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The desired and not built peace

19 Jan

We know that the “pax romana” was the surrender to the empire that dominated the good face of the civilized world at the time, it is true today that there were already people in various parts of the planet, but their paleontological records do not leave many marks of their cultures, and perhaps as Rousseau thought ‘the good savage’ lived in peace, but in the natural conflict with nature.
The “eternal peace” elaborated by the idealists and idolized by the worshipers of the “modern state” is not deepened, because in fact for many this will be the state, excuse the final irony of humanity and should only be perfected. Kant published in 1798, in a Berlin magazine, the essay “Announcement of the forthcoming signing of a treaty for perpetual peace in philosophy”, which was a resumption of his essay two years earlier: “For perpetual peace”, that was confined in its philosophy.
This is because the goal was to resolve peace within a single state, or in terms of relations between different states, which we can see even with the emergence of the UN and the rise of democratic nations, which in essence the idea of state remains enlightened. .
From this essay it can be assumed that what the philosopher understood by philosophy means that if systems of philosophy found a solution to their conflicts they could help political systems to resolve their conflicts, so it remains in the idealistic field.
The conflict between object and subject, which supposes that it is in the object that is the conflict and not in the subject is the hypothesis of the idealism/enlightenment system, but it is in the facticity of the historical subjects that the conflicts are, I do not understand as the historicity romantic because facticity is the Heideggerian concept of the subject thrown into the world with his facts.
Thus, what is meant by peace beyond idealism is that which can be built on the facticity of everyday life, in every conflict encountered in every fact, without being confined to theoretical or philosophical assumptions, but where the “being thrown” is. in the world”.
Peace, therefore, is built and not an agreement between states or within them, the peace treaty of the 1st. world war led to the second, some readers of world history say, the fact is that there were two wars and the “modern” states not only did not avoid, but are authors. “If you want peace, build peace,” said an Italian politician, very few understanding this.

A post-pandemic will be problematic, it may even lead to a civilizational crisis, where many measures should be taken from now on.

 

Eschatology and being-to-death

24 Nov

Where we came from and where we are going, each culture has its own eschatology, modernity and especially idealism is characterized by disregarding the idea of ​​the infinite, of mystery and consequently of death, seen as fatality or simple finitude of life.

From the philosophy of Lévinas (Totality and Infinite) to the poetry of Goethe (Faust), from the novel by Tolstoy (The death of Ivan Ilitch) to the ontology of Heidegger (Being and Time) death is more than a concept or a theme, it is the own questioning of being, in Lévinas the infinite is proper to the transcendent being as transcendent, the infinite is the absolutely other, so one cannot think of the infinite, the transcendent, the Foreigner (in Lévinas) as being an object, but as an Other that does not it is something other than Being.

Idealism, in wanting to always live above the real, wants to ignore or “transcend” death (in the false sense of an object) and for this reason is quibble about it, but in the face of the tragedies of a pandemic, of a crisis that can become civilizing, he is immobilized or part of psychology, in this field there is also an adequate phenomenological treatment, after all Franz Brentano father of social psychology reopened phenomenology in modern times, the psychiatrist Kübler-Ross (About death and dying, Martins Fontes, 2002) studied that stage of the disease in which the patient asks “Why me” and deepened the theme.

The analysis in Heidegger, in order not to be superficial, must address three related themes: Care, Impersonality and silence, otherwise it is the analysis that we call epistemology or incomplete eschatology, since they face only pessimism in the face of death, nor the good psychology sees it that way.

Before a clarification, the term ontological refers to questioning the fact of existing, Dasein (being-there) is not only, but has a perception that it is, for phenomenology, it is not thought of itself first and then in the world, because the two things are inseparable, and so is an ontological epistemology.

To help what this being-there is, we need to deepen what Heidegger calls overcoming the factual world, and as for the super the world of impersonality, he manages to free himself from a structured reason endowed with meaning, in a way already given the to exist and to be.

Safranski, an authorized biographer of Heidegger, interprets it this way: “Anguish does not tolerate another god besides itself, and isolates in two ways. It breaks the relationship with the other, and makes the isolated individual fall out of relations of familiarity with the world ”, she is felt by the“ fall ”, by the dark horizon.

Thus, in impersonality, the idea of ​​“everyone dies” is abandoned, which in life evades being-for-death, for its thinking about its solitary death, falls into that anguish described in Ivan Ilitch de Tolstoi.

Regarding Care, Heidegger appropriates the Greek fable in which Jupiter and Care that is shaping clay fight over the name that will be given to the created figure, and called Saturn as a judge he says that Jupiter will belong to the spirit because it was he who gave it the form, while Care will have the land, since it formed it, the German philosopher will use this sense, very ingenious, to say the being-for-death to find something beyond the finitude of the form.

Finally, the aspect of silence nad loneliness are invoked to discover the self, and then to return to the world already master of itself, and open to the relationship with others, which is no longer utilitarian ( so characteristic of idealists) or even by means of fixed guidelines (characteristic of incomplete eschatologies), there is thus a Being beyond the finite and open to the infinite, there is no pessimism, which says it is bad reading

 

 

Power and gifts

10 Nov

It is possible that someone who has very special gifts also has power, but only as a service to a certain group and in a certain context, the two things are not very confused, and confusing them is almost always a demagogic trick.

Wise people will be given positions or be in power structures only on merit, or because there is a need for their gifts for that structure or center of power, but if they are people who desire power at all costs, they will rarely have the gifts necessary for that to which are designated.

Power has already been studied in philosophy in different ways, in the Greek polis it was an invitation to citizenship, but almost all philosophers (of course after Socrates and sophists) should be trained in values ​​and have virtues that would contribute to a position within of the Greek polis.

Among contemporary philosophers Max Weber defined power as the imposition of the will of a person or institution on individuals, while for Marx the power resides in the one who has the material means of capital production, which in his time was factories and land, but today they would be the big corporations, the owners of vertical media (TVs, Radios, etc.) whereas for Michel Foucault the power in contemporary times is not centralized, but dissolved in society, it also created the concept of biopower, while the practices by which modern states seek to regulate subjects and “obtain subjugation of bodies and control of populations”.

Peter Sloterdijk wrote about the “timotic” situation of our time, the term “thymós” is based on Plato’s theory to designate the “organs” from which the impulses, the excitations, the most inflamed affections are born, in fact seem something common in our times, we do not react with reflexion to situations of power and command, almost always emotionally, on impulse.

Byung Chul Han, who was influenced by Sloterdijk, wrote about psychopower, influenced by vertical media and of course also present in social media, where the state of high tymotic tension is established by the successive and repetitive news that guarantee this state.

The personal, collective or social gifts of each person are submerged by these structures of power and propaganda, similar to the fascination exercised by the speeches of dictators and populists during the war and afterwards, and we cannot imagine that this is far from the current reality.

What are the gifts of those who could serve the population if they are not subjugated to this or that pressure group, is less and less plausible, so the stage for demagogues and populists is open, and dictators are on the prowl.

 

 

A citizen planetary and prudence

06 Nov

The pandemic crisis showed that our most serious problems are global, affecting the entire planet, the second wave that is already in Europe will soon arrive in the different continents, if it has not arrived in small doses already, they lead us to think globally what it seems difficult with political polarization.

What is needed is to abandon old proposals, and make possible the coexistence of private freedom with the strong social urgencies, the proposal of the banker of the poor Mohanmmad Yunus goes in this direction, eliminating poverty, carbon emissions and guaranteeing jobs for all, has become the most urgent pandemic.

It is not the only proposal, of course, another such as solidarity, creative economy, groups of cooperatives of small farmers, can compose a productive ecosystem capable of adapting to local interests and vocations of production and human life, it is above all necessary to leave the excess consumption and social stress.

The cultural aspects in which the religions and beliefs (in the broadest sense of the word) of peoples and nations are included are not minor or negligible. I distinguish because many nations already have people of different cultural origins within them, what is called here original culture, which also includes indigenous peoples.

There is no clear agreement on how this can happen, a wide pan-national dialogue (which we have just said about “peoples”) is essential to organize a new social ecosystem where the foundation of social security combined with personal freedom are as premises for chart this future.

For the time being, as a family that has disorganized the accounts of the house, and reaps many troubles from this disorganization, there are still dictatorships of different ideologies on the planet, wars such as attempts at cultural submission, new types of colonialism, although a strong current of decolonization has emerged ( the term is this), what happens on the planet can be a rupture in serious situations and the “common home” itself can react, what we already call an aortic mutation.

A biblical passage talks about wisdom and those who seek it, it is a stage above simple intelligence, it is necessary to be open to the new and also leave what it “enters”, says the book of Wisdom (Sb 6,13-15 ): “It even anticipates itself, making itself known to those who desire it. Those who wake up early will not get tired, as they will find her sitting at their door. Meditating on it is the perfection of prudence; and whoever stays awake because of it, will soon live carefree”.

So wisdom is combined with the gift of “prudence”, and meditating on it is “the perfection of prudence”, ignorance creates only fanaticism and cruelty.

 
 

The tragedy of modern culture

12 Aug

Theodore Dalrymple, pseudonym of the English physician and psychiatrist Anthony Daniels, who proposed a reflection on the moral decay of modern culture, the effect of the politically correct dangerous on society (as if it were a single political position) and the consequences for the true culture of peoples, your book Anything goes (2016) is a profound “clinical” analysis of what kind of cultural crisis we are experiencing.

The author collaborates with several periodicals The Times, The Daily Telegraph, The Observer and The Spectator, it is a conservative point of view that looks at history without a doubt, but it is nevertheless important to make some observations about contemporary life and see how many others wear out the current culture.

She won her first Freedom in Flanders in 2011, a region that speaks Flemish two thirds of Belgium, after praising her as an educated woman, she will criticize her nationalism: “I requested a room… the receptionist answered me in English, but not because of my accent with my wife, who is Parisian, she did the same.

We were thus introduced to Flemish nationalism, which demonstrates that no country is too small for national separatism” (page 30), the other region is French-speaking Wallonia, but only Flemish in Flanders, even if they know French .

He reveals his true identity in the book by saying “as a doctor and psychiatrist, I spent a terrible period of my career trying to take people on a path that seemed appropriate and beneficial to them” (p. 81) and then confesses his failure, he says that their patients were “self-destructive, which, if looked at impartially and with a minimum of common sense, could not lead to anything other than anguish” (idem), but it is not their high point.

In another line, but also in defense of the culture that has arisen among the peoples of the planet, with clear and unmistakable roots, Byung-Chul Han, a Korean philosopher migrated to Germany, also criticizes the culture of the smooth, the absence of imperfections and grooves that are confused in art with the politically correct.

Wrote Byung-Chul wrote that beauty today is smooth, does not show resistance, does not break and requires likes, distance invites only touch, there is no negativity that is opposite, without it, surprise and wonder disappear: “without distance no it is possible to have mystique, demystification makes everything fruiting and consumable. ”, there is no otherness of the Other, there is only room for an aestheticized and homogenized diversity, and thus consumable and explored.

It is not about defending tradition, good critics and good reformers always engage in dialogue with the opposite side, but what is involved is forgetfulness and even contempt for the roots of each culture and a massification that wants to make everything uniform and misshapen .

It is only one side of the culture that reaches the thought that has become vulgar and sophist, of the religion that has become ideological or fundamentalist, and of the culture that we all descend from that is ignored, the social and moral consequences are only the visible part of that occurs in the foundations of modern society.

DALRYMPLE, Thedore. (2016) Qualquer coisa serve. (Our culture: what´s left of it). trad. Hugo Langone. São Paulo: É Realizações.

 

 

Between philosophy and mysteries

09 Jun

The relationship between theology and philosophy has been lost for more than 5 centuries, when some serious theologian decides to talk about philosophy it is to criticize it or to admit it uncritically and then he loses his faith.

I read the testimony of a former American Methodist pastor, who wrote: “I gave up Christianity because it affirms a lot and explains very little. We know so little about the Cosmos we’re floating in – our home is a solar system among trillions – but theologians brag and postulate about God, as if they have some way of knowing all of this, ”David Madison, Final Sermon in a Pandemic Team.

These are questions that many people ask, my spiritual experience always involved something that took my feet off the ground, although I strive to keep them there, I like critics of today’s religiosity, like Sloterdijk because they wake me up, and their disbelief in the The humanism of our time is a guide to my current issues, as in the pandemic and the problems that surround it.

When I think of conversion, I think first of mine and then of those who are with me on the walk and then of the “sleeping” Christians. we immersed ourselves in pericoresis, lent the text to some friends and they returned it to me with comments, I did my own pericoresis, my fusion of horizons.

And I had some answers that I didn’t imagine, one of them about what the future of humanism will be, we discovered in the middle of the pandemic solidarity as well as racism, domestic violence and the insensitivity of some in the face of the scourge, in the figure above The cross in the mountains by Caspar David Friedrich (ca 1812).

The answer and new question I found was in the reading of a text by Sloterdijk, which he calls an aortic relationship, is in the Matrix in grêmio: a mariological whim, he is not a theologian, alias he says that religions do not exist.

My question is the relation of the organic, all nature and humanity and from it the divine pericoresis, but founded on the human relationship, and as if he were a theologian, Sloterdijk answers in Digression 10 of the first volume of the Spheres Trilogy:

“Matris in gremio: A mariological whim” (page 556) in which the aortic interpenetration is combined with the organic in pregnancy, in Mary, of the Son of God, in which the two share the same spirit and the same blood, and both in Trinity and in the Virgin’s womb, interpenetration is surreal, in addition to pericoresis.

My question, what would happen if there was an aortic relationship, the organic in a real, lasting inorganic phenomenon, visible to every human being and not just to mystics? Of course this did not happen, but if it did?

SLOTERDIJK, P. (2014) Bubbles: Spheres Volume I: Microspherology. UK: Semiotext(e).

 

 

 

 

 

Doll´s house

10 Mar

Written in 1878 and built in 1879, the Norwegian novel by Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) is one of the first manifestations of the exclusion of women in a dualistic and macho society, made for the theater had its first staging in the Kongelige theater, Copenhagen, Denmark , already in 1879.

The romance caused quite a stir at the time, however Ibsen was from a wealthy and respected family in the city of Skien, Norway, and is considered one of the founders of modernism.

The setting is the Christmas season, and the couple Nora and Torvard Helmer are getting ready for the party, and he comments on the expenses of the woman, which she treats with nicknames that reduce her childishness: “lark”, “squirrel” and “ my little girl ”like a bad boy who still knows little about adult life.

In Picture two filme from the 70´s, Jane Fonda and Claire Bloom interpret Nora Helmer.

In the first act a widowed woman Cristina Linde and Dr. Rank arrive, who go to the office to talk to Holmer while Cristina who is a former colleague of Nora’s, talks about the death of the husband of Cristina, Holmer’s former colleague. While Holmer goes to the office with his friend, Nora and colleague Cristina talk about their personal lives.

Nora says that her husband will receive the position of manager in an investment bank and this will bring stability to the family, while Cristina also treats her as a “grown child”.

The doorbell rings again and the maid announces Mr. Krogstad, who comes to talk about business with the bank in Helmer’s new position, Cristina recognizes him as having “business of all kinds”, Dr. Rank leaves the office and comes to the room and also knows Mrs. Linde.

When Nora is alone with Mr. Krogstad who had made him a loan, and Mr. Holmer did not know, about the period when the family was in bad finances, Mr. Krogstad tells him that he knows that her father’s signature as guarantor it was falsified because it was 3 days after his death, and here the novel enters its plot.

Cristina actually had an affair with Mr. Krogstad and she can help Nora, resuming the relationship with Krogstad, he sends the promissory note to Holmer but had already sent a letter saying of the loan that his wife had made with him by forging her father’s signature.

The ending is surprising, Holmer opens Krogstad’s letter that tells the “secret of the loan”, then he receives the promissory note and tears it up, but reconciliation with Nora was already impossible because he had said harsh words about her loan.

And in the end Nora leaves, leaving them with her children, whom he said he had no capacity for and educating them, undoubtedly a shocking novel for the time, and which received harsh criticism.

 

 

 

 

Morality and its diverse concepts

13 Feb

We think of morals as moralism, Puritanism or “certain” Christian morals, as a whole it involves love and so it also involves dialogue, but morality is even more confused because it mixes with Kantian idealistic morals and state morals, the so-called “justice”.

Hellenic morality, of classical antiquity, is a fusion of Greek morality when it spreads through Asia Minor and the Mediterranean will meet the Roman “laws”, which is a nascent state morality, but separates from it as a form of stoicism.

This period was called by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-1884) for the first time Hellenic, and include among the thinkers Plotinus, Cicero, Zeno and Epicurus, they keep geometric and astronomical notions that merge with moral ideas, we know great phrases of this period, but not thought like Droysen did.

It can be synthesized in two currents, moral individualism or “inner” morality and Plotinus neoplatonism, which is similar to the thought of Augustine of Hippo, but different in terms of teleological morality, for Augustine, evil is the absence of good, not the opposite.

Kantian morality is essentially individualistic, “acts in such a way as to be a model for others” while state morality will be the rules that managed the social contract (previous post), Christian morality as current since the time of Jesus can be pharisaic and traditionalist (what is called fundamentalist), in essence it should be universal.

Loving everyone, including enemies, is not what most religious moralists do, their essence is still the “fight against evil” and not their overcoming through love and never hate.

 

 

Aesthetics, culture and spirituality

31 Jan

The disorder that contemporary society advances is not only economic, social and cultural, the aesthetic reflex is a society that aims to eliminate imperfect, pain and co-immunity (all types of immunity are sought at all costs, removing diversity nature), is the attempt of the absence of tragedy, in the cultural and aesthetic sense, of change, but life goes through death.

The result, contrary to the aesthetic that admits the tragedy, is precisely to move towards what it tries to eliminate, it is the society of death, of obscurity, while perfection is sought, the aesthetics of the perfect and straight, but they are contrary to nature, and the man who is part of it. The expansion of the corona virus, other viruses came as recently as the Asian flu, it is a show that we must live with this, recent discoveries in the glaciers of viruses that we did not know mean that they always existed and always had mutations.

But the transgenic mutations, of plants and animals that do not have any type of disease, have the paradox of being precisely that they generate potent diseases while destroying the natural diversity of the complex natural system, in fact, this is also the simplification.

At the social and religious level it means abolishing divergence, moving towards an identity that is nothing other than the denial of the Other, the diverse and the imposition of authoritarian systems, while at the same time making a discourse against individualism and authoritarianism, it favors its, see the Entropy law (picture).

The contradictory, as well as the different walks and continues to evolve in the midst of crises, because it knows that tragedy is part of life and can be overcome if viewed with concern and with the naturalness of those who lead life and society into the future.

The biblical passage in which he speaks of Jesus’ natural life, his preaching time was 3 years, and for 30 he lived a normal life, see the 10 to 1 ratio, the Pharisees and fundamentalists of our time live the opposite, is narrated by the evangelist Lucas (Lk 2,39-40):

“After fulfilling everything, according to the Law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to Nazaré, their city. The boy grew and became strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was with him ”. In fact, the law in this case was the laws of Judaism, that is, its relationship with the tradition of his time.

 

 

From darkness to light

24 Jan

The relationship between tradition and change is greater than you can think, even Marx went to study English economists, German idealism and French politics to think about his change, it is a fact that this thought today is already part of tradition, so what will be the new ?

We started the week talking about Buzzwords, however the big change that happens nowadays is in the aspect of production and consumption the digital change, the market and the hurryers already use the word “digital transformation”, a strong buzzword, however it is not about ignore it, but understand in the context of the changes that are taking place.

All the tones of the change agree that one must think about collective forms of work, of thought, however what is called collective is in different social, economic and even religious niches, it is a “us” closed in groups and currents of thought .

Tradition seeks the center, where power and wealth are, change seeks the periphery.

However, it is from the crisis that the light is born, it is curious that the Bible prophecy, as well as the text of Matthew (Mt 4,15): “Land of Zabulon, land of Neftali, way of the sea, region on the other side of the Jordan River , Galilee of the pagans! ”Speaks of a people and a land far from religion and where Jesus went to gather his first disciples, because the“ religious ”were Pharisees.

And dialogue with tradition, yes, Jesus will dialogue with Pharisees all the time, what lesson can be taken for the contemporary world and its cultural and spiritual crisis.

The new needs “new wineskins”, so new wine in a new barrel, but the culture of wine is not disregarded but improves its appreciation and production, it is not a new process, but a planting in new soil, in fertile land and where hearts are open.