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The Being, the Other, and the Beyond the Same

17 May

The being described in Heidegger’s “dasein” is the only entity capable of understanding existence itself, because it brings within itself the sense of being, it is as a pre-ontological entity because it has in itself an understanding of this meaning even before any theorization , Heidegger calls it pre-theoretical.
It is among the beings the only one to have a sense already in itself capable of creating, desiring, building, destroying and everything happens in relation to one’s existence, is a pre-sein and an ex-sein-tence.
Heidegger describes it thus: “The presence is not only an entity that occurs among other entities. On the contrary, it is ontictically distinguished by the privilege of its being, that is, being, its own being at stake. “(Heidegger, 2013, 48)
Dasein is the only entity capable of understanding itself, and this understanding is given insofar as it is, in which it exercises its existence. He is an ontological being because it carries the sense of being in itself, and it is pre-ontological because it already has a (pre) understanding of that sense, an understanding before it can even be theorized, which Heidegger calls a pre-theoretical understanding .
Its phenomenology does not intend to reveal the “what” are the things, but the “how” they are, their own being, as they “present”, is the possibility of “being” by this I translate their dasein as “Being-there” and in it is inserted the Other.
Heidegger’s phenomenology does not intend to talk about the “what” of things, but the “how”. Heidegger does not intend to say what being is, or what Dasein is, but how they are, as they present themselves in the Presence of the Other, the relation of being outside, and Emmanuel Lévinas development in sense of “infinity”. 
This being outside ultimately means a complete opening to the Other, only the being of realization, and in this case the “how” means how we also love the Other, this is the final lesson of Jesus at the Last Supper, in telling the disciples (John 13:34): “as I have loved you, love one another,” this as it is essential, it is Jesus’ projection of the Others, his disciples, this “how” is very important.
Kael Moffat’s video explores the issue of the Other in a universal perspective, without leaving the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religious view to the side, and explains it in philosophy:

 

Thought, meditation and life

10 May

If thinking is difficult in contemporary society, meditation is almost impossible, even in spaces dedicated to it, it is pure exoterism that meditates, deepens a thought or a situation, that would lead us to do the activities with greater tranquility.

The Greeks called the stage in which we withdraw our judgments and pre-occupations from our head the “epoché”, the absence of judgment on things to initiate a thought.

The philosopher Husserl took up this concept to create his phenomenology and affirmed that this was one of the principles of the current crisis of science, beyond its logicist and positivist structure, it was necessary to return the thing itself, and affirmed that consciousness is “consciousness of something” .

Byung-Chul Han in the Society of Fatigue warns us that active life needs a complement that is the meditation life, without which we immerse ourselves in tiredness and can be led to Bournot syndrome, in which we live in eternal confusion.

This is not new of course, but the acceleration of society due to new technologies, haste and the lack of environments and situations of deep meditation has led to an emptying of life.

To take it back is urgent, it will give us consciousness of Being, it will allow us to face problems that exist for all people and in almost every situation, and it will give us a better life.

Sloterdijk in “you can change your life,” while ironizing the false spiritual exercises of our day, called them as unsprayed ascesis, just exercise. It is not an escape from reality, and developoment antropotechnic concept. 

In Christian spirituality it means to find the humanity of the historical and divine Jesus, for when his disciples ask to see God he has the answer: “he who sees me, sees the Father”, in general terms, is in the reality, it is necessary to clarify and see. The lecture Andy Peddicombe says that 10 minutes are enough to regain consciousness:

 

World of life and deviations

02 May

It seems obvious what the world of life would be, but it is not because simply this world is populated by theories and misconceptions trying to put life as some form of acting, of making functionalist or even of thinking in restricted forms that do not behave life.
It is not by chance that this was later developed by Heidegger and Gadamer, since all life refers to the Being, and closes itself in this and not from its relation with the objects, but with the vision it has of the relation with these objects which are part of the world of life.
Separating them into ontological and ontological, though distinct, means that there is something beyond the life of being, not in the mystical sense, but of the transcendental realizations (the apriori) of consciousness.
Thus the work of Hans Georg Gadamer “Truth and Method” is nothing other than to oppose a vision of historical consciousness other than that of something, the basic presupposition of the hermeneutics, there is therefore no clear relation to life, beings, objects and culture of concrete beings within a concrete reality.
The original meaning of the “world of life” (Lebenswelt) is embodied in Heidegger’s work of Being and Time, used in part by Sartre, Gadamer problematized it, and Schultz made it central to his phenomenological sociology.
Phenomenology brought from Franz Brentano the notion of intentionality, which according to Sokoloski, intention means the relation of consciousness that we have with an object, then refers in the last analysis to what we call consciousness.
The notion of intentionality is the one that contrasts most strongly with positivism, when reconsidering the subject and object relationship, in a perspective of inseparability, offers an opposition to its objectivism and neutrality.
By fully recovering the subject in relation to objects, phenomenology is a resumption of the humanization of science, a restorative view of Being and of existence.
The work of Alfred Schutz (1899 to 1959) incorporating phenomenology into Max Weber’s sociology, regains the importance of the concept of Verstehen (understanding) and distinguishes it from Erklaren (common-sense knowledge, or methods of modern social sciences).
Hans Georg Gadamer clarifies that Verstehen is close to the understanding of the Other, in which the relation of knowing is thus humanized.
SOKOLOWSKI, Robert. Introduction to phenomenology (in portuguese). São Paulo: Loyola, 2004.
The concept of intentionality is central to phenomenology and this vídeo clarifies the term:

 

Postmodern, Late Modernity, and Life

01 May

The period of post-war was followed by a period of mass culture, with the reaction of the counterculture and resistance to the war in Vietnam, this was even before the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Union, before the birth of internet, and therefore there was already a crisis in Western thinking since Kieekgaard, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.
Stuart Hall, in The Culture Identity in Postmodernity (2000) attempts to assess what would be happening with a crisis of (social) identity and that this led to the fragmentation of the individual generating new identities, subject to a concrete plan of history and no longer with the perception of the previous stages, in our view, nationalism and conservatism are a strong reaction to this aspect, or the attempt to return to an identity before the crisis.
The process that has taken place since the 1980s, where there was already a mass culture, now occurs on a global scale, a true world-system, which is influenced by globalization without doubt, but the background is now a mass culture world, where national, ethnic and social identities are confused, and the Web is just a media of this process, the mass culture of the previous process prepared this stage.
Stuart Hall’s attempt is to analyze the cultural plan, if it is economic truth that we are in a late modernity, for those who look at the ongoing change is in the art plane that one can try to understand the movement that one makes and where one goes.
Today artists even have greater possibilities of communicating, but the enormous amount of tendency and languages makes impossible some formal unicity, then dialog and compose.
Aesthetics are also products and consequences of the production and circulation of the same, and unlike the movement of art, as Byung Chul Han says “everyone wants to be different from each other”, which forces “to produce itself” said in the conference in 2018 in Barcelona, because only those who open themselves to the Other can appreciate the different and respect.
The speech of hatred is made in the group of equals, speak in dialogue without hearing soon find an excuse for intolerance, resentment and attack.
The networks that were to put us together, put together the equals that are reinforced, as Byung Chul Han says, “in the desert, or in hell, of the equal”, sometimes with sweet words and sometimes with declared hatred.
The African TED Seconde Nimenya clarifies why we want to be equal, when we are different and this should be normal, but it is not:

 

Neither flat nor 3D, much beyond

26 Apr

The universe contains, from that sensible world to our senses, the world modeled by a three-dimensional geometry (length, width and height) other dimensions, the fourth dimension (hormholes, earthworm) is already reassessed by physics.
Time and space are more absolute and the energy and dark matter that makes up 94% of the universe begins to be studied with black holes (actually dark matter), but there is a lot of mystery.
What is certain is that our senses that built mathematics and physics up to the 19th century begin to be dismantled and gradually our senses are clearly challenged and among their ideal forms: point, straight, plane and cube are surpassed by the hypercube and the fractals.
Daring to Know, the idealistic formula constructed models of clearly idealistic universes, and does not correspond to the real universe, served for many advances and experiments, but there are mysteries that go beyond what the senses can perceive.
The fact that the image of an immense black hole was recently made, the sound of gravitational attraction was recorded proving that it exists as particles, gravitrons, shows that we have walked a little, but we must be wary of seeing, hearing and feeling. To look at infinity and its immensity, to admit that there is something beyond infinity, that the universe is not the mechanical machine assumed by Newton and formerly set in motion by the Copernican Revolution, are both now clearly seen as insufficient to explain the universe, and we are far from explaining it.
Excited theology and exoterism try to use quantum physics to explain the existence of God, to invent magical formulas for a more comfortable path to human existence, but there is life and death in our human lives.
Dead and life in animal and vegetable life, and in the whole universe, explaining it with images and sounds that allow our senses to believe is good, only that the mystery is even greater than the explanation.
In Christian eschatology, life beyond death, resurrection can be seen within this dynamic, after all even the apostles had difficulty understanding this, and Jesus appearing to they believe at him.
In the dialogue with Thomas, a disciple who did not believe Jesus says (John 20:27): “Put your finger here and look at my hands. Put out your hand and put it by my side, “and then concludes that those who believe without seeing are happy, have a vision beyond what is sensible, and can go to what is essential.
The TED by Thad Roberts, with more than a million views, shows mysteries about theorie of relativity and others spaces:

 

The sound of Gravitational attraction

25 Apr

The work was announced on February 11, 2016, confirming the theory of gravitational waves predicted by Einstein’s theory of relativity, where the LIGO Laboratory (laboratory of Gravitational wave Laser interferometer) along with the project Virgo, from the town of Cascina in Italy.

“We observe the first event in absolute which a collision does not produce observable data, except through gravitational waves. It lasted a fraction of a second, but the energy emerged was enormous, equivalent to three solar masses”, Ricci added.

The two holes formed a “couple”, that is, a binary system in which one orbited around the other, and they “had a mass of 29 to 36 times higher than the sun and approached an impressive speed near the light”.

“The closer they approached, the wider and more frequent the signal was, as an acute hum” said the scientist.

The work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters and was as impressive as the black hole recently photographed, with the difference that in the case of the black hole, in fact is a mass of dark matter, as we explained in another post.

But the phenomena are related because the origin of the phenomenon is in the collision of two holes (dark matter), which occurred a billion years ago, which made it present and doubly important the discovery, to explain gravity and black holes.

The video explains the phenomenon:

 

 

Beyond the senses

22 Apr

By separating subjects (or what is subjective) from objects, Kant’s and Hegelian idealism creates a transcendence of their own to interconnect them and thus separates it from the ontological, from the being.
The way of the Enlightenment was settled, but there was a necessary complement for the discourse not to become very “religious”, Locke describes the human mind as a tabula rasa (A blank picture), where, through experience, the ideas, thus completing this.
The knowledge of physics, especially of astronomy, the use of mathematics helped to construct a “logical” world, but based solely on it, there were no longer the ontological, that is, proper to the being.
Subjectivity will appear in another way, George Berkeley’s radical empiricism, for example, only creates a current of subjective idealism, although it is distant in time, much of what is called “practice” today is this kind of subjectivity, still separate from the object.
What was for the empiricists a phenomenon, for Hume for example, was the simple reason that one phenomenon is always followed by another, causes them to relate to each other by a formula known as cause-effect, which generated in the days of today the empiro-criticism, a way to construct narratives from disconnected facts, or not always with the vision of the set of facts and then to understand the cause in fact.
Phenomenology more recently takes a different stance, the problem of “apparition” or “meeting things in themselves” (Husserl, 2008, p.17) and which will create an important contemporary current in opposition to positivism and neopositivism .
Thus, rather than restricting experimental analysis, phenomenology opens up to regions veiled by this method, seeking a comprehensive and non-explanatory analysis of phenomena.
Husserl’s phenomenology proposes a comprehensive analysis of consciousness, since all the experiences (Erlebnis) of the world occur in and by consciousness.
This is where the celebrated Husserlian definition of consciousness arises: “all consciousness is consciousness of something,” and this definition of consciousness is linked to the notion of intentionality which Husserl inherited from Franz Brentano but modified it.
Finally there are realities both physical and existence beyond our senses.
HUSSERL, E. The crisis of European humanity and philosophy (in portuguese). Porto Alegre; EDIPUCRS, 2008.
David Deutsch’s TED is just to understand that differents explanations about methods:

 

The Easter of Humanity

19 Apr

It is certain that we live a dark time, not from the digital transformations that in their essence are not evil because they expanded the worldview by telecommunications and electronic networks, expanded the participation by MEDIAS of social networks, and made more Visible the great atrocities that have been practiced ever since: oppression, inequality and various types of social intolerances.
Only one passage is possible (a great Passover of death and resurrection), if we understand what must die and need to resurrect it.
The ideological construction that we conventionally call enlightenment has three pillars: the Kantian idealism sublimated by Hegel and used by many including Marx, the Enlightenment and the empiricist thought, who believed that true knowledge is in Senses, reason and science came from these pillars.
The Industrial revolution represented the departure of the rural worker who fought in communal regime for the city where it sells its workforce, at the beginning without rules and contracts of employment, then the Social contract of the state (read: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau) leaves the Famous 3 powers and goes to the working class, with concessions but insufficient.
Thus the religious thought was progressively abandoned, what Max Weber called “Disenchantment of the world”, but it is necessary to understand that the part that idealism calls subjective (relative to the subject) is his own and with Heidegger there is a twist Ontological.
Also the Enlightenment thought was already in crisis with Husserl, since the logicism had already been questioned by the Vienna Circle, but still without disattaching it.
The Husserl development elaborates the concept of world-of-life (Lebenswelt), but another central aspect little cited is that Husserl takes the problem of historicity of philosophy, undertaking profound teleological-historical analyses, pointing philosophy As able to review the essential aspects of modern science.
Ernest Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote The philosophy of the Enlightenment, and held a significant debate on the issue of Liberty and Kantian reason with Heidegger that reveals these issues, the central point of this debate is the questions of the exact and moral sciences of enlightenment.
In this plan philosophical thought may be able to rethink the Enlightenment model, and certainly no solution will be more national, cultural or religiously isolated, global problems need and can only be solved the light of global governance.
It takes a new thought, a new man who embrace the world and of course a new world culture that allows for social balance, with nature and with cultures.

 

The history of Easter

18 Apr

Easter is of Jewish origin, Passover (from Hebrew פסח – picture – meaning to go over or overlook) recalls the passage of slavery in Egypt around the year 1446 BC, and in the Jewish case is to remind the new generations the suffering in Egypt.
Jesus is going to celebrate Easter with his disciples, but it was common for the emperor to release some of the rebels at this time, and Jesus is arrested and tried in public, although the governor of Palestine Pilate lays hands, Barabbas is released and Jesus goes to live condemnation, torture and cruxification until death, but his body disappears, and for Christians he has risen, several later events will confirm this.
The Jews sacrifice a lamb and must be eaten after the supper full of symbolism (in picture), among them the cup of Elijah that remains untouchable, but Jesus at the last supper before being delivered will use it and pass it to the disciples at supper with their friends there is only bread, and Jesus asks that this be done in his memory, after washing the feet of his friends.
There begins his sacrifice like lamb, in substitution to the Jewish lamb, he becomes humble servant and begins its way to calvary when one of the disciples leaves to deliver it.
Foot-washing, as it is called the event of washing the feet for supper, something generally done by the slaves, but now done by someone who could be deemed important however does exactly the opposite of what human logic indicates, asks the disciples to do this by following their example, humility is a high value that must be recovered mainly by leaders and people holding positions so that humanity can find a new course.
Knowledge and pride impede advances, enslave people, and make social relations more tense and violent.
The following video, made in animated comics, is very illustrative of Easter.

 

Poetry, Notre Dame and Ignorance

16 Apr

I was preparing to write something about the first volume of Otto Maria Carpeaux on Western literature, curiously I dwell on the passage: “‘lirism’ is the true name for the divine and human order in the world of Sophocles, symptoms of a precarious balance because purely aesthetic “(Carpeaux, 2012, p. 49), which speaks of lyricism in Sophocles, the fire of Notre Dame robs me of lyricism, and certainly not only aesthetic but historical.
Certainly there will be some who think that they are stones and museums, the little appreciation for the religious question touches me, but I understand, but no appreciation for history, the first arches that extended the ceiling of the Gothic cathedrals, an engineering work that lasted almost 300 years, that used various styles of architecture that could be reviewed and understood, etc.
There is militant ignorance, appeals to practice, objectivism (which robs any lyrical or poetic possibility), what Byung Chull Han calls the culture of the “smooth”, flat, without wrinkles or details, which wants to abolish any environment, enhances or poetic license, the “challenge” culture.
I saw the works of Gaudi in Barcelona the contemporary opposite of the culture of the flat, a poetry, lyricism and a mystique made of stone as he intended, the internal lights of the Sagrada Familia are a spectacle to the part, it is not the digital that abolished this, much before modern objectivism.
Ignorance beyond questioning any concept, philosophy or theory, in addition to a pseudo appeal to practice, objectivity or any other argument, in fact without good method none of this can be successfully achieved, this ignorance has become militant and I wonder if would not be able to destroy mankind’s patrimony.
The Islamic State did this in Palmyra, but do not we do the same in our instrumentalizing, ideologized and militant practice, in fact, there is today a militious ignorance.
I want to imagine that the fire of Notre Dame was not a criminal, because it does the same thing as terrorism by destroying history, culture and the possibility of future generations understanding the long road that humanity has gone through, it is not possible to have a promising future by ignoring the past, not only the deeds, but also the mistakes and misunderstandings.
I accept this momentary death, this is my easter and easter of history, but I believe in future and in the culture.