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Unity and distinction

14 Aug

The fact that the Deleuzian ontology admits the difference and remains in it without observing that the distinction has a common core where diversity can be obtained, is the admission that coexistence is possible where the hermeneutic circle takes place and not the inevitable confrontation.
Thus difference does not eliminate identity, for it recognizes distinction without remaining in the immobility of difference, so says in Difference and Repetition: “It is necessary that each point of view be itself the thing or that the thing belongs to the point of view. . It is therefore necessary for the thing to be nothing identical, but to be quartered into a difference in which both the identity of the object seen and that of the subject who sees it vanish ”.
That is, the difference makes what is seen an object by subject, an instrumentalization or objectification.
Therefore, they are not dialogues, it is impossible to merge horizons as Heidegger and Gadamer thought, the hermeneutic circle does not exist, it is a silent dialogue, where each one repeats his view of the object, so it remains in continuous anachronistic repetition without diaology.
The Portuguese writer José Saramago said after numerous controversies that provoked: “I learned not to try to convince anyone.
The work of convincing is a lack of respect, “it is an attempt to colonize the other”, many dialogues are methods of colonization or proselytizing.
It is the discourse of the authoritarian, the colonists, the fundamentalists and the proselytes, in a world that discovers nothing more dangerous diversity, to sit at the table is almost impossible.
The look is the same, what changes is the lens (figure), with the disadvantage that the divergent will never have a focus, disperses in an aperture where the focal point will never exist. It is first necessary to admit the hermeneutics, to admit the interpretation and the identity different from the Other, only in this way it is possible to seek the fusion of horizons, thus not being a hypocrisy.
While difference is synonymous with dissimilarity, unequal, distinct is synonymous with diverse, considered and in a sense even laudable and celebrated and re-conceptualized.

 

Bergson in body-mind relationship

05 Aug

To discuss consciousness and the relationship between body and mind must necessarily go through a contemporary philosopher who was Henri Bergson (1859-1941), who proposed a relationship between this one that is one of the roots of classical dualism, because contemporary is the object and the subject. Bergson opts in this sense for subjectivism, in our view remains a dualism, but his solution was very important for thinking at the turn of the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
He will study life from the evolutionary process of life, and the study of memory, related to the humanities and biological sciences, in our view is close and very related to ontology and not by chance he will touch the subject. of Being and Time, a dear subject to Heidegger, though it has no direct relation to this philosopher.
The study of the brain and the psyche has gained enormous relevance in our time, I highlight two current thinkers, the Portuguese Antonio Damásio (Descartes’ error) and the American Terrence Deacon (Incomplete Nature).
Neuroscience was nascent in Bergson’s time, so his studies were grounded in psychology and evolutionary biology, but his insights were profound and still current, as he rereads the problems of the theory of knowledge of metaphysics.
Their metaphysical problems range from classic themes to the extent to which we are free, how we can overcome mechanistic worldviews, who is remembrance, and other essential questions of life, including life itself and what it really is.
The questions that interest us in particular, Being and Time, will be clarified by the Brazilian philosopher Leopoldo Leopoldo da Silva, explaining that time is not the linear scale as we know it, although the concept is different from Einstein’s theory of relativity. ceases to be contemporary.
Time in the sense of life happens what is called duration, and also knowledge as we conceive is not linked to this kind of life-time or Being, so Bergson will choose to understand the exercise of intuition,
The historian of science Jimena Canales tells the relationship Einstein and Berggson about Time:

 

The treasure and the passing things

01 Aug

Of the many things we see around us, few actually seem to have treasure value, it seems that everything succumbs to time and human carelessness, if we do not choose the essentials everything seems disposable and little seems treasure.
Attachment to luxury, fleeting values and not the essentials is none other than the fact that we do not really know where the treasures are, one can reverse the biblical saying, but what is right is “where is the treasure, there is yours heart ”(Matt. 6:21) and not the other way around, for the heart knows where it is.
There are many legends or truths, little is known about the treasures of Edward Teach (1680-1718), the BlackBeard specializing in the sacking of ships, or the treasure left by the escaping Spaniards of Peru (1820), or where the 7 million are. dollars from mobster Arthur Flegenheimer (1902-1935) who before being caught and killed in a shooting would have hidden his fortune.
Much has been written about the treasure, “who found a friend found a treasure” that is from the Ecclesiastical, Charles Haddon Spurgeon was a Calvinist preacher who say he spent half of his ministry writing “The Treasure of David”, there are also stories of people who found treasures, a fisherman who has found a large pearl in the sea, or someone who has found a huge diamond and even a child’s treasure-hunting game.
But the truth is that we should have a treasure hidden in our hearts so that it is not something ephemeral or a simple personal object, but something that can give us peace and joy for a lifetime, this will be a treasure a give us something greater than mere utility or passenger value.
So be careful when choosing the treasure to put our heart there, that it be true and eternal, that lasts in the days of sorrow and tribulation, that can be given to others, and has true value and not just utilitarian value.

 
 

The essential, the useful and the happiness

29 Jul

The times of a life in nature, when food was produced by medieval farmers, when many consumer products were handcrafted, had a look at nature, at the possibility of having a life in the essentials is first of all these days, it is the ability to forgo many things, make the list of the essentials and live well each day, and solve the problems without accumulating them and without procrastinating them.
The list of usefulness should not lead us to utilitarianism, easy formulas of happiness bring many people distress over time, frustration over unearned goods, unreached social positions, and if we have the essentials list, they are not needed.
What is useful then should be: healthy food, comfortable clothes and shoes, reading the news of the day without intoxication, there is a lot of toxic reading and social media “media” is not exclusive, newspapers and TV there is little culture and good news, remain calm even when it is not possible and acquire goods honestly, while taking care of those other than the essentials.
Happiness has no magic formulas as some ill-worked philosophies, or poorly deepened spiritualities suggest, and is certainly not indulging in consumption and futility.
Art, music, poetry and painting are necessary, as Victor Hugo said: “art is as useful as it is useful”, and perhaps even more in the days of agitation, stress and tiredness of a society that gives little respite and tranquility.
There are likely to be people who are happy with the accumulated goods, but they will one day run out and maturity will reflect on what love, utility, and peace are in a world without peace.
The meditation of the French Buddhist monk Matthieu Ricard, while focusing inwardly, contains some good Western reflections and at least made me laugh and cheer:

 

in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.

 

Worldview: soul, feelings and wisdom

12 Jul

One can think of soul as mind, as consciousness (it is only a reflection), or identity, according to post about Giddens this leads to interiority in a restricted sense.
That is why we call it the Noosphere, the sphere of the mind or the outside, in a sense of vision, feelings and wisdom, being limited to a worldview, which is evolving.
It is not possible to have a broad worldview, without a broad soul, more than a soul-world, a universal soul in the sense not only anthropological, but cosmological.
Feelings have a great appeal in the contemporary world, as functional logics have become much of the engaging of thought, it is possible and easy to manipulate opinions and people through these resources, but they are dangerous without soul and wisdom.
Wisdom is the most critical element of the noosphere, there are those who believe that through feeling and soul can walk quietly, there are therapies and even online courses to produce happiness, well-being and other promises without any wisdom, the result in short term is commendable, but in the long run it will prove ineffective will lack such sustainability.
Wisdom is also critical because many currents of thought and diverse forms of culture can lead to reductionism, and this will bring in the contemporary world a lack of seeing the Other, sometimes there is even intention, but the result is the result of the restricted world .
The teachers of the Law were in the time of Jesus, the Pharisees who knew the scripture, but whose practice was distorted, one of them addresses Jesus to ask how to have the eternal inheritance.
The great spiritual argument of Loving God is a resource of a certain kind of ignorance, but a good Bible reading is enough to realize that it is false, is in Luke 10: 26-27, and Jesus said to him, “What is written in the law? How do you read? “He replied,” You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, with all your strength and with all your intelligence; and your neighbor as yourself! ”
Jesus immediately binds the heart “feelings” to the soul, because it knows and respects the interiority, from where the soul drinks, and ends by asking for love of neighbor, the Other.

 

The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).

 
 

World of life and deviations

02 May

It seems obvious what the world of life would be, but it is not because simply this world is populated by theories and misconceptions trying to put life as some form of acting, of making functionalist or even of thinking in restricted forms that do not behave life.
It is not by chance that this was later developed by Heidegger and Gadamer, since all life refers to the Being, and closes itself in this and not from its relation with the objects, but with the vision it has of the relation with these objects which are part of the world of life.
Separating them into ontological and ontological, though distinct, means that there is something beyond the life of being, not in the mystical sense, but of the transcendental realizations (the apriori) of consciousness.
Thus the work of Hans Georg Gadamer “Truth and Method” is nothing other than to oppose a vision of historical consciousness other than that of something, the basic presupposition of the hermeneutics, there is therefore no clear relation to life, beings, objects and culture of concrete beings within a concrete reality.
The original meaning of the “world of life” (Lebenswelt) is embodied in Heidegger’s work of Being and Time, used in part by Sartre, Gadamer problematized it, and Schultz made it central to his phenomenological sociology.
Phenomenology brought from Franz Brentano the notion of intentionality, which according to Sokoloski, intention means the relation of consciousness that we have with an object, then refers in the last analysis to what we call consciousness.
The notion of intentionality is the one that contrasts most strongly with positivism, when reconsidering the subject and object relationship, in a perspective of inseparability, offers an opposition to its objectivism and neutrality.
By fully recovering the subject in relation to objects, phenomenology is a resumption of the humanization of science, a restorative view of Being and of existence.
The work of Alfred Schutz (1899 to 1959) incorporating phenomenology into Max Weber’s sociology, regains the importance of the concept of Verstehen (understanding) and distinguishes it from Erklaren (common-sense knowledge, or methods of modern social sciences).
Hans Georg Gadamer clarifies that Verstehen is close to the understanding of the Other, in which the relation of knowing is thus humanized.
SOKOLOWSKI, Robert. Introduction to phenomenology (in portuguese). São Paulo: Loyola, 2004.
The concept of intentionality is central to phenomenology and this vídeo clarifies the term:

 

Dogmatism and dialogue

29 Apr

Not only is authoritarianism responsible for the lack of dialogue, dogmatism is more dangerous and terrible
when a society lives deep divisions, it affirms a truth as absolute and yet it allows different visions does not do it with sincerity.
Following these currents is the division of groups, cultures or political positions without the necessary openness to the whole of society, does not mean to have no convictions, they are the basis of a dialogue, it means closing in on concepts and values ​​that are not universal.
These truths are manifest in some form of thought, and therefore their values ​​and foundations are ultimately some kind of philosophy of systematic thought and must therefore understand that it will be from which dialogue will be possible.
Hans Georg Gadamer, discusses the major currents of modern thought: Hegelianism and neo-kantism with a focus
on logic, the theories of knowledge and vitalism in Nietzsche, Bergson and Dilthey, were in focus before the First World War.
Starting from Dilthey’s analysis, he will define that the historical consciousness is not closed in itself, from the intentionality, its particularity is to be always open and torefer to something as its correlative  objective.
The object is not given to consciousness alone, it is not a question of assuming the consciousness as it is given to the Other, but inserting it in a larger context, where both are.
This context is the world, the world of life (lebensvelt), where there is a general horizon of all that is and can become the content of experience, thus overcomes idealism and empiricism.
Last week’s posts were aboutthe discussion of idealism and empiricism, this week we explore the possibilities of a larger context, where the discourses do not close in objectivism or subjectivism, two aspects that affect modern philosophy.

 

 

Neither flat nor 3D, much beyond

26 Apr

The universe contains, from that sensible world to our senses, the world modeled by a three-dimensional geometry (length, width and height) other dimensions, the fourth dimension (hormholes, earthworm) is already reassessed by physics.
Time and space are more absolute and the energy and dark matter that makes up 94% of the universe begins to be studied with black holes (actually dark matter), but there is a lot of mystery.
What is certain is that our senses that built mathematics and physics up to the 19th century begin to be dismantled and gradually our senses are clearly challenged and among their ideal forms: point, straight, plane and cube are surpassed by the hypercube and the fractals.
Daring to Know, the idealistic formula constructed models of clearly idealistic universes, and does not correspond to the real universe, served for many advances and experiments, but there are mysteries that go beyond what the senses can perceive.
The fact that the image of an immense black hole was recently made, the sound of gravitational attraction was recorded proving that it exists as particles, gravitrons, shows that we have walked a little, but we must be wary of seeing, hearing and feeling. To look at infinity and its immensity, to admit that there is something beyond infinity, that the universe is not the mechanical machine assumed by Newton and formerly set in motion by the Copernican Revolution, are both now clearly seen as insufficient to explain the universe, and we are far from explaining it.
Excited theology and exoterism try to use quantum physics to explain the existence of God, to invent magical formulas for a more comfortable path to human existence, but there is life and death in our human lives.
Dead and life in animal and vegetable life, and in the whole universe, explaining it with images and sounds that allow our senses to believe is good, only that the mystery is even greater than the explanation.
In Christian eschatology, life beyond death, resurrection can be seen within this dynamic, after all even the apostles had difficulty understanding this, and Jesus appearing to they believe at him.
In the dialogue with Thomas, a disciple who did not believe Jesus says (John 20:27): “Put your finger here and look at my hands. Put out your hand and put it by my side, “and then concludes that those who believe without seeing are happy, have a vision beyond what is sensible, and can go to what is essential.
The TED by Thad Roberts, with more than a million views, shows mysteries about theorie of relativity and others spaces: