Arquivo para a ‘’ Categoria

The order of the Universe

30 Mar

In classical antiquity the model that predominated was the Ptolemaic, which surpassed the model of Aristotle (384-322 BC) who thought that the Earth was the center of the universe, of course in addition to other models that considered the flat earth the Earth attached to a “ spherical shell ”and others.

Other ideas emerged, but the model of Claudio Ptolemy (85-150) prevailed, until the model of Nicolau Copernicus (1473-1543) appeared in the late Middle Ages, but the Sun was still the center of the Universe, the important here is the mathematical and geometric “order” that he established, which influenced all modern science.

Our limit as a galaxy was proposed in ancient times by Democritus of Abdera (450-370 B.C.), seeing the bright low in the night sky, stated that it consisted of distant stars.

It was only in the 10th century, that the Persian astronomer known as Azophi (Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi), who observed the Andromeda Galaxy, describing it as a “little cloud” and was rediscovered by Simon Marius in 1612, and in 1610 Galileo Galilei confirms that the Milky Way was composed of several stars.

The model of the Milky Way was established by William Hershel in 1785 (drawing above) and until the discovery of the expansion of the universe, it was composed of galaxies and these by stars and planets.

The current cosmological models came from the hypothesis, today practically confirmed by the clergyman Georges Lamaitre (1854-1966), demonstrated by Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) and theorized and completed by the English physicist Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) and his student Roger Penrose (1931-).

It was from the study of density fluctuations (or anisotropic irregularities of the “matter”) which, analyzing the larger structures began to develop, the result is what is called barionic matter that condenses inside halos of cold dark matter , and these are the ones that formed galaxies as we see today, but dark matter and energy are still studies.

What we want to establish here is how our view of the world and matter also has implications for the view of life studies, and in the present case, of the structures of viruses and small organisms that can help science find solutions to epidemics and pandemics.

In a study that we are doing on publications in Social Networks, the scientist with the largest number of publications in the area of ​​Social Networks is Carl a. Latkin, an infectious disease physician who is a member of the Center for Global Medicine, which is not by chance, our worldview and complexity has changed and it can help us to fight the pandemic.


Not wanting to heal

26 Mar

A system in crisis, whether for social, economic or political reasons, it tends to become more confusing and toxic until it finds a way to heal itself, when the reason is a natural catastrophe or a disease is not much different, but these affect life directly.
Not wanting to heal and defend life is an attitude of self-sabotage whether for conscious reasons or unconsciousness explains psychology, it is that attitude of creating obstacles and obstacles that hinder tasks to find ways, in this case healing and preserving lives, and so he thinks that there is no way to achieve the goals of cure or co-immunity, the immunity achieved by joint actions.
From a cultural point of view, it is both ignorance, and in this case the view of specialists and health agents must be the “technical” view that prevails, including the economic view, it is thus a blindness, saying it is just a flu or we are dead end (unconscious self-sabotage) is a phenomenon of directing the mind to mistaken thoughts, and this exists culturally.
The biblical narrative tells that a man spent 38 years in a bed and could not reach a natural pool called Siloam (in Hebrew means envoy) and I need Jesus’ intervention to tell him to take his bed and walk (John 5: 7- 9), a miracle but also a break with paralysis and in this sense it is also a metaphor.
But there are those who thought they saw and did not see, the blind man born who is healed in the Bible is someone who did not have a cognitive system prepared to see, and the fact that he comes to see is a miracle but also another metaphor, which due to cultural and contextual blindness it is not possible to see, when leaving this context it is possible to see.
Now wanting to heal or not is a psychic attitude, wanting to see and having the physiological system to see it takes effort and overcome the self-sabotage that makes blindness a comfort zone.


A dark night of humanity

20 Mar

One night falls on mankind, but it must be noted that this night the virus that has hit the whole planet has been happening is a catalyst and despite being lethal and bringing a lot of care can wake us up from a night that was happening: night of culture, night of God, night of science reduced to questionable specialties and methods and mainly night of man.
The rampant and often meaningless life, the search for efficiency and productivity, the idea that economic growth brings happiness and especially the exclusion of the Other, now seem to be inverted with the need to stay at home: #StayAtHome.
Tonight provoked a collective blindness, culture is anything goes, scribbles and blots became art, purely genital expressions without any affectivity of sex, and the religious culture that helped people find peace of mind became pure superstition, appeal wealth and money, or mere poverty on the other hand without anything to make you understand the deep sense of detachment and living in the essence of life.
The religious night or night of God is an attachment of men to their closed circles now, if they are prudent, also prevented from meeting, gross manipulation, fundamentalist reading of the Bible, which are the worst contemporary blindness, also reduces man to being-for-death and not being-for-life.
Contemplate the mystery of the universe beyond what we already know, we know little of the mass and dark energy that makes up 94% of the universe, and that it may still have one beyond its “bubble”, it can open the eyes of those who think they know everything because they learned science, or because they read the Bible with their eyes of cultural blindness and their closed and petty circle of “elect”.
When Jesus heals the blind man, he scares the Pharisees who want the blind man to shut up, science helped a little this abandonment of superstitions and helped to illuminate human intelligence, also put to the test by the virus, in the biblical passage we read in John 9: 7- 9:
And [Jesus after putting clay in his eye] said to him: “Go and wash yourself in the pool of Siloam” (which means: Sent). The blind man went, washed and came back seeing. The neighbors and those who used to see the blind man – because he was a beggar – said: Isn’t he the one who kept begging? Some said: “Yes, it’s him!” Others said: “It is not him, but someone like him”.
However, he said: “It is me!”, And the religious wanted to forbid him to speak.


The first woman Nobel in economics

12 Mar

Elinor Ostrom was the first woman economist to receive the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences together with Oliver E. Williamson, in 2009, for “her analysis of economic governance, especially with common goods”, the so-called “Commons” that now also dominate the world of scientific dissemination, such as Creative Commons, where copyright is maintained with permission to use.
But, of course, Elinor’s theory is much more general, and aimed mainly to disprove the idea that was then “enshrined” in the “Tragedy of Commons”, which became known for the article written by the American philosopher and biologist Garret Hardin in 1968.
The modern concept that Elinor explored from “Commons” is universal common goods such as water, oceans, rivers, fish stocks, roads and highways (privatized almost worldwide), and even an office refrigerator or space shared audience.
Elinor Ostrom demonstrated in her book “Governing of Commons” giving an example of communities that self-managed whether top-down regulations or privatizations, with economic success.
In 1973 she founded the Theories and Political Analysis Workshop at Indiana University with her husband Vincent Ostrom, and one of her last activities was the preparation for the Rio + 20 conference at the head of the Planet Under Pression scientific committee, which had a strong influence at the conference, although Elinor died in 2012.
His latest book Working together: Collective Action, The Commons, and Multiple Methods in Practice, written in conjunction with A. Poteete and M.A. Janssen, gives practical lessons in collective action that can enhance work around “common goods”.


Between phenomenological reduction and eidetic variation

04 Mar

Asking about Husserl consciousness will propose a radical method to “search” the phenomenon, recovering and modifying a Greek concept that is the phenomenological reduction (epoché).

Epoché is suspension means in ancient Greek, that we do not erase from our conscience the judgment we have about things, but the Husserlian perspective is “in brackets” which is more realistic, because we cannot erase, at least completely, the memory, however forget what we think about what we learn about the experiential world.

Thus Husserl manages not to do a high attitude, like the Cartesian cogito that does not erase the ego, but a “natural attitude” to review how we relate to the things of the world. So learning something means capturing them as they are, so phenomenology seeks to focus the phenomenon in the sense of how it appears to us, without using what we already knew before and its applications of how it has already been seen, with the aim of reaching its!

Originality !, its “purity” of phenomenon, It means leaving aside all prejudices, theories, definitions and trying to acquire a new concept about concepts, without prejudices about the “thing”.

Epoché does not intend to doubt the existence of the world, nor, even less, to suppress it. The world around presents itself only in consciousness.

For Husserl, the objects of the world are already placed for us in different perspectives and we almost immediately adopt a meaning for it, in general what we do not know we attribute an essence and it should remain unchanged because we gave this object its original meaning.

Husserl’s second fundamental concept is eidetic variation, precisely what differentiates his view of eidos from contemporary idealistic culture, where he calls noema what is of the object itself, what is the thing, which the ancients call quality, while it calls of Greek noesis νόησις, it means the immediate apprehension that may not have the necessary dianóia, that is to say, to think about the thing that links it to the noema.

So the fixation on objects and the misunderstanding of their meaning on the other hand, is part of the contemporary world, this desynchrony between noema and noese.


Will to or power

24 Feb

A little-known concept of Nietzsche is the will to power, as a “natural” driving force of man, in fact this led people to expand from the primitive world, the wars and empires of Alexander the Great, of which Aristotle was the tutor and then the Roman Empire, and the empires of modernity: Portuguese, French, Russian and American.

There are other great empires little mentioned in history: the great Manchu Qing dynasty of northern China invaded and defeated the Ming dynasty, was a minority ethnic group but dominated the whole of China and even had a brief restoration in 1917 and the great Mongol Empire was one of the largest in area, reaching Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries.

But power also refers to the individual’s desire for influence and power, today it is digital influencers, who are even financed and receive respect and credibility and many of them are unknown to the mainstream media, for example, the American PewDiePie is the youtuber with greater number of followers, we will return to the subject.

One can think of potency as an act and potency, so power would be the objective reached by potency, but Nietzsche himself warns that its meaning is different: “the will to power is neither a being nor a becoming, it is a pathos”, thus it must be analyzed in the triad ethos, pathos and logos.

Pathos is, therefore, that sense also used by Descartes, although Nietzsche denies reason as a principle, where the idea of ​​pathology comes from, which moves in imperfection.

Thus, one can think of the will to power (in the sense of Nietzsche) in three concepts, the cosmogonic, the historical or the psychological, each one establishes a special relationship with the diverse proposals present in modern society, the cosmogonic using Nietzsche’s terminology is a original law, without exception, that comes from the very reality of things.

Thus, its historical law is never deterministic nor has anything hidden, “… this Dionysian world of eternally-creating-myself-of, eternally-destroying-myself, without target, without will. .. ”, said in a fragment written in 1885, means that a set of forces that act in a diffuse way results in a state of eternal return, and therefore without an end.

Thus the will to be can also be understood as the insatiable desire to be more than what one is, if seen without an end, one can understand the psychological aspect more clearly.

It may seem distant from modern thought, but just look at reality and it will be realized that outside historical determinism, religious fundamentalism, the remaining proposal seems to be this, but Nietzsche himself can help us organize this, if it is possible to think something out of this state of “eternal return” that the will to power created.


Joy or happiness, gaudio and euphoria

20 Feb

Joy and happiness are not the same thing, although one can lead to the other and vice versa, joy is a feeling of satisfaction, of completeness or even fullness in its extreme, what I call gaudio, while happiness is the greatest good desired by the human being, so stated Aristotle, and although it may have nuances of values ​​it is the best definition.

In this sense, happiness is to live the moment well, even media and mystical philosophers agree, but the “virtuous” effort that makes conquest one of these moments, but it is clear that each one of this virtuous path can be lived with greatness and effort.

That struggle for which every moment can be lived with dignity and even joy, but the joy and true happiness is conquered with effort, virtuous exercise of a dignified path, while euphoria can be won in a fleeting moment, the joy and true happiness do not.

Joy is therefore an exercise beyond the obstacle and everyday problems, happiness is the possible achievement after a long journey in which reaching the summit depends on the last and decisive steps, often without breath and without clarity that the summit can be reached.

The Greeks said that “eudemonia” (“good”-eu from “spirit”-daimon) was conquered by arete, which can be seen both as “virtue” (the repeated practice of the virtuos, the virtual) as “excellence”.

It is also not fortune, in the Greek sense of the word it is not just money, but chance or luck, the goddess Fortuna became an iconographic image from the illuminations of medieval manuscripts to the stained glass windows of the churches (photo *), it was like that a luck cast at random, but it would be determined predestined.

Joy is joy when achieved by small daily efforts and it is not fleeting, while euphoria is not only escapes but can become deep sadness or even depression, for elaborate speeches living the moment that is wise, can be lived with joy or euphoria.

* The blindfolded goddess Fortuna, called the “wheel of Fortuna” was painted by Tadeuz Kuntze in 1754, oil on canvas in National Museum of Warsaw.


Happiness and idealism, between subjects and objects

18 Feb

The development of idealistic thinking, the strongest and most profound of modernity, gave man a sense of dominance not only over nature, but also over his own possibilities and the reach of his will.
So the exploitation of natural resources, now with signs of exhaustion, also the exploitation of peoples and labor forces made human undertakings take off and now intending to conquer planets and the universe, but we discovered the human limits: desires, powers and wars.
The first and the main one is the finitude of life, even the oldest cultures always elaborated some eschatology about the previous and future life of humanity, modernity meanwhile tried to exploit its finitude to the fullest, what counts is the maximum happiness in short life for all of us, exploring it to the fullest is enough.
But idealism pointed out limits, if it is an unfinished project or if we have already plunged into another project, late modernity or postmodernity does not matter, the essence of this project was finitude, and what was called enlightenment, happiness, will and freedom it showed not only finitude, but also the monstrous aspects of this conception: absence of imagination (the subjectivity said of this way of thinking), the human and natural unbalance of forces, and the absence of peace.
The idealistic building built a society full of objectivity, of wonderful constructions, from the reach of the productive forces almost until their exhaustion, but war and cultural, religious and mainly ideological hatred, a fundamental part of this building.
Separating the human into two pieces, to later search him, subjectivity and objectivity, was nothing but a monumental building that disregarded the human essential: the absence of forms of happiness that contemplate everyone and the search for solidary means of power.
It is not that God died, but that we killed him, if there is no divine bond between men, he can never exist transcendently, in fact, idealistic transcendence is nothing other than the separation between subject and objects, unified by this fallacy of objectivity.
Without recovering real dreams, real happiness, and the social means for this, we sleepwalk in the dark, as stated by Edgar Morin.


Tradition and the truth of becoming

14 Feb

Much of what is preached and lived in our day is tradition, here not seen as the thought that built the history of humanity, but only repetitive and apparently “stable” customs and habits that time has taken charge of changing.

This is how the religion that should build a true asceticism of becoming, or becoming, builds prejudiced and traditionalist ties that hinder the progress of humanity.

It is not by chance that they fought Giordano Bruno and Galileu Galilei, their works represented a change in the worldview, in this case a cosmological view, but the world view means, above all, a broad view of the phenomena and of life.

The world does not change because thinkers who should aim for the future show only their fears, their arrogance fixed in concepts of tradition and their lack of creativity.

In a passage where Jesus and his disciples ate spikes with their hands and traditionalists demanded compliance with the law of washing hands, the Master shows that the words of these men did not match their attitudes.

Jesus says in Mark’s biblical passage (Mark 7: 6-8): “Isaiah prophesied about you, hypocrites, as it is written:‘ This people honors me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. There is no use in the worship they give me, because the doctrines they teach are human precepts. You abandon the commandment of God to follow the tradition of men ”.

It is in this sense that the following paragraph says (Mk 6, 9): “They know very well how to change the commandments to follow the tradition”, and this is also the sense that the evangelist Matthew says (Mt 5, 20) : “If your righteousness is no greater than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the king of heaven”, this is the essence of Christian morality that is well observed is universal.


Make the difference

07 Feb

Making a difference does not and therefore lose identity, only the idealistic concept of self-identity sees it that way, that is why we created a world of sameness in which everything is very similar, before being an element of culture it was an element of thought, the imperative Kantian categorical: “act in such a way as to be a model for others”.

Then the cultural industry, the mass media radio and television developed this, created standards of beauty, consumption and even morality, the morality of the state before being an individual morality, it is a “collective” morality of values ​​and customs, that do not mean an ethics and a “solid” identity, this includes the love of homeland symbols and patrimonial values.

Making a difference does mean having an identity with an ethical and moral principle, which includes beliefs and even behavior (see previous post), but which allows dialogue and cultural customs different from ours, so that you can indicate to others a behavior and an action capable of including them and showing human and social dignity thus influencing culturally by showing the “difference” of true and eternal values ​​that benefit the whole society.

True cultures and philosophies must encourage this, they must make a difference not in order to impose opinions and customs, but in a way that includes the Other, that is why it never accompanies the superior air, arrogance and the idea that what is different is wrong, this is Manichaeism and never love.

The Bible idea that the culture of Love should make a difference, that is to say “salt and yeast”, brings together the idea that to make a difference it takes little, but the salt and yeast cannot be spoiled because the effect on the food will not be noticed.

The true Christian culture establishes in Matthew (Mt 5:13): “You are the salt of the earth. Now, if the salt becomes tasteless, how will we salt it? It will serve no more than to be trampled on by men and to be thrown away. ”

Identity as self-assertion, as arrogance is nothing but tasteless salt