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Arquivo para a ‘Sem categoria’ Categoria

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

The informational impact

08 May

Society, information abundance, information turnaround and other appeals to the novelty that arose not with the internet, but with the computer and the possibility of handling the data in volume (Big Data) certainly brought a new perspective.

Anyone who wanted to understand eighteenth-century society should study the industrial revolution and its impact on manpower and the production of serial products, today anyone who wants to analyze contemporary society cannot lose sight of the volume of data they are produced to try to make this volume accessible to society.

But it is not so, because together with this volume came by previous process, it is only to check with history, not the romantic dreamed by idealists, but the real one and to realize that the problem of both Information in volume and depth, made it difficult to digging and knowing what is essential.

We have already posted here Karl Kraus, who complained to journalists in the midst of the threat of a second world war because of misunderstood news highlighting only interests. In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, Peter Sloterdijk also warned that “it is difficult to think of contemporary society,” Byung Chul Han his disciple alert to “active vita” (Chul-Han)

The phenomenon we witnessed in which information became practically a commodity, started with the digital model of Shannon (photo) and the Turing machine in the 1930s, and accelerated with the construction of modern computers.

What we witnessed and did not always participate in an “active” and reflexive way, able to elaborate thinking about information, is the fragmentation of knowledge accelerated by new gadgets, but which was initiated by a crisis in the thinking of Western society, which only deepened over the years, its initializing in modernity.

The Movie The game of imitation (2015) illustrates the life of Alain Turing and his theory:

 

 

 

Theory of Information or Signals

07 May

David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for Mathematics to solve, among them the 2nd. problem was the consistency of Arithmetic to solve problems (which started the idea of algorithm). Later from 1910 to 1913 Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russerl published the 3 volumes of Principia Mathematica recalling Isaac Newton’s Principia (Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica) of 1980, but logic has shown contradictions.
It was Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) who showed the contradictions of logic by demonstrating that a mathematical system is either complete or consistent, a problem that was discussed by Alan Turing and Claude Shannon at Bell Labs in the late 1930s amidst World War II .
Both were in secret projects, Turing was to decipher the Enigma machine, captured from the German army, and Shannon build the System X machine to encode messages from Roosevelt and Churchill from the allied troops.
Both spoke at the lab meetings about Gödel’s problem, and wondered if the machine could think. Boole’s circuits and the Turing machine are at the origin of modern computers, this information theory is actually information in another context, Shannon himself would call it a message, and modern computing calls it signals.
The computation evolved with the construction of the first computer by von Neuman, and we initiate at the moment to ask again if the machine will surpass the human, the philosopher Sam Harris has a opinion:

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Playing with the mind: Claude Shannon

06 May

It was time to pay tribute at the time of Claude Shannon’s contribution and genius, two journalists wrote in 2017 a book about the one that, in our vision with Vannevar Bush of whom he was a MIT lecturer, created Information Theory, although the name might be different, he knew he used information like “machine.”

In the book the information will be called a message, but it could be a sign. I did not read the book, but it was studying the Boolean Algebra that Shannon started to make a digital world, but opposing the analog is the second misconception because everything we do is analog, the clock for example, there is an analogy with the movement of the sun and of course, the rotation of the earth.

In his master’s thesis, in 1937 he analyzed electric circuits that were based only on “yes” or “no”, with connectives “and” or “and” and “not”, and it will be only in his 1948 work that his “Mathematical Theory of Communication”, became Information Theory.

The basic idea was based on calculations of the amount of information needed for a message (I prefer a signal) so that information (of human origin, transmitted by a channel or physical medium) does not lose its original relevance.

Few books have so many citations in relevant works, the book cites 91,000, and virtually the entire theory of “signal processing,” “imaging,” and any information transformed into digital “signal” must use its theory.

The central contribution of his work is called “sampling theory”, which states that in any system the maximum sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency of the signal to be transmitted.

For example, an audible sound to the human ear, which reaches the maximum at 20 KHz, should have a sampling rate of at least 40 KHz. In addition to anticipating the computer along with Alan Turing, also the first Machine Learning, quite simple, but sophisticated for that time, a mouse robot in a maze:

 

 

 

 

Intentionality, materiality and world

03 May

It seems distant the discourse of the world of life and intentionality, for idealistic thought would be because it is not, it is not about having the intention to go to the knowledge of the object and to have its possession, the important thing is not to separate them, intention is consciousness of the object.

Putting it more precisely, and using the Greek terms, this duality is the relation between the  (morphé) form and the matter (Hylé), the use of the Greek concept is because we enter the intentional layer of the lived that is present in the world the form.

Husserl updated these concepts in noema and noese, this being the intentional act as the set of subjectively oriented experience of the object, what we call information and the first is hylético data (the Greek concept), which can be updated as cognitive experiences, this is that they become knowledge independent of their facticity or materiality in the modern sense, which is different from Hylé.

The intentionality as consciousness Husserl met her with his master Franz Brentano and he took it from Thomas Aquinas who in turn took it from Aristoteles and Saint Augustine. It is important to understand that awareness of something does not mean truth in Truth and Method Hans Georg Gadamer gives a long speech on this.

 Although it is not correct to say that Aquinas is Platonic, the spiritual substance that exists in Plato and Augustine is maintained, as the conventional vision of soul, so soul is morphé, form of the body, it is it that communicates the act of being.

In the biblical passage, there are others that refer to recognizing Jesus in breaking bread, he is not known by his material form in the physical sense of the present, but by his act of being, in the passage of John (21: 1-19) after they have gone fishing without fishing, Jesus appears to him and asks if he has something to eat (they do not recognize his form), then they send the fishery and fish again, there they recognize his being by his intention and finally they go to eat together and with the coals already burning Jesus says to them: “Bring some fish that you have caught” (John, 21: 10).

The three strange facts in this passage, they did not fish for anything and then they succeeded, they did not recognize Jesus by his form but by his experience (He orders them to fish and he breaks the bread) and Jesus eating (He is not more in world of form, He resurrected).

At the end he asks Peter his intention and says “You love me“, He said about the all experiences of intentionality.

The contemporary world seeks to create narratives and facts to reaffirm them, but has difficulty with its materiality that unite form and materiality, remains in the dualism.

The intentionality is a property not physical of the mind, see this vídeo:

 

 

 

Dogmatism and dialogue

29 Apr

Not only is authoritarianism responsible for the lack of dialogue, dogmatism is more dangerous and terrible
when a society lives deep divisions, it affirms a truth as absolute and yet it allows different visions does not do it with sincerity.
Following these currents is the division of groups, cultures or political positions without the necessary openness to the whole of society, does not mean to have no convictions, they are the basis of a dialogue, it means closing in on concepts and values ​​that are not universal.
These truths are manifest in some form of thought, and therefore their values ​​and foundations are ultimately some kind of philosophy of systematic thought and must therefore understand that it will be from which dialogue will be possible.
Hans Georg Gadamer, discusses the major currents of modern thought: Hegelianism and neo-kantism with a focus
on logic, the theories of knowledge and vitalism in Nietzsche, Bergson and Dilthey, were in focus before the First World War.
Starting from Dilthey’s analysis, he will define that the historical consciousness is not closed in itself, from the intentionality, its particularity is to be always open and torefer to something as its correlative  objective.
The object is not given to consciousness alone, it is not a question of assuming the consciousness as it is given to the Other, but inserting it in a larger context, where both are.
This context is the world, the world of life (lebensvelt), where there is a general horizon of all that is and can become the content of experience, thus overcomes idealism and empiricism.
Last week’s posts were aboutthe discussion of idealism and empiricism, this week we explore the possibilities of a larger context, where the discourses do not close in objectivism or subjectivism, two aspects that affect modern philosophy.

 

 

Change in physical thinking

24 Apr

The great upheaval of science at the beginning of the last century was the loss of the conviction of scientific determinism along with the idea that the observer is neutral to the phenomenon.
The so-called scientific neutrality, was based on the thought that independent of the observer a repeated phenomenon always produced the same results, the indeterminism announced by Heisenberg, changed the vision that we had of the atomic phenomena.
Newton’s physics, on which deterministic science is based, was good to see science roughly, but in the field of particles this regularity and determination does not exist.
Granularity means that there are finite packets of energy, which for quantum physics were the “quanta” (the theory of relativity is a little different), and this gave rise to studies of the so-called Physics of Particles, which as a complete theory is relationship between phenomena gives rise to events, and is as important as things (the principle of granularity remains), and this explains even more profoundly, and strange to empiricism, the way a body moves, and the effects of gravity, light and energy can also be thought of as relation.
So for example for the existence of the attraction between celestial bodies exists besides a gravitational energy, also gravitons, that is, particles, but this we return tomorrow.
What is essential is that these three principles, besides changing our view of science, begin to change what we think about the human brain, and may change the concept of consciousness, but without exoteric haste that wants to affirm things that are not true.

 

Beyond the senses

22 Apr

By separating subjects (or what is subjective) from objects, Kant’s and Hegelian idealism creates a transcendence of their own to interconnect them and thus separates it from the ontological, from the being.
The way of the Enlightenment was settled, but there was a necessary complement for the discourse not to become very “religious”, Locke describes the human mind as a tabula rasa (A blank picture), where, through experience, the ideas, thus completing this.
The knowledge of physics, especially of astronomy, the use of mathematics helped to construct a “logical” world, but based solely on it, there were no longer the ontological, that is, proper to the being.
Subjectivity will appear in another way, George Berkeley’s radical empiricism, for example, only creates a current of subjective idealism, although it is distant in time, much of what is called “practice” today is this kind of subjectivity, still separate from the object.
What was for the empiricists a phenomenon, for Hume for example, was the simple reason that one phenomenon is always followed by another, causes them to relate to each other by a formula known as cause-effect, which generated in the days of today the empiro-criticism, a way to construct narratives from disconnected facts, or not always with the vision of the set of facts and then to understand the cause in fact.
Phenomenology more recently takes a different stance, the problem of “apparition” or “meeting things in themselves” (Husserl, 2008, p.17) and which will create an important contemporary current in opposition to positivism and neopositivism .
Thus, rather than restricting experimental analysis, phenomenology opens up to regions veiled by this method, seeking a comprehensive and non-explanatory analysis of phenomena.
Husserl’s phenomenology proposes a comprehensive analysis of consciousness, since all the experiences (Erlebnis) of the world occur in and by consciousness.
This is where the celebrated Husserlian definition of consciousness arises: “all consciousness is consciousness of something,” and this definition of consciousness is linked to the notion of intentionality which Husserl inherited from Franz Brentano but modified it.
Finally there are realities both physical and existence beyond our senses.
HUSSERL, E. The crisis of European humanity and philosophy (in portuguese). Porto Alegre; EDIPUCRS, 2008.
David Deutsch’s TED is just to understand that differents explanations about methods:

 

Has the fig tree dried up?

22 Mar

The fig tree is a curious tree because it seems dry but it is not, it is its cycle, it goes from an almost dead appearance to a blooming and the production of fruits in its natural cycle of one year.

She is a good example for periods of crisis, apocalyptic and mainly pessimistic, but life goes on and she gives leaves, flowers and fruits.
I like the idea of flowering precisely because it is the middle of the path between leaves and fruits, is almost spring in Europe, while in Brazil the summer is ending.

When the fig tree dries the idea is to prune it, the Biblical metaphor is not always well read, it speaks of a winemaker (who produces grapes therefore), that when seeing the fig tree dry in the time of the fruits thinks about cutting it, but the employee says “‘Lord, leave the fig tree still this year. I’ll dig around it and put fertilizer. It may come to bear fruit. If it does not, then you will cut it, ‘” it is in Luke 13: 8.

Even in the religious interpretation, there is no shortage of those who see this fact in a Manichean and fundamentalist way, but if they read the passage, everything also speaks of the Tower of Siloam that fell on the workers, to say that it was a fatality, they were not being punished, nor was it the divine desire that this should happen.

It’s right up in the passage from Luke 13: 4, read carefully: “Do you think that they were more guilty than all the other inhabitants of Jerusalem? I tell you no.But if you do not convert, you will all die the same way.”.
That is, these things happen to change our life, our way of thinking and our vision. It is a dry fig tree moment in humanity, at the end of the summer in Brazil and at the end of winter in Europe, we must think with openness and greatness the future of humanity, yes the dried fig tree looks like it will not bear fruit, but the leaves will come and the flowers too, then finally the fruits will come, will fertilize the fig tree with a new and positive vision.
Using the fig tree, Tom Brimmer demonstrates that without faith, you’ll never bear fruit.

 

The rise of idealism and the spirit

05 Feb

The spirit seen outside the Noologia, name given by the Brazilian Writer Mario Ferreira dos Santos for noosphere studies, is pure idealism in philosophy, and spiritual falsification in theology. The influence on contemporary theology can be seen in the work of Karl Ranner, both in Hörer des Wortes (HW) in his Spanish translation Oyente de la palabra (Listener of the Word), and in the spirit of the world, his thesis of The spirit of the World (1967),

This word where despite the influence of Thomas Aquinas and even Heidegger, he does not completely abandon Kant. Francisco Taborda writes about Rahner: “What Rahner does in HW presages all his subsequent theological walk, characterized by the transcendental perspective that implies the presence of an internal philosophy to theology and carries the mark of the anthropological turn of modernity”.

That is, despite to try to reconcile his thoughts with Thomas Aquinas and Heidegger, his main matrix is ​​in “Listener of the Word” (1963), where he states: “If man stands before the God of a possible revelation, if this revelation, should it take place, must take place in human history … etc. “(RAHNER, 1967, p.223).

But discussing theology is complex today, and unfortunately simplification has led to fundamentalism, which is the worst of all tragedies, for God is Omniscient, so it is not simple, for Love is something so complex that no one ever codified it, poets tried. In philosophy.

The culmination of this idealistic attempt was the Phenomenology of the Spirit, practically an attempt to unravel the Trinity, using the in-itself, de-si and para-si categories, but whose concept of self-consciousness betrays it, for the to be beyond oneself, is actually a return to the self of self.

Thus the transcendent God is “dead” to Kant, for it is a pure relation of immanence, which is diagnosed by Hegel (2007, 173), thus generating the idea that the historical God, the same as that of Rahner, denying the aspect absolute, spiritual above the temporal, “the feeling that God Himself is dead” (idem).

Gadamer, in retelling Hegel, reveals this Spirit as an immanence: “It is an immanent progression, which does not intend to start from any imposed thesis, but to follow the self-motion of concepts, and to expose, dispensing entirely with every designated transition from the outside, the immanent consequence of thought in continuous progression. ” (GADAMER, 2000, p.11)  

This isn’ t the Trinitarian Holy Spirit, but a vision of spirit immanent only human.

 

GADAMER, Hans-Georg. La dialéctica Hegel: Cinco ensayos hermenéuticos. 5ª ed. Trad: Manuel Garrido. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra, 2000.

HEGEL, Georg Wilhem Friedrich. Fé e Saber. Trad: Oliver Tolle. São Paulo: Hedra, 2007.

RAHNER, Karl. Oyente de la Palabra: fundamentos para una filosofía de la religión.  Barcelona: Herder, 1967.