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The unspiritualized asceticism

23 Sep

Not a phrase of any theologian, not even of a religious person, is the philosopher Peter Sloterdijk, who besides being one of the most read and controversial of our time, had and has had enormous influence on Byung Chull Han, author well known for many works, but perhaps his main work is “The Society of Tiredness,” Sloterdijk coined “despiritualized asceticism.
It is in his book “You can change your life” not yet published in Portuguese, besides a well done sentence, after all he also works immunology, a life of exercises, which is one of the characteristics of modern man, I do not have a spiritual exercise If you do it systematically and consciously, you indulge in “exercises” to find immunology.
I also found, I was actually expecting this because it is a consequence of his thinking, a worldview, in an interview and not in books, I read his sentence: “Ancient philosophy did not place the accent on the rationality of the world, but on the need to conduct a life regulated according to cosmic prescriptions of being: his concern was above all ethical “.
He hoped because his book “Critic of Cynic Reason” is blunt and even difficult.
He explains in this interview his main concept which is the anthropotechnique: “the beginning of my book, I spoke mainly of repetitions”.
The critical point in the history of civilization is, in my view, represented by the emergence of explicit exercises: the human being, as such, lives in repetition and gives form and content to his life through a more or less conscious ritualism, made up of exercises. repetitive”, so ritualism is part of human life, but spirituality is not.
Sloterdijk’s “spirituality” is not imbued with religiosity, since it is increasingly linked to financial, political and even ideological appeals, the true form of change that the world, and man himself needs, is one capable of revalue life, the Being itself and depends on an inner action.
Says Sloterdijk in the interview, contrary to the categorical imperative upon which the current idealistic asceses move: “The imperative that I propose is, on the contrary, a transforming imperative: human beings sensitive to their appeal should start working on themselves”.
To live is to prepare oneself, to transform oneself, to access the status of the wise, to respond to the vertical tension that requires modifying one’s existence”.
The emptying of Being, a project of contemporary idealism is empty of spirituality, its appeals to ethics, go through the construction of power, what Foucault called biopower, and what Chull Han, Sloterdijk’s disciple says, has now moved to psycho-power, a form of “control” by an excess of bad information in the idealistic sense.

 

Worldview and dualism

19 Sep

What is commendable in Popper’s argument about Parmenides is problematic in Heraclitus’s reading, although it highlights points of this thought that are not in the conventional reading of Heraclitus: “I understand the traditional interpretation of Heraclitus philosophy reexposed here is no longer accepted. for all…. ”(Popper, 2014, p. 12), but raises important points.

One is the vision of change, which will make Popper build his own theory, knows that in the view of modern science Thomas Kuhn that points to the moments of paradigmatic change in scientific theories, and this has cosmological influence that Popper does not see.

Popper states: “The problem of change… has led Heraclitus to a theory that (partly anticipating Parmenides) distinguishes between reality and appearance” (page 13) and quotes it verbatim: “The real nature of things loves to hide itself.

An unseen harmony is stronger than the apparent… but in fact (and to God) they are the same” (POPPER, 2014, p. 13). The positive point of his view is that he realizes that it was to see as we have already pointed out in the previous post, that in refuting nascent empiricism, we saw in the theory of the earth as a drum, this gave rise to a view of the atomists, and Democritus in particular who “interpreted they said that it was refuted by experience, since motion exists ”(pages 14 and 15), and they concluded that atoms and vacuum existed.

Thus, “atomists came to a theory of change – a theory that dominated scientific thought until 1900.

It is the theory that all change, and especially qualitative change, must be explained by the special movement of immutable bits of matter – by atoms that move in a vacuum ”(Popper, 2014, p. 15), and will correctly say this changed because of Maxwell under Faraday’s influence, and this was important for neologicism.

This is where Popper starts from, so much so that he refutes the theory that only Kuhn thought of when the theory of science changed, and also proves the influence of the Vienna circle on Popper’s thought, even if it was only an influence and not a pertinence. He will say that his point of view “clashes with the ideas of some English and German experts alike, with the ideas expressed by Kirk and Raven in their book The Pre-Socratic Philosophers” (Popper, 2014, p. 15) and this will be his contribution a rereading of the pre-Socrates in the light of cosmology, yet his conclusions to science less so.

One of his conclusions is that “there is no cosmogony [..] in Heraclitus” (p. 16) and is based on vision (even though imaginary, hence cosmogony and not cosmology), “Fire is a form archetypal matter, ”is reading Kirk and Raven, and says that all matter“ is a process, ”which is precisely what Kirk and Raven deny in Heraclitus.

By the end of the Middle Ages it is known that fire was composed of an essential matter that would be the “fogisto” and it is known to be combustion matter, so not only Kirk and Raven are wrong, but also Popper, because a A-story reading of Heraclitus leads to misconception. Just as saying that there is no cosmogony in Heraclitus is too heavy, but Popper’s rereading helps to see the dualism present in pre-Socratic in general, and in Parmenides in particular, and his rereading that there is no ontology in it will do, also a rereading of Xenophanes, with a “stranger” who is also right.

 

 

Idealism: back to the pre-Socratic

18 Sep

Karl Popper knew, the Vienna circle knew, and Husserl knew that to discuss the contemporary crisis it was necessary to return to idealism, the great foundation of contemporary Enlightenment, but Popper’s thesis goes deeper than we should return to the pre-Socrates.

Both Wittgenstein and Popper are known to have their connections with the Vienna Circle questioned, as a thought, but as an influence they certainly brought the questioning root of logical positivism in general, and of conventional Kantism in particular, a critique of idealism and enlightenment. resulting from it due to the detected crisis of science.

Both speak of a return to cosmology, although Popper claims “the Tractatus was a cosmological (albeit crude) treatise and because his theory of knowledge was closely linked to cosmology” (Popper, 2014, p. 2), rather than linguistic philosophy, as many of Wittgenstein’s readers suppose, clippings are always complicated.

He will explain that “specialization may be a temptation for the scientist… for the philosopher, it is a sin” (idem), but unfortunately it has happened, philosophy is now a “department” as if the other sciences did not do it implicitly (or explicitly by bad practices) his theories.

Ironic with the Baconian spirit, he was the first in modern science to appeal to empiricist “practice,” and Popper claims all science (I would say almost every thought except the refusal to think that it is more serious): “every science starts from the observation and then, slowly and cautiously, moves towards the theory ”(Popper, 2014, p. 3), the curious thing is that they use Popper himself to affirm this, poor reading, the mediocracy of“ illiteracy ”. secondary”.

His thesis is that rationality departed from Tales of Mileno and the Ionian school, and quotes it verbatim from the fragment [15]: “that the earth is sustained by water upon which it moves like a boat. If we say there is an earthquake, the earth is being shaken by the movement of the water ”(Popper, p. 4), amazed rationalism was born along with earth moving.

Compatible with the Baconian myth, Popper states in the following passage: “The purpose of the Baconian myth is to explain why scientific statements are true, indicating that observation is the“ true origin ”of our scientific knowledge” (idem), of course, he questions. This and its purpose is to unveil the idealistic building from antiquity.

Who is going to question Tales’s idea is Anaximander in suggesting the earth as a drum, but supported by nothing, in Popper’s quote from the fragment [A 11]: “… it is supported by nothing, but remains stationary because it is equally distant of all other things.

Its shape is […] like that of a drum […]. We walk on one of its plant surfaces, while the other is on the opposite side. ”(Cit. POPPER, 2014, p. 4).

It states shortly afterwards “it made possible Aristarchus and Copernicus’ theories.” (Idem), but her idea was bold because it was about seeing the Earth freely suspended in the middle of space, and perhaps by observation, there were oceans of all ages.

On the other hand, Tales’s idea seemed natural. It is from there and from Xenophanes that Popper will build the cosmology of Parmenides, his disciple, where immutable reality, the immobile Earth is presented as a kind of logical proof (Popper, 2014, p. 14), where his idea will come from. from the one, from the undivided from a single premise, “that which is not is not,” where nothing, that which is not, does not exist. In this world full of Parmenides, there is no room for movement, this is its cosmology, which is what we refer to from the preface, when Popper stated that there is no ontology in it.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.

 

Idealisms and science

17 Sep

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were marked by scientific, technical achievements due to the Industrial Revolution, with a world-wide expanding and flourishing trade, which gave rise to confidence that humanity seemed to flourish and history ruled by Reason, as the Enlightenment alike triumph.

With few dissonant voices, Kierkegaard first and then Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, the rest seemed to flow in a full and satisfying turn, the colonies were not spoken, and the Arab and Eastern world seemed to submit to the Western order, but there was something to disturb the colonial struggles. and the danger of war, which would see its outbreak in the 19th century. The science that seemed to do so much had an Achilles heel, had not yet solved the problem of social disputes, not only that which subjected workers and colonies, but especially the trade wars and disputes that came to subject the defeated.

It was the exacerbation of nationalism, which now returns, the trade war between nations, now between the US and China, but also between Iran and Saudi Arabia, that made the first to be called war of war, with 10 million dead. Amid the two wars emerged the Vienna Circle, neopositivism and neologicism, among several other names a prominent scientific name was Karl Popper, among others, such as Godel, Carnap, Hans Kelsen and Moritz Schlick.

In the scientific field besides Husserl who criticizes the method, Popper will also propose that the positivist inductive method presented itself to science as a volatile knowledge, which could not guarantee anything about the constancy of observed facts, and it is not possible to affirm that any assumption is the truth. with absolute precision, what Heisenberg physics already said.

But his return to Parmenides is more essential, where idealism began, and there is its ontological root: ‘being is’ and ‘non-being is not’, there is no contradiction or third hypothesis.

By stating in the previous post the return to root, it will not be in its heyday of German idealism, or even Hegel’s sacralization, Marx will say that there are new against old Hegelians, but in the origin we will find something essence to the idealism and enlightenment described by Karl Popper .

In the book “The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment” (Popper, 2014) that we find several pearls of idealistic foundations, the first in the preface by editor Arne Friemuth Petersen, he states that he gave the lecture quoting “To be or not Of Hamlet, to which Popper himself interrupted, stating more or less this:

“You see, Parmenides was neither a language analyst nor an ontologist, but a cosmologist. Your “Being” has nothing to do with ontology. ”(Popper, XIII, 2014).

I was also amazed to read this right from the preface to the book that speaks of the worldview at the origin of idealism and also of the Enlightenment, not only in Parmenides, but according to Popper himself also in Xenophanes cosmology and Parmenides epistemology (page XV). , which comes to clarify a non-rational origin, as one might suppose, he will propose that Heraclitus (everything changes) and Parmenides (nothing changes) “were reconciled and combined in modern science” (p. XX), and thus faces of it. currency.

In the notes of the Brazilian post-impression, fragments found after printing, there are several notes by Popper, the seventh that says: “Historical hypothesis: Tales is the inventor of the rational discussion method”, new surprise, but the Enlightenment was born there. back.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.

 

 

Mediocracy and ignorance

16 Sep

Mediocracy is one that brings “middle” knowledge above all, always has a ready opinion, based on “doxa” never in epistemy, and if it has episteme (much of classical epistemology this is) it is a set of rules and schemes that treat an object but ignore its fundamentals.
Shortly after World War II, it was Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull who developed this, and I was glad to see the quote in daily El Pais, which is: “systemic processes [that] enable those with average levels of competence to rise to positions. of power, driving both the supercompetent and the totally incompetent out of their way, ”can be seen in schools, political and religious groups where“ rebels ”are dismissed.
Also now Youtubers who speak of politics, philosophy and even theology, are many theologians of apocalypse and puritanism of false morals, while good readings and deepening are dispensed with on any subject.
But El País newspaper cites an author and a principle he did not know, “the secondary illiterate,” an expression coined by Hans Magnus Enzensberger, who uses this for people who have a wealth of useful knowledge that, however, does not lead him to question the intellectual foundations that produced that knowledge.
I insisted with my students and in various posts here the discussion of the foundations, especially of idealism and enlightenment that guide much of the reasoning and the “best minds” of this “secondary illiteracy”, make catch phrases, judge context by isolated facts, or refer to some extraordinary theoretical principle, generally know only the principle and not the text from which it originated, they take away unprepared minds and hearts, eager for something new.
I have not, never had, and never intend to exhaust the fundamentals, but we must go in search of these, warns Edgar Morin in the book “In Search of the Lost Fundamentals”, the great architect of the complexity method, applauded but badly read.
Also reading the novels, it is possible that some have read Stendhal, Balzac, Tolstoy, and even more contemporary Albert Camus, or Oscar Wilde’s “Portrait of Dorian Gray,” but few know or read a worthy representative of Generation X, Bret Easton Ellon, or Paul Auster who wrote “In the Land of Last Things” showing a sober future of valuelessness, unrestrained consumption and a constant search for death or whatever. This is not an exercise in arrogance, without naming names I see successful authors (perhaps cites Paulo Coelho) who sell millions of books and that the time spent reading this is the same to read something that speaks more about the contemporary world and its realities. Haruki Murakami, for example, explains why young people feel tortured, is a Nobel candidate. But all this is not new, to take apart the easy speech of… now with the new media… Robert Musil, in “The Young Törless,” speaks of cruelty as he moves into adulthood at a military school, where he learns cruelty. , morality and sexuality. His is the phrase used in the quoted report from El País: “If stupidity […] did not perfectly resemble progress, skill, hope and improvement, no one would want to be stupid,” said this before World War I. World, almost a prophecy.

 

Worldview or Cosmicview

12 Sep

Husserl’s concept of the world of life evolves into Heidegger’s Weltanschauung, his student, and is hasty to immediately link it to the worldview, just as both have a closer meaning than what some say is “superior” to the “world of life.” life ”, but in everyday philosophy we do not even get there, they still speak of“ theory ”the empiricists and idealists.
To the letter in German Welt – world, chauen look, means nothing other than a viewpoint on the conception of the world, but it was not just ‘philosophy’ but a vision beyond.
Ronald Nash, a Reformed theologian, gives a definition that seems to encompass many more and be more precise: “Life’s most important set of beliefs… is a conceptual framework by which we consciously or unconsciously apply or adjust all the things we believe, and interpret and judge reality, ”since we know even by normal science only 4% of the universe, that is, baryonic matter, and only now do we penetrate energy and dark mass with black hole studies.
Indigenous religiosity, especially Andean, as an example, has a complex view of theological interaction between original elements (what we call original culture), which interacted with phenomena and ideologies produced in modernity, even Christianity comes in with concepts of literacy. and I work with methods of modernity.
This has caused an interpenetration and reinvention of worldview that can and should be related to a worldview, the link with nature and the cosmos, with animals and which has led to the syncretism and reinvention of culture itself (Geertz 1978), and many other studies point to this worldview, such as Peruvian Maria Rostworowski and Colombian scholar Berna Carolina among others.
What purely economic or ideological studies do not understand is that cultural meanings change according to culture and its own worldview, it is impossible to treat it only with modern, colonialist or even pseudo-liberating categories.
It is necessary to enter the culture itself, to understand its originality, what is deep in the soul of these peoples, without this, colonialism with other names is reinvented.
GEERTZ, Clifford. A interpretação das culturas. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1978.

 

Change thinking and teach to live

05 Sep

When we propose a model that is not that of the world of life, Husserl made a philosophy of it, his Lebenswelt, Habermas made it a sociology, Heidegger and Gadamer incorporate it in his thoughts, but the end that is life if not learning.
The central problem of seeking a “clearing” is that we create models too far from life, from its defense including nature, dignity and living itself, we are in a Yellow September, whose theme is none other than to say that it is worthwhile. It is worth living.
thought”.
Clinging to already outdated methods and models, logicists and neopositivists, it is not pointed out “the nature of knowledge, which itself contains the risk of error and illusion” (MORIN, 2015, p. 16).
The great complexity theorist proposes, first of all, a return to philosophy (in the sense of primary thinking) in its Socratic condition of dialogue, Aristotelian (in the sense among others, of the organization of information), Platonic (questioning of appearances), and even pre-Socratic (questioning the world, inserting knowledge in modern cosmology), finally cannot teach life without knowing that it has dilemmas, errors and options.
Morin, who could boast of wisdom by age, by intense intellectual activity, from the pedestal of those full of certainties, no doubt or misconceptions that we see parading through the gyms and public stands of devouring and unquestioning media.
Morin seeks to “conceive the instruments of a thought that is pertinent because it is complex” (Morin, 2015, p. 23), and we see the barbarism of dogma and little elaborated certainties.
Ready-made phrases, self-help manuals, (mainly economic) laissez-faire, rudeness, and ideological hysteria deepen today’s cultural, humanitarian, and social crisis.
It scares me that book readers are so sure with so little thought, in fact criticism of thought grows and the praise of ignorance seems to win any argument.
Morin encourages us and brings us to a still visible and possible future, his lecture at the Frontier of Thought (2016) is a hope and a deepening that sheds new light.

MORIN, Edgar: Ensinar a viver: manifesto para mudar a educação. Trad. Edgard de Assis Carvalho e Mariza Perassi Bosco. Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2015

 

The technique and the current crisis

04 Sep

What is problems about technique, greek techné and question in Heidegger, but what others thinkers say about this.
It’s not a new question, but growing two extremes technophilia and technophobia make me think it’s urgent, we always use techniques, we’ve said, but what happens when even one of my favorite philosophers, Byung Chul Han seems all be convinced that it was the technique and not the man himself that led us to lack of light.
We said Heidegger’s fundamental thought, but what other thinkers said, Levy-Strauss after saying that the Nhambiquaras Indians were so primitive that they didn’t even have technique, contradicts themselves by saying that as primitive as society is, there is always technique.
Ortega Y Gasset will say that the early stage of the technique was “chance technique”, assuming that this stage of instrument making did not differ from many of its natural acts, I would say for example that it might think of a stone to break fruits and hard foods or something similar, however the important stage is the “manufacture”.
The Kantian way to which Cassirer is faithful writes an essay “Form and technique” (1930), in which he analyzes the specific essence of technique as symbolic form, as well as its relations with other symbolic forms: myth, art, science and the ethical cosmos, its worldview of Kantian perfectionism and transcendence, is its Enlightenment worldview.
Cassirer are made clearer in the book “The State Myth” (1946) where it explains the construction of totalitarian ideology by the fusion of technique and myth, stating that the genealogy of the Aryan myth and the techniques of manipulation worked in this regard.
In the same vein, but in a more up-to-date logic, Oswald Spengler, who was a big bestseller in the 1930s, when he wrote The Decline of the West, addressed the subject in his “The Man and the Technique,” turning homo lupus homini to to say that he uses technique as a means of domination (so many others say) Thomas Hobbes’s adage almost again justifies the authoritarian state in the cycle of the eternal return of idealists, prisoners in time.
The abandonment of the question of Being, the eternal return to the problems of the state, authoritarianism, now of corruptions and the desecration of the state, want to understand that it is surrounded by a layer of technique, yes and no, because technique is not indifferent. potentiate death, such as gunpowder, cannons, battle tanks, and atomic bombs, and now “autonomous” machines, but the man who builds and manipulates them with “intentionality” is man.
September is yellow September, the fight against suicide can be nothing but a fight against a growing phenomenon, which means first the “human emptiness”, its little understanding of its essence as Being and as relationship with the human beings.
Others and Nature, closure in self or us, when this is just a mirror, does not point to exits. Edgar Morin is very aware that the crisis has several problems, and one of them is the crisis of thought, it is still far from being faced (there is translation in English, set it):

 

Techné, technique and current technology

03 Sep

The technique is as old as home, just as its “wisdom”, if we consider it as thoughts, the emergence of philosophy was nothing other than to create what as the word says “friends of wisdom”, these two concepts never were so important because of the current contradictions on these issues and for a “cynical reason” that was born.
The technique of “making” from the making of chipped stone in instruments can be said to be ontological, proper to being, which made man have a relationship with nature that distinguishes him from it, however it does not differentiate him because they too came and are part of nature, “you are dust, and after you return,” so that there are no mystical appeals.
Martin Heidegger maintains both terms (episteme and techné) interconnected, which is not entirely wrong, since Plato used them thus, but the specificity of modern technique is that it is not the technician, whereas the former requires a socio-anthropological conception, the technician requires a particular set of knowledge for a given “ know how to do”.
The great epistemological misconception of establishing the science + technique = technology formula is precisely the confusion between technique, which requires social contextualization and technology, which is the application of devices within an established context, without understanding technique we have become slaves. technology, which should be a means to support life.
To put it more clearly, the formula creates world order of factors, technique = technology – science, so the misconception is evident, technique requires a little meta-physis effort.
One of the people who did it consciously but not enough was Martin Heidegger, in his text he goes no further than the language and technical issues behind modern equipment, he analyzed Radio and TV.
But Heidegger’s text Question of technique (pdf) is an essential text about technique. different to the essence of the technique.
This video explains any his ideas about its:

 

Pass to through the narrow door

23 Aug

The time of liberality, the time at all seems easy and then complicated, the door of wisdom is great and ignorance is great, “the client wants ease,” but then.
Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea of the Fernando Pessoa, so let’s see: “Was it worth it? Everything is worth it Who wants to go beyond the Bojador It has to go beyond the pain ”.
The Bojador was a cape off the coast of Africa where many ships sank, many sailors stopped a voyage to the Indian Ocean, one soul is not small beyond pain.
The easy movement of idealism, the little reflection in favor of impulsiveness, the adherence to the new populism, and a broader crisis the cultural feature of our time, and the navigation in our deepest systems, but the internet browsing, the web browsing.
Web without compasses helps, but is not a determinant, a determinant is ignorance.
To get an email-like paradise, Edgar Morin, and many people who see the planet as a cohabitation, or a co-immunity like Peter Sloterdijk, also watching the psychopower that time, the information bombing, that comes from long before the time when Karl Kraus (1874-1936) claimed the newspaper that propelled a Europe into a Crisis, at the same time as the science europeans crisis.
It said Karl Kraus in This Great Time that you can go to speak of the tired of War is stupid : ”so the fatigue of war is actually a state of which there has to be no salvation. Tired of war must always be, not after, but before the war has begun. War fatigue must not cause war to be ended, but no war. ”

The door of wisdom is the same and ignorance is wide, “the customer wants facilities,” but then. Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea Fernando Pessoa, let’s do what is most important, the best way to choose freedom, democracy and freedom of choice. It is !!!, to help humanity to go to a homeland of all, a diversity and tolerance.

A biblical worldview has a beautiful expression for this Luke 13:34: “Do your best to enter the narrow door. Because most theologians and exegetes see only the rights and possibilities of a minority, then one is left with a self-applied humanity. Before it’s too late, before we say, “We’re tired of the war,” we let it go.