the 7 million are. dollars from mobster Arthur Flegenheimer (1902-1935) who before being caught and killed in a shooting would have hidden his fortune.
Much has been written about the treasure, “who found a friend found a treasure” that is from the Ecclesiastical, Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a Calvinist preacher who say he spent half of his ministry writing “The Treasure of David”, there are also stories of people who found treasures, a fisherman who has found a large pearl in the sea, or someone who has found a huge diamond and even a child’s treasure-hunting game.
But the truth is that we should have a treasure hidden in our hearts so that it is not something ephemeral or a simple personal object, but something that can give us peace and joy for a lifetime, this will be a treasure a give us something greater than mere utility or passenger value.
So be careful when choosing the treasure to put our heart there, that it be true and eternal, that lasts in the days of sorrow and tribulation, that can be given to others, and has true value and not just utilitarian value.


Óbidos, the Portuguese medieval city

22 Jul

The city of Óbidos, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, the little towns are villages, although they have municipal council, are linked to a district and this city is linked to the district of Leiria, in the province of Extremadura, the center has 2200 inhabitants , but the whole region has almost 12 thousand.

The city has a castle with walls, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, where you can live with medieval aspects, this week for example, there is the medieval festival, but the project “Literary Village” turned Óbidos into Literary City by UNESCO.

It is 80 kilometers from Lisbon, has three cross streets, Rua Direita, Rua do Facho and Josefa d’Óbidos, a tribute to the main baroque artist of the city, post tomorrow. There are vestiges that Óbidos is inhabited from primitive peoples, its logistics near the sea, the climate and the fortification of defenses were in this region also the Romans, the Muslims and in the year 1148, after the conquest of Santarém and Lisbon by D. Afonso Henriques, was also taken from the Arabs.

There is near the Lagoa (lagoon) d’Óbidos, it is possible for the real road, being like lagoon easier of defense and also with exits to the sea in several points, going from the Beach of Bom Sucesso to the Praia da Foz do Arelho (Beach of the Foothills of the Sea Arelho), bypassing the Lagoon.

As for the name, the word comes from the Latin Oppidus, which means “fortified city”, there are signs that the emperor Cesar Augustus erected the city in the late 1st century BC. This week Óbidos holds the Medieval Festival, and there will be a doctoral meeting of Digital Art from the Open University.

The video below shows the Medieval Festival of last year:















in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.


The soul-world and self-identity

10 Jul

In general, few authors are outside the idolatry of the Modern State, even though most of them, especially the Hegelians, consider it abstract, or as Habermas outside the “world of life”, but this concept is different from Husserl’s Lebenswelf, which is out of state.
One of the few authors who will speak of the “constitution of society” is impracticable in the concept of late modernity, but Giddens will demonstrate in “Beyond the right and the left” that the central component of societies of so-called “late modernity” is not plus some kind of interactive or collective element, to the process is the formation of self-identity.
Quoting Giddens in his view of self-identity: “The self is reflexively [understood as self-identity] by the person himself in terms of his biography. Identity, in this case, assumes continuity over time and space: but the self-identity is this continuity interpreted reflexively by the agent ” (Giddens, 1991: 53).
It may seem an overly individualistic argument, or because of the selfies think of something hasty in the new media, Giddens did not say in this context, but the expression of citizenship of various groups with specific identities, cultural, social or religious minorities.
By disembedding and without surpassing the abstract idea of State, Giddens understands that the process of lifting and shifting (lifting out) the social relations of local contexts, and thus the re-establishment in another type of citizen.
By disembedding Giddens understands the process of elevating and shifting the social relations of the local contexts and their re-articulation in another space-time dimension (Giddens, 1991:18:21), note that the space-time it is not time and space seen in absolute motion.
So despite Giddens’s advance, he cannot demonstrate that reflexive self can generate more democratic international institutions and defend multicultural forms of citizenship, there is still a hole in these concepts, which is not at all anarchism.
GIDDENS, A. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1991


Fraternity, worldview and religion

05 Jul

I do not know the religion of the captain of Sea Watch, but the fraternal worldview of captain Carola Rackete (picture), unjustly imprisoned and brought to trial and released only these days, is undoubtedly the only real manifestation of worldliness in the contemporary world.
The press reported little, the Italian authorities raged against the captain’s “rebellion” to rescue shipwrecks and dock in Lampedusa in Italy, against the determination of the local maritime police, but this is the true brotherhood and religion of seeing all peoples as deserving of the same fraternity and respect.
Captain Rackete has been accused of crimes of resistance or violence against the Italian warship and attempted shipwreck for having collided with a patrol of the Financial Guard (Maritime Police of the Italian borders), and the European newspapers that always boast of any attitude in Latin America or Africa has barely reported Rackete’s arrest.
Yet the old colonialist view of looking disdainfully at the rest of the world, which is not just the American, remains and little look at its crimes and atrocities, especially against other peoples and nations that have a different worldview from Europe.
They do not recognize the penumbra and the blindness that they live, not even the worldview itself is very clear, besides the political and economic interests, little or nothing remains of a respect for other peoples and cultures, and little recognizes the own decadence and crisis of thought.
The arrogance of a limited worldview, despite its origin in Christianity, holds true for much of European thought, it is a fact that there is resistance and protesting groups, to the seemingly fraternal worldview of Europe, that biblical saying about Pharisaism in the time of Jesus , Luke 10: 12: “I tell you that on that day Sodom will be treated less severely than this city,” referring to people who rejected the fraternal Christian message.
Of course, one can only speak of a Christianity with a worldview of respect and true brotherhood with all peoples and cultures, for the rest is Pharisaism and cultural pride.
The contemptuous look at the peoples suffered, exploited and colonized is still stigma of our time, is still the result of a culture of domination and exploitation of peoples and nature.
Sea-Watch captain Rackete speaks after release from house arrest:


Uni-verse or multi-verse

03 Jul

It is not a joke with verses and poetry, we have already seen and posited that the universe is made up of frequencies that in the last instance is music, that the first energy released by the universe were frequencies that are ultimately light, now there is a new enigma and there is more than one universe, a multiverse.
Three aspects may lead to the idea of the multiverse, two are already widely studied: the idea of cosmology that comes from the Greeks and today comes the deepest subtleties of matter and dark energy, called black holes that was enlarged with the idea of inflation, second the string theory that of simple hypothesis began to be studied and verified, and the third (or first in the historical sense, began with Hubble in 1929), the idea that the universe (the multiverse we know) is expanding then one day this united, the Big Bang.
The idea of an expanding non-expanding universe led to the second point of string theory, the mathematical-physical model suggests that the fundamental blocks are not points or particles, but strings that vibrate in a kind of cosmic symphony, emerging from music that these strings can play, however with small mathematical inconsistencies. It is these inconsistencies that create the need for a fourth nonlinear dimension such as we know (height, width and depth), but a micro-dimension that delimit how these “strings” can vibrate, the analogy with music is perfect because we only hear in a delimited frequency band, and they vibrate in a delimited range.
It is in this delimited range that is the black energy, it together with black matter composes 96% of the universe, what we know as “matter” is matter and barium energy, only 4%.
The forms present in string theory (photo) can be numerous and even infinite. The question remains if one day observation could make the vision of the multiverse possible, just as in 1964 the scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson captured the background radiation that came from all directions of the cosmos were the proof of the Big Bang Theory.
Scientist Brian Greene explains that the theory of cosmic inflation may someday prove the existence of the Multiverse and explains how the evidence of this theory is already present in quantum theory and in the observation of dark energy.
Watch the Ted video that already has more than a five million views:


The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).


Cultural misery or ignorance

24 Jun

It is not a current phenomenon, although its visibility has increased with the new media, I remember the files (handouts), the manuals of this or that author that the measure that it saw via it is a vulgarity, or a good part of the pseudo -phylosophies in online videos today, but the background to it all is much worse.
Theodore Darlymple, a pseudonym of an English psychiatrist who worked in prisons with high-risk prisoners, identified human misery as the worst face of the culture, wisdom, and reason we live in, identifying three clear axes: the conveniences of corruption of the whole world, not only Brazil), sex and more sex and the death of childhood.
It is rare to find anyone innocent today, even a child, sexual trivialization did not lead to pleasure or good human conviviality, led to more violence, and Byung Chul-Han’s book goes further wrote in The Agony of Eros, wrote that already there is no love, only narcissism.
There is no doubt that there are social and economic reasons that link these facts, but what jumps the eye is that any hasty or similarly new thought appears as a great exercise of “creativity” and with a little examination it is easily seen that it is ignorance.
So themes that are no more than practical rules to live, appear as magical formulas, make campaigns and appear as miraculous source of youth, ease of enrichment or easy joy, see drugs and drinks, in short, ignorance and obscurity.
Religious or ideological pragmatism emerges as this formula, but they are not enough, corruption and illicit enrichment is also there and are themes throughout the world and hide the real interests behind beautiful words and attitudes, if not investigated in depth or nothing is perceived in real life.
There is a forgetting of being, the true religion, since religion is also subject to all kinds of ignorance, even justifying or defending it, see the irony with all manner of education, true religion and true morality.
Heidegger claimed the quest for the “clearing,” there is no doubt we live in obscure times.