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About truth and philosophy

06 Nov

It was rationalism that led to doubting outer existence, the classic division of body and mind, the question until the late Middle Ages was between realists and nominalists, the former saying that the real is and the latter we only name what is. outside, what exists is in the mind.
Imannuel Kant states that the perceptions of the senses are after the experience while a universal a priori is necessary, using the realists’ argument, calling it analytical judgment while the first are the synthetic ones, made from the gathering of information.
The pinnacle of idealism is Hegel, which sets out several ideal concepts: state, spirit, and ethics, but the crisis of modernity will return to old dilemmas: language, discourse, and what is the thing or Being, there are then three twists: the linguistic, the ontological and the “sacred”.
Karl Klaus (1874-1936) already complained about the truth in the journalistic medium, it is true that the cultural industry moved masses, and the network media now too, but what about the truth?
The truth of facticity has lost its strength, there are alternative views and even the corruption of facts, something absurd as “alternative facts”, is not at all hermeneutic because it is precisely its absence, the lack of a hermeneutic circle where preconceptions are. overcome and new horizons can be traced that reinterpret the facts and build the future.
Groups entrenched in their half-truths behave only as twisted, dialogical, acceptance of the Other, and Empathy are but demagogic forms as attempts to co-opt members for the crowd itself.
Of course there is a latent future, sectors of society where cooperation, solidarity and the exercise of seeing the Other is already exercise, are groups and people who have changed the dogmatic way of seeing the world for a broader vision, beyond the group and from the crowd.
But still there are those who closing ranks in their “groups” will demand blind obedience, respect for “authority,” and often will resort to authoritarian methods of bending the Other.
Truth will emerge amid chaos, in the niches of society where there is Phronesis, true reflection, looking at the world as a whole and the other with respect to its particularities.

 

The desired and not built peace

31 Oct

We know that the “pax romana” was the surrender to the empire that dominated the good face of the civilized world at the time, it is true today that there were already people in various parts of the planet, but their paleontological records do not leave many marks of their cultures, and perhaps as Rousseau thought ‘the good savage’ lived in peace, but in the natural conflict with nature.
The “eternal peace” elaborated by the idealists and idolized by the worshipers of the “modern state” is not deepened, because in fact for many this will be the state, excuse the final irony of humanity and should only be perfected. Kant published in 1798, in a Berlin magazine, the essay “Announcement of the forthcoming signing of a treaty for perpetual peace in philosophy”, which was a resumption of his essay two years earlier: “For perpetual peace”, that was confined in its philosophy.
This is because the goal was to resolve peace within a single state, or in terms of relations between different states, which we can see even with the emergence of the UN and the rise of democratic nations, which in essence the idea of state remains enlightened. .
From this essay it can be assumed that what the philosopher understood by philosophy means that if systems of philosophy found a solution to their conflicts they could help political systems to resolve their conflicts, so it remains in the idealistic field.
The conflict between object and subject, which supposes that it is in the object that is the conflict and not in the subject is the hypothesis of the idealism/enlightenment system, but it is in the facticity of the historical subjects that the conflicts are, I do not understand as the historicity romantic because facticity is the Heideggerian concept of the subject thrown into the world with his facts.
Thus, what is meant by peace beyond idealism is that which can be built on the facticity of everyday life, in every conflict encountered in every fact, without being confined to theoretical or philosophical assumptions, but where the “being thrown” is. in the world”.
Peace, therefore, is built and not an agreement between states or within them, the peace treaty of the 1st. world war led to the second, some readers of world history say, the fact is that there were two wars and the “modern” states not only did not avoid, but are authors. “If you want peace, build peace,” said an Italian politician, very few understanding this.

 

Worldview: soul, feelings and wisdom

12 Jul

One can think of soul as mind, as consciousness (it is only a reflection), or identity, according to post about Giddens this leads to interiority in a restricted sense.
That is why we call it the Noosphere, the sphere of the mind or the outside, in a sense of vision, feelings and wisdom, being limited to a worldview, which is evolving.
It is not possible to have a broad worldview, without a broad soul, more than a soul-world, a universal soul in the sense not only anthropological, but cosmological.
Feelings have a great appeal in the contemporary world, as functional logics have become much of the engaging of thought, it is possible and easy to manipulate opinions and people through these resources, but they are dangerous without soul and wisdom.
Wisdom is the most critical element of the noosphere, there are those who believe that through feeling and soul can walk quietly, there are therapies and even online courses to produce happiness, well-being and other promises without any wisdom, the result in short term is commendable, but in the long run it will prove ineffective will lack such sustainability.
Wisdom is also critical because many currents of thought and diverse forms of culture can lead to reductionism, and this will bring in the contemporary world a lack of seeing the Other, sometimes there is even intention, but the result is the result of the restricted world .
The teachers of the Law were in the time of Jesus, the Pharisees who knew the scripture, but whose practice was distorted, one of them addresses Jesus to ask how to have the eternal inheritance.
The great spiritual argument of Loving God is a resource of a certain kind of ignorance, but a good Bible reading is enough to realize that it is false, is in Luke 10: 26-27, and Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read? “He replied,” You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your intelligence; and your neighbor as yourself! ”
Jesus immediately binds the heart “feelings” to the soul, because it knows and respects the interiority, from where the soul drinks, and ends by asking for love of neighbor, the Other.

 

World and the Post 2015´s Agend

11 Jul

When the UN organized its Post 2015 Development Agenda, it appeared that civil society organizations were moving towards a greater focus on poverty and hunger, urban planning and education, nuclear disarmament and women’s empowerment, others subjects related to the person, the struggle for greater perks and powers, the return of nationalism moved in the opposite direction.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said in September 2014 “Our world needs more wind and solar energy. But I believe in an even stronger source of energy, people’s power”, the path seemed safe and was not, one can now evaluate the error.
The numbers that preceded the conservative turnaround were still “very unequal” in Latin America, Eduardo Frei affirmed that the Chile that governed from 1994-2000, with several initiatives that promoted democracy and social justice, had reduced poverty by 38.6% to 7.8% of the population, and extreme poverty from 13% to 2.5%, but by 2015 Latin America had another profile, despite GDP growth from 2015 to 2018 (photo above).
It was still a region “more unequal” than another, of its 600 million inhabitants still 167 million lived in poverty and 71 million in extreme poverty, this contrast reveals a dangerous and deep social gap, according to the own Frei in 2015.
Regarding the future, Frei affirms that the struggle against poverty and inequalities demanded another effort on an ethical basis, and at this crossroads, it would be time for governments to give greater impetus to the “moral movement” that did not happen.
Juan Somavia, former Director of the International Labor Organization, said in the post 2015 agenda that a good basis for negotiations would be: “the document reflects an extremely ambitious vision with its 17 goals and 69 indicators centered on the concept of sustainable development focused on people and eradicating poverty, “saying that UN political support was critical.
In 20th birthday of UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which was adopted in 2000, said that the problem of poverty eradication was echoed by the UN’s Economic and Social Council (Ecosoc) : productive employment and social integration have been excluded, and it is not mere coincidence. And social integration is a broader concept when we think of global citizenship.

 

Morin about Aesthetic and Art

19 Jun

Among the uninteresting things that get me through whatsapp I got a video that said that part of Alzheimer’s is social, in fact it was used to talk about dementia and sclerosis, not only because they knew the subject badly, but because social life was easier and more enjoyable.
Edgar Morin was in Sao Paulo, and at june 18 he seems to be the living example of this, still able to surprise his audience, has already written about the question of method, the foundations lost in modernity, land-fatherhood and a world citizenship, a book of love and poetry after the death of his companion Edwiges, now surprises talking about aesthetics and pleasure.
The conversation took place at Sesc Pinheiros, starting at 8pm, with live streaming through Facebook and YouTube videos, I delayed to post today because I wanted to look forward to it.
His proposal is now of a “poetic state,” in which resistance to modern power is not the dictatorship of arms, but the idea of becoming robots through economic power and impose an accelerated pace of life, as the Society of Bournot´s Byung Chul-Han.
Valuing the human state of aesthetic creativity is for him a second state in which one can feel “passionate, admired, in communion with others, marveling, transported, transfigured, inspired.
Something that is at the edge of the mystic, without being [clearly] religious. ” I say clearly because transfiguring or blazing is not possible without some clearly religious form, I am not talking about self-suggestion or fanatical spiritualism, but about poetry and art.
This state allows man something that Morin considers essential, allow man a particular emotion, a contemplative state Chul-Han would say, says the master at the height of his maturity without feeling old age: “Music, poetry, literature and other arts have always been present and active in my life “.
He is considered the great thinker of complexity, named for the studies that privilege multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies for problem solving, remember that he along with Nicolascu Barsarab and Lima de Freitas are authors of the ”Transdisciplinarity Charter” of Arrábida, Portugal.
Morin defends literature as a source of inspiration for this complexity, he says: “” a novel offers me a knowledge about humanity that no science can achieve because it presents complex relationships. Therefore, I believe that it is not possible to teach only through science “, when referring to the current difficulties of education. I have the impression that Morin will not die, his texts certainly will not, but his earthly life will be transported by angels to some place that will have a new name, a kind of earthly or transfigured earthly paradise, something like the biblical one: “a new heaven and a new earth, “described in John’s Apocalipse Revelation, verse 21.
See the video or link:
iframe width=”640″ height=”360″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/qbFLSmzE0iM” frameborder=”0″ allowfullscreen=”allowfullscreen”>

 

Dogmatism and dialogue

29 Apr

Not only is authoritarianism responsible for the lack of dialogue, dogmatism is more dangerous and terrible
when a society lives deep divisions, it affirms a truth as absolute and yet it allows different visions does not do it with sincerity.
Following these currents is the division of groups, cultures or political positions without the necessary openness to the whole of society, does not mean to have no convictions, they are the basis of a dialogue, it means closing in on concepts and values ​​that are not universal.
These truths are manifest in some form of thought, and therefore their values ​​and foundations are ultimately some kind of philosophy of systematic thought and must therefore understand that it will be from which dialogue will be possible.
Hans Georg Gadamer, discusses the major currents of modern thought: Hegelianism and neo-kantism with a focus
on logic, the theories of knowledge and vitalism in Nietzsche, Bergson and Dilthey, were in focus before the First World War.
Starting from Dilthey’s analysis, he will define that the historical consciousness is not closed in itself, from the intentionality, its particularity is to be always open and torefer to something as its correlative  objective.
The object is not given to consciousness alone, it is not a question of assuming the consciousness as it is given to the Other, but inserting it in a larger context, where both are.
This context is the world, the world of life (lebensvelt), where there is a general horizon of all that is and can become the content of experience, thus overcomes idealism and empiricism.
Last week’s posts were aboutthe discussion of idealism and empiricism, this week we explore the possibilities of a larger context, where the discourses do not close in objectivism or subjectivism, two aspects that affect modern philosophy.

 

 

What I learned from Portugal

04 Apr

I travel back to Brazil, already with great longing, it is always difficult to leave behind strong bonds that are built during life, I recognize that everything that thought of Portugal little stood, it is a fact that colonized Brazil, as it is also a fact which were the first great empire of modernity, an ability to fight and win as unique and commendable people.
Among the strong contacts I had with Portuguese culture I emphasize his love of culture, especially the music not only of fact but also popular and modern songs, his poetry and literature of Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Eça de Queiroz and many current as Saramago.
I highlight a man, a mystic and also a man of culture, who he knew at a glance, since he had read on the Web his book Repensar Portugal, which reads:
“Mystical people, but little metaphysical; lyric but little gregarious people; active but not very organized people; an empirical people, but a little pragmatic “, I emphasize” cohabiting people, but easily segregated by the arts of those who lead them “(Father Manuel Antunes, Repensar Portugal, 37).
His work is immense and includes Revista Brotéria, a whole work on education in his book Paidéia, influences that he maintains until today, at the Open University through Dr. José Eduardo Franco, who keeps alive his memory.
The revitalization of Lisbon, Oporto and small towns, here called villages, the eternal participation and preservation of the people of culture in the arts, cuisine, folklore and innumerable cultural centers, theaters and even TV programs dedicated to this.
I learned from this that there is a positive way of loving one’s own culture and fellow citizens, very different from an unhealthy, xenophobic and prejudiced nationalism. By the way, Portugal welcomes many peoples and nations and has curious connections with the Orient, such as Macau and Goa.
Lastly, I leave my gratitude, my love and my respect to the Portuguese people public, they are from now on my second homeland, chosen for love and reciprocity.
I leave this little video of Portugal for those who still do not know this beautiful country:

 

Life imitates Science Fiction?

24 Jan

Yes, since for the seventh art and also for the literature of science fiction this is art.
The point is that much of the fiction does not take place, Stanley Kubrick’s classic 2001-based 2001 Odyssey, based on the book of the Arthur C. Clarke, did not predict laptops in 2001, nor social media networks, the film Social Networks itself contains a misconception already in the name , because it is just a media and big issues of networks like the 6 degrees of freedom, small worlds and weak ties are not even remembered.
Also the classic Blade Runner and its new version Blade Runner 2049 still has the question of the Turing test, how to differentiate a machine and a human by its reactions is more an existential-ontological question than fictional, what the critic hardly noticed is that the machines continue to try to deceive the android hunter and he continues to eliminate them without breaking with his own existential human crisis.
Ask the author of the book that inspired the movie “Androids dream of electric sheep? Do they dream, will they have existential experiences like the A.I., or will they leave the world of machines, to affirm their humanoid “humanity” as an Ex-Machina movie?
It is a fact that since Julio Verne, passing through the movie Metropolis, the series Lost in Space and Journeys in the stars of great success in the TV in its time, brought news as the cellular transmitters, and who knows in the near future the teleportation, since the holograms already they are there, but they are just transmission artifacts.
After years of science fiction films: Gravity (2013), Interstellar (2014) and Ex-Machina (2015), Lost on Mars (2015), The Arrival (2016), It (2017), Blade Runner 2049 (2017) ), the absence of 2018 may be what justifies the nomination of the superhero movie Black Panther to the 2019 Oscar for best picture, lacked inspiration but not imagination.
Imagination about the future continues to provide artifacts for real life, but real life follows its existential drama, in times of anger and threats of return to the past, it is worth thinking about what the future will be, even if it is only of artifacts and not of real life, this follows its drama, although a Wrinkle Time with the excellent Oprah Wrinfey was due in effects and scenario

 

Paths, artifact and art in Heidegger

14 Jan

The work Origin of the work  art (1936) is a text by Martin Heidegger, where the question of art and work, which moves to the artifact, and which is Heidegger himself in motion, when writing a collection Forest Paths.
Instead of writing a work written Forest Paths (Holzwege) in which an additive was added before the epilogue in 1956.
A view of Heidegger that the “artifact” of art, is a privileged way of revealing the quotidian, reveals itself as a poetic understanding of the world, and brings the idea of meaningless “way” of reach, duration and legitimacy of art.
Is this a question of knowing the origin of the work of art? Is the origin in the artifact, the observer or the artist? According to his question, “What is in the work, is it at work?” (Heidegger, 2002, 31), where it is possible to see the “way” already.
A medieval philosophy called a “quidity,” as it is, was about the nominalists like Ockham and Scotus Duns with the royalists, as they debated realists and ontologists like Thomas Aquinas, who began the discussion about the existence of universals, and the bottom is about what is essence.
For Heidegger is a source of information that is being, that is, its essence.
The origin of the algorithm of its essence, as well as its work on the provenance of its essence (Heidegger, 2002, p.7), which one wishes to extrapolate to technique and its relation to essence.
Heidegger in The Binding of a Work of Art follows the publication of the art article, the singular work, the emergence of the work of art from the artist’s creative medium, as well as the origin of the work is the artist (Heidegger, 2002, 61), but does not use the sense of anthropological origin.
As an example, the effect of aesthetic experience, a man observes the shoes on the picture (Van Gogh, 1886), in each time, the image itself is updated, it is a sense to the virtual, since the virtual is something that is updated, and the art was originated by the artist, but it completes itself in the observer and manifest on the artefact.
The updating of this ontological foundation of Heidegger, which sees the origin of the artist, is in Rancière when he speaks of the “Emancipated Spectator” (2008), which opens the discussion about “the theoretical presuppositions that put the spectator question at the heart of the discussion about relations between art and politics “(Rancière, 2012, p.8), essential for the present day.
Rancière shows two premisses about the spectator that are false, the first which is the spectator as opposed to knowing, and the second that is contrary to acting, and calls this the paradox of the spectator who is, in the case of theater, a “non-theater without spectator “(RANCIÈRE, 2012, p.8).
We propose in opposition to the ontotantropotechnical status of the work of art, or of its artifact, it exists while it is being, so the artist lends his ontological status as anthropos (man), and expresses it as a technique.

H

HEIDEGGER, M. A Origem da Obra de Arte, Lisboa: Edições 70, 2002 (Portuguese Edition).

RANCIÈRE, J. O espectador Emancipado, São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2012 (Brazilian Edition).

 

And you who say that I am

21 Sep

 The truths of the facts only reveal in the truth of the acts, it is so for the daily life, so for the politics and for the speeches, if we live in the post-truth, it has the limit of the acts.
We like day to day to create narratives more favorable to our convenience and our ideals, but almost always the unveiling exists beyond language and speech.
The creation of a logical intelligence, in deeper layers now called Deep Mind or Deep Learning, is nothing more than the artificial response to the virtual world, part of the real next to the current one, a logic consistent with the action, the human will always be some dyslexia.
Full consciousness is linked to full dialogue, where discourses can interpenetrate in the hermeneutic circle, the difference with artificial intelligence is that the machine learns from humans, but it will be difficult for it to escape from formal logic, while the human is ontological.
This means that we are in the age of Being, a deeper manifestation of what we are, and contrary to what anti-technology discourse supposes, it is precisely this that can help human speech in the essential aspects of logic, which we sometimes falsify to be correct .
Historically technology is not displaced from human needs, it is often the poor adaptation or use of human relationship with technology that causes some disruption and misunderstanding of its true role, which is to assist the craft, art and technique, says the Greek origin of the word techné.
In the biblical passage that Jesus tests his apostles, he asks: “And you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), for some was a great prophet, for others a return from Elijah or even from Moses, not always God , that is, the Divine wisdom between us.
The reprehensible use of the evangelical message in politics is not for the fact that they should be outside the interests of the common good and of society in general, but it is the possibility of instrumentalizing and using in favor of a certain discourse that is not always coherent with the gospel