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Complex thinking

14 Jan

Nothing favors obscurantism more than the idea that is possible to make what is complex simpler, ignore the organicity of social, ecological and cultural problems and how they compose themselves.

Complex thinking is born from the idea of nature and the universe as organisms that are increasingly mysterious and whose structure is gradually revealed, through the hard work of those who first admit the complexity of phenomena and second resist temptation to simplify them by imagining that simple solutions and ideas would be enough to solve them.

Man himself is but a complexification of nature, they agree with this not only the most elaborate scientific thought but also theologians like Teilhard Chardin.

Scientific simplification is called reductionism, religious simplification reductionism, cultural and social simplification has no specific name, but it can be said that it is confused with ignorance and dualism.

Morin explains in Introduction to Complex Thinking: “the ancient pathology of thought gave an independent life to the myths and gods it created. The modern pathology of the spirit is in the hypersimplification that makes it blind in the face of the complexity of the real” (Morin, 2008 p. 22).

In the scientific field explains it epistemological blindness: “Those disputed between Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Feyerabend, etc., are ignored. Now this blindness is part of our barbarism. It makes us understand that we are always in the barbaric age of ideas. We are always in the prehistory of the human spirit.” (Morin, 2008, p. 23).

Nothing more complex than reducing it to the simple, as Bachelard stated, there is no simple, there is only simplified, which most often mutilates and deforms the phenomenon, inducing thought to obscure liquidity.

Morin, E. (2008) Introduction to complex thinking. 5th. ed. Lisbon: Institute Piaget.


Truths and Fallacies of Humility

09 Jan

It is common thought that humility would be a kind of wisdom revealed only to the humble in the strictu sense of the word, so it is linked to a lack of knowledge, instruction and therefore truth, this is not humility, but only and only. ignorance.

There is still a medieval type of thinking: “the attitude of voluntary abjection in the face of man’s miserable and sinful nature” seems religious, but if this is so, the apostle Paul says more clearly, according to Nicola Abbagnano’s Dictionary of Philosophy, she is “the lack of spirit of competition and boasting”, which is present in various domains, even the religious one.

André Comte-Sponville, in his Philosophical Dictionary helps to discern: “Humility should not be confused, therefore, with self-hatred (I add self-pity), even less with servility or lowliness”.

The humble man does not believe himself inferior to others: he no longer believes himself superior.

Do not ignore what is worth .. or may be worth… ”, so many arrogant criticize the lack if humility that they themselves are carriers. Finally I want to add a stronger philosophical argument, Nietzsche’s disagreement with Socratic philosophy (like, I only know that I know nothing), Nietzsche argued that the Socratic consideration of tragic art (he defended tragedy and criticized its concealment), never It tells the truth, since by constructing a set of conceptual values ​​about life, it impoverishes and diminishes it.

Interestingly, the philosopher of the “death of God” states that life cannot be evaluated by the living, because as part of it they cannot judge it, being an illusion of reality.

The lesson about Nietzsche de Eric L. Dodson is good initialization about Nietzsche:


A re-reading of the three wise men

03 Jan

In times of fundamentalism and religious intolerance, a re-reading of the Magi that they have adopted and also “contemplating” the birth of Jesus is essential for dialogue.
The first necessary is that God has communicated with the “wizards” of the East, he can reopen closed hearts for reconnection (religion of the Latin verb religare which is to reconnect), for they were not even religious in the conventional sense, but
magicians and God reconnected them.
The second is that the divine communication was through stars, which means that they could understand this language and that God spoke in their human language, that is, there are forms beyond the dogmatic communication between God and men, even non-believers.
Cosmology is an ancient and fundamental part of philosophy, its evolution and composition studies the universe, and comes from antiquity, the pre-Socratics studied it, also seek the explanation of the origin and transformation of nature and the universe and build myths and divinity, creating a relationship between mortal and imortal beings.
So God is not so indiferente to this, a universal proposition should not disregard cosmology, and if one wishes to construct a cosmogony, that is the beginning and end of all life, then an eschatology is also constructed, and Christian eschatology may be related to Is not this, after all, God the beginning and the end of everything?
Thesecond re-reading, the question about of the stars, in fact even today they are looking for cosmological evidences ofthe star that the Magi followed, a star, a come t, this could help to date Christmas of a more precise date.
Theologians such as Teilhard Chardin did not fail to consider the cosmological hypothesis, and the notion of a Christ-centered universe helps a non-fundamentalist interpretation of a more complex eschatology, and so we have recourse in the previous post (in 1 / 4 /2019) to St. Gregory of Nazianzen.
The third is that the magi were “contemplating” the boy-God, in addition to the active vita, Hannah Arendt also spoke of her in The Human Condition (published in 1956, with Brazilian edition of 2009), which comes from the conference Work, Work and Action (Brazilian publication of 2006), but already spoke of this question Aristotle in the bios politikos and the vita negotiosa or actuosa in Augustine, and, recently Byung Chull Han in The society of the fatigue.
But they did not come to worship only, where the element offered incense is essentially this, but also brought gold in the sense of wealth and myrrh in the sense of sacrifices offered.
Magi should signify the opening of Christianity to other languages ​​which are also an expression of the infinite, of the universe, and of the sacredly constructed life in all and in all.


Óbidos, the Portuguese medieval city

22 Jul

The city of Óbidos, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, the little towns are villages, although they have municipal council, are linked to a district and this city is linked to the district of Leiria, in the province of Extremadura, the center has 2200 inhabitants , but the whole region has almost 12 thousand.

The city has a castle with walls, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, where you can live with medieval aspects, this week for example, there is the medieval festival, but the project “Literary Village” turned Óbidos into Literary City by UNESCO.

It is 80 kilometers from Lisbon, has three cross streets, Rua Direita, Rua do Facho and Josefa d’Óbidos, a tribute to the main baroque artist of the city, post tomorrow. There are vestiges that Óbidos is inhabited from primitive peoples, its logistics near the sea, the climate and the fortification of defenses were in this region also the Romans, the Muslims and in the year 1148, after the conquest of Santarém and Lisbon by D. Afonso Henriques, was also taken from the Arabs.

There is near the Lagoa (lagoon) d’Óbidos, it is possible for the real road, being like lagoon easier of defense and also with exits to the sea in several points, going from the Beach of Bom Sucesso to the Praia da Foz do Arelho (Beach of the Foothills of the Sea Arelho), bypassing the Lagoon.

As for the name, the word comes from the Latin Oppidus, which means “fortified city”, there are signs that the emperor Cesar Augustus erected the city in the late 1st century BC. This week Óbidos holds the Medieval Festival, and there will be a doctoral meeting of Digital Art from the Open University.

The video below shows the Medieval Festival of last year:















in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.


The soul-world and self-identity

10 Jul

In general, few authors are outside the idolatry of the Modern State, even though most of them, especially the Hegelians, consider it abstract, or as Habermas outside the “world of life”, but this concept is different from Husserl’s Lebenswelf, which is out of state.
One of the few authors who will speak of the “constitution of society” is impracticable in the concept of late modernity, but Giddens will demonstrate in “Beyond the right and the left” that the central component of societies of so-called “late modernity” is not plus some kind of interactive or collective element, to the process is the formation of self-identity.
Quoting Giddens in his view of self-identity: “The self is reflexively [understood as self-identity] by the person himself in terms of his biography. Identity, in this case, assumes continuity over time and space: but the self-identity is this continuity interpreted reflexively by the agent ” (Giddens, 1991: 53).
It may seem an overly individualistic argument, or because of the selfies think of something hasty in the new media, Giddens did not say in this context, but the expression of citizenship of various groups with specific identities, cultural, social or religious minorities.
By disembedding and without surpassing the abstract idea of State, Giddens understands that the process of lifting and shifting (lifting out) the social relations of local contexts, and thus the re-establishment in another type of citizen.
By disembedding Giddens understands the process of elevating and shifting the social relations of the local contexts and their re-articulation in another space-time dimension (Giddens, 1991:18:21), note that the space-time it is not time and space seen in absolute motion.
So despite Giddens’s advance, he cannot demonstrate that reflexive self can generate more democratic international institutions and defend multicultural forms of citizenship, there is still a hole in these concepts, which is not at all anarchism.
GIDDENS, A. Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1991


Fraternity, worldview and religion

05 Jul

I do not know the religion of the captain of Sea Watch, but the fraternal worldview of captain Carola Rackete (picture), unjustly imprisoned and brought to trial and released only these days, is undoubtedly the only real manifestation of worldliness in the contemporary world.
The press reported little, the Italian authorities raged against the captain’s “rebellion” to rescue shipwrecks and dock in Lampedusa in Italy, against the determination of the local maritime police, but this is the true brotherhood and religion of seeing all peoples as deserving of the same fraternity and respect.
Captain Rackete has been accused of crimes of resistance or violence against the Italian warship and attempted shipwreck for having collided with a patrol of the Financial Guard (Maritime Police of the Italian borders), and the European newspapers that always boast of any attitude in Latin America or Africa has barely reported Rackete’s arrest.
Yet the old colonialist view of looking disdainfully at the rest of the world, which is not just the American, remains and little look at its crimes and atrocities, especially against other peoples and nations that have a different worldview from Europe.
They do not recognize the penumbra and the blindness that they live, not even the worldview itself is very clear, besides the political and economic interests, little or nothing remains of a respect for other peoples and cultures, and little recognizes the own decadence and crisis of thought.
The arrogance of a limited worldview, despite its origin in Christianity, holds true for much of European thought, it is a fact that there is resistance and protesting groups, to the seemingly fraternal worldview of Europe, that biblical saying about Pharisaism in the time of Jesus , Luke 10: 12: “I tell you that on that day Sodom will be treated less severely than this city,” referring to people who rejected the fraternal Christian message.
Of course, one can only speak of a Christianity with a worldview of respect and true brotherhood with all peoples and cultures, for the rest is Pharisaism and cultural pride.
The contemptuous look at the peoples suffered, exploited and colonized is still stigma of our time, is still the result of a culture of domination and exploitation of peoples and nature.
Sea-Watch captain Rackete speaks after release from house arrest:


Uni-verse or multi-verse

03 Jul

It is not a joke with verses and poetry, we have already seen and posited that the universe is made up of frequencies that in the last instance is music, that the first energy released by the universe were frequencies that are ultimately light, now there is a new enigma and there is more than one universe, a multiverse.
Three aspects may lead to the idea of the multiverse, two are already widely studied: the idea of cosmology that comes from the Greeks and today comes the deepest subtleties of matter and dark energy, called black holes that was enlarged with the idea of inflation, second the string theory that of simple hypothesis began to be studied and verified, and the third (or first in the historical sense, began with Hubble in 1929), the idea that the universe (the multiverse we know) is expanding then one day this united, the Big Bang.
The idea of an expanding non-expanding universe led to the second point of string theory, the mathematical-physical model suggests that the fundamental blocks are not points or particles, but strings that vibrate in a kind of cosmic symphony, emerging from music that these strings can play, however with small mathematical inconsistencies. It is these inconsistencies that create the need for a fourth nonlinear dimension such as we know (height, width and depth), but a micro-dimension that delimit how these “strings” can vibrate, the analogy with music is perfect because we only hear in a delimited frequency band, and they vibrate in a delimited range.
It is in this delimited range that is the black energy, it together with black matter composes 96% of the universe, what we know as “matter” is matter and barium energy, only 4%.
The forms present in string theory (photo) can be numerous and even infinite. The question remains if one day observation could make the vision of the multiverse possible, just as in 1964 the scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson captured the background radiation that came from all directions of the cosmos were the proof of the Big Bang Theory.
Scientist Brian Greene explains that the theory of cosmic inflation may someday prove the existence of the Multiverse and explains how the evidence of this theory is already present in quantum theory and in the observation of dark energy.
Watch the Ted video that already has more than a five million views:


The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).


From Logic to Being

27 Sep

The concept of antropotécnica, initially controversial that came to shake the German culture and generated a controversy between Junger Haberrmas and Peter Sloterdijk, even being compared to conservative forces, in fact can be related so much to “improvement of the world” (in German Weltverbesserung) and “self-improvement” (Selbstverbesserung).

It surpasses and at the same time dialogues with the Foucauldian concept of biopolitics, it still shows a difficulty in the relation between subject and power, in spite of its Microphysics of Power, thus sees the relation with the technique: “I have tried, rather, to produce a history of the different modes of subjectivation of the human being in our culture: I have treated, in this perspective, the three modes of objectification that transform human beings into subjects. […]. It is not, therefore, the power, but the subject that constitutes the general theme of my research. “(FOUCAULT, 2014, pp. 118-119).

Although biopolitics appears to be an overcoming of the “technology of the self” (the aesthetics of existence), it has not dissociated itself from the object x subject polarity, whose essence is idealistic logic.

If biopolitics is ultimately the rule of life, life is beyond the relation to power, for a radical change took place in Modernity: technique. Sloterdijk’s 2009 work “You Must Change Your Life” (Du musst dein Leven ändern) he establishes two forms of artificial (not virtual) production of human behavior in so-called “great cultures” under the impact of the Modern Age.

The first is the production of man by man, what he calls “letting operate” (Sich-operieren-Lassen) and the second is the production of men, but of themselves, which would then go to techniques of “self -employment” (Sloterdik, 2009, page 589).

What Sloterdijk wants to point out to us is that there is a new form of relationship with the state in progress that goes beyond biopolitics, clarifies in his foundational work “Rules for the human park” that since Plato, creator of the ideal state and the idea of ​​citizenship where the philosopher-politician was superior, let us see: “What Plato utters by the mouth of his stranger is the program of a humanist society embodied in the figure of the one complete humanist: the master of the science of royal grazing.

The task of this superhumanist [the political philosopher trained for this] would be no other than the planning of properties in an elite [of politicians] that would have to be explicitly raised for the good of all. “(Sloterdijk 2001, 82- 83).

This logic escapes from the left-right dualism, liberators and oppressors (they are on both sides), for a logic of redefining the role of state and politics, is a paraconsistent logic, in the sense that it requires a new language, a broad dialogue.

The Peruvian philosopher Francisco Miró Quesada, who coined the word Paraconsistent, says that Latin American thought is born: “before all, naked and weak, like a helpless orphan,” amidst dictatorial possibilities a new thought can open us to Being .

SLOTERDIJK, P. Regras para o parque humano (Rules for the Human Park). São Paulo: Estação Liberdade, 2001.

FOUCAULT, M. O sujeito e o poder. (The subject and the power). In: Foucault, M. Dictations and Writings – IX. Rio de Janeiro: Forense Universitária, 2014.