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For a spiritual ascesis

18 Oct

What we see beyond the crisis and cultural night, beyond a deep social crisis without a thought that catalyses the real forces of society that point to the future, is also a night of God, educator Martin Buber describes it as God’s Eclipse.
Buber wrote in his book: “I later built for myself the meaning of the word ‘mismatch’, through which was roughly described the failure of a true encounter between human beings. When, after another 20 years, I saw my mother, who had come to visit me, my wife, and my children from afar, I couldn’t look into her still astonishingly beautiful eyes without hearing the word “mismatch” somewhere as if it were. tell me.
I suppose that everything I have experienced over the course of my life about the authentic encounter has its first origin at that time in the gallery. ”(BUBER, 1991, p. 8). Thus revealing the true face of the “silence of God” of Judaism in which it has its roots, will be in another book the “I-Thou” where he will reveal an aspect of his asceticism which is “the encounter with the Other”, which for Buber more. than one person, your Tu has a divine essence, God inhabits the other.
These days there are two strong tendencies, and in both asceses there is in fact no spirituality beyond transcendence, or the activism that Byung Chul condemns as the “active vita” that leads to tiredness, or the idealistic subjectivism that can It seems to be religion but it is not, what it arouses is nothing but sentimentality, and can lead to “faithful” tears, not necessarily to God, if they do discover Him they must seek another true asceticism.
Thus it is possible that they will find God in one way or another, but there is no other way to remain in the faith, not of the blind but of those who have found a clearing, if indeed meditation and prayer are to remain, they are indispensable.
For those who have no faith, a good reading, separating passages and thoughts, living the moment as we wrote in the previous post, is fundamental, that is, also for reading can follow the rule of doing it without “gluttony”, try put the soul in silence, making a true “epoché”.
To those who believe always reflect that Jesus prayed, and asked his disciples to pray with him, and not to lose this practice, Jesus will tell the parable of the bad judge who does not want to attend the widow, but by his insistence and so that she does not. he curses, he answers, says the opening passage: “Jesus told the disciples a parable to show them the need to pray always, and never give up…”, which is in Luke 18: 1.
BUBER, Martin. (1995) Eclipse de Dios. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1995.

 

Collaboration and ingratitude

08 Oct

Seemingly so distant terms are deeply connected, collaboration that almost always involves a dose of gratuitousness (may even be paid, but does it with some generosity), and the ingratitude, which is not acknowledging the gratitude, of what is done. with some donation dose.

This always involves the means of power, in times of psycho-power, the choice of means for certain ends is fundamental, what the individual influences or challenges for his own benefit, is explained in Habermas using the concept of Hanna Arendt and polemizing with Max. Weber: “It is this capacity for disposition over means that enables one to influence the will of others that Max Weber calls power. H. Arendt reserves for this case the concept of violence ” (Habermas, 1980: 100).

Thus, it can be theorized that what does not lead to collaboration can lead to a form of power or violence, if we admit that collaboration has an essential opposition to ingratitude, or to even theorize, a dose of ingratitude.

Still in the field of theorizing, in phenomenological life I think that “means” have accelerated the idea of ​​collaboration, Habermas will speak of a “methodological individualism” applying it to forms of power that do not allow “mutual understanding” or overcoming ” egoic sense of power ”, which leads to non-collaboration and non-recognition of gratuitousness.

I think Hanna Arendt is more straightforward because her model is “a communicative model” (interactive) where consensus would be reached by non-coercive means, by “reciprocal understanding” that would lead to “common will”, in my view, is still lacking, idea of ​​gratitude.

In environments where collaboration and reciprocity, mutual actions of co-working, that is, working together, is already a reality, power is dispersed and the leader does not appear as coercive, Latin coercive power, meaning retention.

What is proposed then, starting from Hanna Arendt is to think of the way that allows collaboration as a communicative way of influencing the will of the other without coercing it, this leads to systems of ingratitude, misunderstanding and power struggle through of violence.

Habermas, J. (1980). A crise da legitimação do capitalismo tardio. (The crisis of legitimation of late capitalismo). Rio de Janeiro, Tempo Brasileiro.

 

Perfectionism and true righteousness

27 Sep

Idealism has created a form of humanism and “rights and duties” that have little or nothing to do with Being and true human needs and concerns.
According to novelist Anne Larnott (translated to Portuguese only Word for word): “Perfectionism is a form of cold and bad idealism, while messes are the artist’s true friend”, I think she meant what appears to be an imperfection or a “Mess” as she wrote, but that’s only human.
Three factors can lead to perfectionism becoming a “borderline” syndrome, as psychologists call it, making the distinction or quality of the Other unacceptable, but also making “human” or “normal” pathological defects that can lead to despair, and, perhaps worst of all, the still little realized that is contempt for the Other, especially for the humblest people, for vanity and pride.
Other aspects such as communication, harmony in order to have the environments around us more integrated with our Being, the adoption of a spirituality (it has become dangerous because religiosity has also acquired pathologies, care must be taken) and what should be future of humanity, but there are already signs, that is the sharing of resources and talents in order to produce self-sustaining and healthy goods and consumption.
There are several currents that can help from the point of view of ‘elaboration of thought’, one of the serious shortcomings of idealism has been to separate practical from theoretical, and the reinvention of dialectic (in Hegel in particular) has badly solved this problem, phenomenology has reinvented hermeneutics to return to the “thing itself” and to take back the “Lebenswelt” (Husserl), the philosophy of life.
The three parables in the 16th chapter of Luke, misunderstood and read, are not one work that makes the connection between them, namely that of the returning son (called the prodigal son), that of the unfaithful steward (called dishonest or clever). and the one that complements the three, which is the death of Lazarus, the poor man who lived from the leftover table of the rich man who, when dying, goes to his father’s bosom, while the rich man goes to the “region of the dead, in the midst of torment”. (Lc 16.23).
They are complementary and point out three essential aspects: the son who is in his father’s house, does not accept the returning brother, the unfaithful steward cannot be faithful in a short while (this is not perfectionism, but training for honesty) and finally this parable of the rich and Lazarus, who shows that he is in “hell” not the one who has little or nothing, but the rich.
It makes us think, and there should be a connection between the three, for contextualization and a non-fundamentalist reading of the bible, to love the “imperfect” brother who returns or apologizes, to be faithful in the “little” and to love and respect the poor and humbleness, it seems. simple, for some theologians not.

 
 

Idealism: back to the pre-Socratic

18 Sep

Karl Popper knew, the Vienna circle knew, and Husserl knew that to discuss the contemporary crisis it was necessary to return to idealism, the great foundation of contemporary Enlightenment, but Popper’s thesis goes deeper than we should return to the pre-Socrates.

Both Wittgenstein and Popper are known to have their connections with the Vienna Circle questioned, as a thought, but as an influence they certainly brought the questioning root of logical positivism in general, and of conventional Kantism in particular, a critique of idealism and enlightenment. resulting from it due to the detected crisis of science.

Both speak of a return to cosmology, although Popper claims “the Tractatus was a cosmological (albeit crude) treatise and because his theory of knowledge was closely linked to cosmology” (Popper, 2014, p. 2), rather than linguistic philosophy, as many of Wittgenstein’s readers suppose, clippings are always complicated.

He will explain that “specialization may be a temptation for the scientist… for the philosopher, it is a sin” (idem), but unfortunately it has happened, philosophy is now a “department” as if the other sciences did not do it implicitly (or explicitly by bad practices) his theories.

Ironic with the Baconian spirit, he was the first in modern science to appeal to empiricist “practice,” and Popper claims all science (I would say almost every thought except the refusal to think that it is more serious): “every science starts from the observation and then, slowly and cautiously, moves towards the theory ”(Popper, 2014, p. 3), the curious thing is that they use Popper himself to affirm this, poor reading, the mediocracy of“ illiteracy ”. secondary”.

His thesis is that rationality departed from Tales of Mileno and the Ionian school, and quotes it verbatim from the fragment [15]: “that the earth is sustained by water upon which it moves like a boat. If we say there is an earthquake, the earth is being shaken by the movement of the water ”(Popper, p. 4), amazed rationalism was born along with earth moving.

Compatible with the Baconian myth, Popper states in the following passage: “The purpose of the Baconian myth is to explain why scientific statements are true, indicating that observation is the“ true origin ”of our scientific knowledge” (idem), of course, he questions. This and its purpose is to unveil the idealistic building from antiquity.

Who is going to question Tales’s idea is Anaximander in suggesting the earth as a drum, but supported by nothing, in Popper’s quote from the fragment [A 11]: “… it is supported by nothing, but remains stationary because it is equally distant of all other things.

Its shape is […] like that of a drum […]. We walk on one of its plant surfaces, while the other is on the opposite side. ”(Cit. POPPER, 2014, p. 4).

It states shortly afterwards “it made possible Aristarchus and Copernicus’ theories.” (Idem), but her idea was bold because it was about seeing the Earth freely suspended in the middle of space, and perhaps by observation, there were oceans of all ages.

On the other hand, Tales’s idea seemed natural. It is from there and from Xenophanes that Popper will build the cosmology of Parmenides, his disciple, where immutable reality, the immobile Earth is presented as a kind of logical proof (Popper, 2014, p. 14), where his idea will come from. from the one, from the undivided from a single premise, “that which is not is not,” where nothing, that which is not, does not exist. In this world full of Parmenides, there is no room for movement, this is its cosmology, which is what we refer to from the preface, when Popper stated that there is no ontology in it.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.

 

Worldview or Cosmicview

12 Sep

Husserl’s concept of the world of life evolves into Heidegger’s Weltanschauung, his student, and is hasty to immediately link it to the worldview, just as both have a closer meaning than what some say is “superior” to the “world of life.” life ”, but in everyday philosophy we do not even get there, they still speak of“ theory ”the empiricists and idealists.
To the letter in German Welt – world, chauen look, means nothing other than a viewpoint on the conception of the world, but it was not just ‘philosophy’ but a vision beyond.
Ronald Nash, a Reformed theologian, gives a definition that seems to encompass many more and be more precise: “Life’s most important set of beliefs… is a conceptual framework by which we consciously or unconsciously apply or adjust all the things we believe, and interpret and judge reality, ”since we know even by normal science only 4% of the universe, that is, baryonic matter, and only now do we penetrate energy and dark mass with black hole studies.
Indigenous religiosity, especially Andean, as an example, has a complex view of theological interaction between original elements (what we call original culture), which interacted with phenomena and ideologies produced in modernity, even Christianity comes in with concepts of literacy. and I work with methods of modernity.
This has caused an interpenetration and reinvention of worldview that can and should be related to a worldview, the link with nature and the cosmos, with animals and which has led to the syncretism and reinvention of culture itself (Geertz 1978), and many other studies point to this worldview, such as Peruvian Maria Rostworowski and Colombian scholar Berna Carolina among others.
What purely economic or ideological studies do not understand is that cultural meanings change according to culture and its own worldview, it is impossible to treat it only with modern, colonialist or even pseudo-liberating categories.
It is necessary to enter the culture itself, to understand its originality, what is deep in the soul of these peoples, without this, colonialism with other names is reinvented.
GEERTZ, Clifford. A interpretação das culturas. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1978.

 

The technique and the current crisis

04 Sep

What is problems about technique, greek techné and question in Heidegger, but what others thinkers say about this.
It’s not a new question, but growing two extremes technophilia and technophobia make me think it’s urgent, we always use techniques, we’ve said, but what happens when even one of my favorite philosophers, Byung Chul Han seems all be convinced that it was the technique and not the man himself that led us to lack of light.
We said Heidegger’s fundamental thought, but what other thinkers said, Levy-Strauss after saying that the Nhambiquaras Indians were so primitive that they didn’t even have technique, contradicts themselves by saying that as primitive as society is, there is always technique.
Ortega Y Gasset will say that the early stage of the technique was “chance technique”, assuming that this stage of instrument making did not differ from many of its natural acts, I would say for example that it might think of a stone to break fruits and hard foods or something similar, however the important stage is the “manufacture”.
The Kantian way to which Cassirer is faithful writes an essay “Form and technique” (1930), in which he analyzes the specific essence of technique as symbolic form, as well as its relations with other symbolic forms: myth, art, science and the ethical cosmos, its worldview of Kantian perfectionism and transcendence, is its Enlightenment worldview.
Cassirer are made clearer in the book “The State Myth” (1946) where it explains the construction of totalitarian ideology by the fusion of technique and myth, stating that the genealogy of the Aryan myth and the techniques of manipulation worked in this regard.
In the same vein, but in a more up-to-date logic, Oswald Spengler, who was a big bestseller in the 1930s, when he wrote The Decline of the West, addressed the subject in his “The Man and the Technique,” turning homo lupus homini to to say that he uses technique as a means of domination (so many others say) Thomas Hobbes’s adage almost again justifies the authoritarian state in the cycle of the eternal return of idealists, prisoners in time.
The abandonment of the question of Being, the eternal return to the problems of the state, authoritarianism, now of corruptions and the desecration of the state, want to understand that it is surrounded by a layer of technique, yes and no, because technique is not indifferent. potentiate death, such as gunpowder, cannons, battle tanks, and atomic bombs, and now “autonomous” machines, but the man who builds and manipulates them with “intentionality” is man.
September is yellow September, the fight against suicide can be nothing but a fight against a growing phenomenon, which means first the “human emptiness”, its little understanding of its essence as Being and as relationship with the human beings.
Others and Nature, closure in self or us, when this is just a mirror, does not point to exits. Edgar Morin is very aware that the crisis has several problems, and one of them is the crisis of thought, it is still far from being faced (there is translation in English, set it):

 

Pride, prejudice and vanity

28 Aug

I had to go to the Web to find some references from Pride and Prejudice, a book of my youth, written by Jane Austen that references have sold 2.3 million copies, and published in 1813, Austen would have written the 21 years old, in 1797, this is important because the nineteenth century begins with the impacts of the industrial revolution and severe social crises, while the previous one still hovered over a certain “romanticism”.
The problems related to education, culture, and morals of that turn of the century in the conservative aristocratic society are problematized in the book in an interesting and somewhat peculiar way in addressing the prejudice theme.
The novel tells of an aristocratic but decaying Bennet family who lives on a farm on a farm called Netherfield, where a young aristocrat Mr. Bingley rents a morally going estate near the Bennet, which has four married girls, and he takes Caroline Bingley and Louisa Hurst her sisters, her brother-in-law Mr. Hurst, and a friend Mr. Darcy, who will be a protagonist with flirting and flirting with Elizabeth Bennet, the peculiarity being the prejudices between her and Mr. Darcy, whom she eventually marries.
Class problems apart, they are all decadent or not aristocrats, the bottom line is between provincialism and a broader social view, the novel’s peculiarity, and the nuances between vanity, prejudice, and pride, which can be clearly differentiated.
These are not different definitions, but social positions where vanity, the theme of a glance is present in virtually every character, and shows how complex the social relationship is thanks to it, pride where undercover interests can make it a superb detriment of relationships, and finally prejudice where differences (or distinctions) affect people’s lives, relationships and create tensions that are slowly becoming unreasonable.
It still has the romanticism of the time, the frivolity of the English aristocracy, but the fact that until now the novel is still successful is because it can touch on topics little understood and about which little elaboration exists.
A mini-series was made in the 1950s for TV, in 2004 a movie was made under the direction of Joe Wrigth, while writer Helen Fielding calls Mark Darcy her “ideal man” in reference to Mr. Darcy’s novel, shows the importance of Jane Austen’s book.
The movie is available on the telecine and the thriller below can give you an idea of the movie

 

Pass to through the narrow door

23 Aug

The time of liberality, the time at all seems easy and then complicated, the door of wisdom is great and ignorance is great, “the client wants ease,” but then.
Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea of the Fernando Pessoa, so let’s see: “Was it worth it? Everything is worth it Who wants to go beyond the Bojador It has to go beyond the pain ”.
The Bojador was a cape off the coast of Africa where many ships sank, many sailors stopped a voyage to the Indian Ocean, one soul is not small beyond pain.
The easy movement of idealism, the little reflection in favor of impulsiveness, the adherence to the new populism, and a broader crisis the cultural feature of our time, and the navigation in our deepest systems, but the internet browsing, the web browsing.
Web without compasses helps, but is not a determinant, a determinant is ignorance.
To get an email-like paradise, Edgar Morin, and many people who see the planet as a cohabitation, or a co-immunity like Peter Sloterdijk, also watching the psychopower that time, the information bombing, that comes from long before the time when Karl Kraus (1874-1936) claimed the newspaper that propelled a Europe into a Crisis, at the same time as the science europeans crisis.
It said Karl Kraus in This Great Time that you can go to speak of the tired of War is stupid : ”so the fatigue of war is actually a state of which there has to be no salvation. Tired of war must always be, not after, but before the war has begun. War fatigue must not cause war to be ended, but no war. ”

The door of wisdom is the same and ignorance is wide, “the customer wants facilities,” but then. Everyone who knows, likes the poetry Portuguese Sea Fernando Pessoa, let’s do what is most important, the best way to choose freedom, democracy and freedom of choice. It is !!!, to help humanity to go to a homeland of all, a diversity and tolerance.

A biblical worldview has a beautiful expression for this Luke 13:34: “Do your best to enter the narrow door. Because most theologians and exegetes see only the rights and possibilities of a minority, then one is left with a self-applied humanity. Before it’s too late, before we say, “We’re tired of the war,” we let it go.

 

Unity and distinction

14 Aug

The fact that the Deleuzian ontology admits the difference and remains in it without observing that the distinction has a common core where diversity can be obtained, is the admission that coexistence is possible where the hermeneutic circle takes place and not the inevitable confrontation.
Thus difference does not eliminate identity, for it recognizes distinction without remaining in the immobility of difference, so says in Difference and Repetition: “It is necessary that each point of view be itself the thing or that the thing belongs to the point of view. . It is therefore necessary for the thing to be nothing identical, but to be quartered into a difference in which both the identity of the object seen and that of the subject who sees it vanish ”.
That is, the difference makes what is seen an object by subject, an instrumentalization or objectification.
Therefore, they are not dialogues, it is impossible to merge horizons as Heidegger and Gadamer thought, the hermeneutic circle does not exist, it is a silent dialogue, where each one repeats his view of the object, so it remains in continuous anachronistic repetition without diaology.
The Portuguese writer José Saramago said after numerous controversies that provoked: “I learned not to try to convince anyone.
The work of convincing is a lack of respect, “it is an attempt to colonize the other”, many dialogues are methods of colonization or proselytizing.
It is the discourse of the authoritarian, the colonists, the fundamentalists and the proselytes, in a world that discovers nothing more dangerous diversity, to sit at the table is almost impossible.
The look is the same, what changes is the lens (figure), with the disadvantage that the divergent will never have a focus, disperses in an aperture where the focal point will never exist. It is first necessary to admit the hermeneutics, to admit the interpretation and the identity different from the Other, only in this way it is possible to seek the fusion of horizons, thus not being a hypocrisy.
While difference is synonymous with dissimilarity, unequal, distinct is synonymous with diverse, considered and in a sense even laudable and celebrated and re-conceptualized.

 

Bergson in body-mind relationship

05 Aug

To discuss consciousness and the relationship between body and mind must necessarily go through a contemporary philosopher who was Henri Bergson (1859-1941), who proposed a relationship between this one that is one of the roots of classical dualism, because contemporary is the object and the subject. Bergson opts in this sense for subjectivism, in our view remains a dualism, but his solution was very important for thinking at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
He will study life from the evolutionary process of life, and the study of memory, related to the humanities and biological sciences, in our view is close and very related to ontology and not by chance he will touch the subject. of Being and Time, a dear subject to Heidegger, though it has no direct relation to this philosopher.
The study of the brain and the psyche has gained enormous relevance in our time, I highlight two current thinkers, the Portuguese Antonio Damásio (Descartes’ error) and the American Terrence Deacon (Incomplete Nature).
Neuroscience was nascent in Bergson’s time, so his studies were grounded in psychology and evolutionary biology, but his insights were profound and still current, as he rereads the problems of the theory of knowledge of metaphysics.
Their metaphysical problems range from classic themes to the extent to which we are free, how we can overcome mechanistic worldviews, who is remembrance, and other essential questions of life, including life itself and what it really is.
The questions that interest us in particular, Being and Time, will be clarified by the Brazilian philosopher Leopoldo Leopoldo da Silva, explaining that time is not the linear scale as we know it, although the concept is different from Einstein’s theory of relativity. ceases to be contemporary.
Time in the sense of life happens what is called duration, and also knowledge as we conceive is not linked to this kind of life-time or Being, so Bergson will choose to understand the exercise of intuition,
The historian of science Jimena Canales tells the relationship Einstein and Berggson about Time: