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Arquivo para a ‘Matemática’ Categoria

The pandemic plateau remains

06 Jul

The data observed in the last week of deaths by the corona virus, which are reliable data, since the curve of infected people depends on testing, which is done by companies and is still low, indicate that the plateau remains and the pandemic is internalized in the Brazil (see graph), we have already stressed the importance of making the logarithm to better visualize the slope of the curve, which is exponential.

What the policy would be for this moment is to continue maintaining social isolation, personal hygiene, and social distancing habits, in addition to precautions in relation to municipal policies.

Any prospect of a peak, at least the data indicates, seems meaningless, the number of infections remains around a thousand daily deaths, and a #lockdown is no longer viable, as the virus has already spread and regional isolation does not mean pandemic control.

We will navigate through uncertainties, already tired of a long period of isolation and with an open and close policy that does not have much effective results, except to contain a greater contagion, without meaning any effective result of controlling the pandemic at the federation level.

The economic costs that would be great in the case of a #lockdown period, will now be higher because both the commerce and the services that effectively need face-to-face contact would not be justified to keep them disabled, and few services are non-essential.

The plan is to continue the so-called “social isolation”, whose more certain name in the Brazilian case we have already said, is “social distance” which is compatible with some open services.

The essential is therefore to maintain personal care and hope that the curve falls “naturally”. 

 

It is not a cIt is not a crisis of thought alone

02 Jul

The crisis may seem like something too intellectual, thinking would be far from the concrete reality of science, and thus from ordinary life, but its extension reaches the everyday science from statistics to medicine, from bibliometrics to biology and this can affect confidence in science and in In the spiritual field there is an immense openness to quackery and the manipulation of good faith.

This criticism questioned, for example, the fact-value dichotomy, emphasizing the social construction of facts, and can be traced back to the works of philosophers like Friedrich Nietzsche and Edmund Husserl, with their rejection of science as a metaphysical substitute.

Stephen Toulmin was very articulate in his criticism of the Cartesian idea of ​​rationality (1958), while the essence of the scientific method has been the subject of writings (and disputes) by authors such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos.

The essence of the scientific method has been the subject of writings (and disputes) by authors such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos, the echo of these disputes reaching the world of physics as the debate about string theories and their physical reality.

An interesting literature on the current crisis was the work of Derek of Solla Price “Little Science, Big Science” of 1963, he states that there is a point of saturation and senility, which was the result of the exponential growth he experienced in the 20th century.

Another more interesting work is the book by Jerome Ravetz “Scientific knowledge and its social problems”, which offers a critique of the myths of objectivity (it is our main object of this blog), and which asks about the solution of practical problems, that is , social.

In a recent work he recently argued Ravetz (2016) that “Applying a” scientific “methodology to science governance tasks leads directly to corruption, as any system can be at stake”, in another article, Ravetz (2011) defines the issue in terms of the “maturation of the structural contradictions of modern European society”.

The pandemic showed the inefficiency of both the medical field where “specialists” defend medicines that have not been proven effective and generate collateral problems, such as hydroxychloroquine and others (according to the magazine Veja (in section Saude), 69 medicines are tested: 18 are anticancer, 14 immunosuppressants, 13 antihypertensive drugs, 12 antiparasitic drugs and 12 anti-inflammatory drugs, and statistical treatment also hide the real results, as are the analyzes of the evolution of the pandemic in Brazil

References:

De Solla Price, D. J. (1963). Little science big science. Columbia University Press.

Ravetz, J. R. (1971). Scientific knowledge and its social problems. Oxford University Press.

Ravetz, J. (2008). Faith and reason in the mathematics of the credit crunch. The Oxford Magazine. Eight Week, Michaelmas term 14–16, Available online at http://www. pantaneto.co.uk/issue35/ravetz.htm.

Ravetz, J. R. (2011). Postnormal Science and the maturing of the structural contradictions of modern European science. Futures, 43, 142–148.

Ravetz, J. R. (2016). How should we treat science’s growing pains? The Guardian 8 June 2016.

Toulmin, S. E. (1958) The Uses of Argument, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

 

 

 

 

 

The development of science and the epistemic crisis

01 Jul

Several ideas and news spread among the peoples and become dogmas and legends since the origin of humanity, however it was the organization of knowledge that organized the episteme, the doxa its a single opinion.
The first great scientific question raised by Boethius in the seventh century, was whether or not there are universal or just private categories, this question gave rise to a dispute between nominalists like Duns Scotto and William Ockham who argued that “names” were universal, and realistic. like Thomas Aquinas, who said the real be.

Roger Bacon (1220-1292) defended experimentation as a source of knowledge, and together with Duns Scotto and William de Ockham they create the empiricist basis of thought, and so knowledge does not depend only on faith, but also our senses.

With his philosophical operation called “methodical doubt”, René Descartes ended up instituting a philosophical paradigm that was identified as conceptual pragmatism, and John Locke, representative of the empiricist current, and René Descartes, founder of the Cartesian method, converged in their theories when they stated that the valid knowledge comes from experience and the senses, as they are innate to the soul.

Kant’s idealism will create 12 categories separated into 4 groups, that of Quantity (Unit, Plurality and wholeness), Quality (Reality, Denial and Limitation), the relationship (Substance, Causality and Community), Modality (Possibility, Existence and Necessity), and in them the phenomena fill the empty forms.

Thus, the phenomena can only be considered within the categories, differently from the phenomenology that directs consciousness to the thing itself, that is, it returns to the beings, and this will open a new possibility for metaphysics.

Despite strong signs of a crisis in thought, mathematics changes with the emergence of non-Euclidean geometries, the fourth dimension, physics with the uncertainty principle where the theory of relativity and quantum physics came from, the logical paradoxes presented in Vienna circle and mainly a crisis in humanist thought, showed an early 20th century in crisis, but two wars and the cold war were not avoided.

The fall of the Berlin wall, an apparent end to the ideological struggle, has given rise to new crises now in the world of culture, the war in Iran, Afghanistan and the permanent one in many Arab countries have now shown an East vs. West tension.

The pandemic should solidarize the peoples, in fact it created a more serious ideological polarization, the danger of totalitarian regimes emerging with greater force, it is necessary to have hope and fight for a more solidary world and a humanism worthy of the name

 

Beyond idealism, new logic and pandemic

29 Apr

Kant’s simplification led to abstract formulations so complicated that it would be inappropriate to call them complex since he intended the opposite, but the attempt to reduce 12 categories and three central ideas: the psychological (soul), the cosmological (the world as a whole) ) and the theological (of God).
This will produce an ingenious, rational but very complicated construct, which are the three judgments that would link Subject (A) to predicates (B), the judgments: analytical, synthetic a priori and a posteriori, the idea of a priori judgments was the most controversial because it sees the mind as having a natural memory.
Edmund Husserl and Gottlob Frége, who had a strong arithmetical logic formation, looked at this Kantian theme, imagining that logic could not be reformulated based on action, that is, we do not change our mind because our way of acting changes, this is based on all who seeing the change in the logic of everyday life caused by the pandemic, they imagine that the mind does not change.
Husserl’s departure from mathematical logic to the world of experiences, under the strong influence of Franz Brentano who worked on intentionality (see the previous post, the other eidos), made him formulate a new world of experiences, from human emotions to total life of the world (Lebenswelt).
While the Logical Investigations date back to 1900 and 1901, their idea of intentionality formulated in their phenomenology as the return to things themselves, or how they appear to consciousness through phenomenological reduction, their epoché, which is to place our concepts and thoughts in parentheses, a clear disagreement with the Cartesian cogito.
On its return to the Greek eidos, it will promote eidetic variation, which can be explained as from the phenomenological epoché (putting concepts in parentheses) it produces an eidetic variation on the idea we had of the thing (concepts, thoughts or objects) and it can produce in the end new “horizons”, a fundamental category for the dialogue about the new.
Our pandemic phenomenon produced an “colletive” epoché, a new look at a deadly virus, we had to produce an eidetic variation, what we think of this “little flu”, and this should produce new “horizons” about the concepts of how to live the day to day: attitudes health, economic solidarity and total reformulation of family life: spaces, time, food and relationships and the use of technology.
Idealists continue to imagine that everything will be as it was before, they did not do the epoché pandemic.

 

The order of the Universe

30 Mar

In classical antiquity the model that predominated was the Ptolemaic, which surpassed the model of Aristotle (384-322 BC) who thought that the Earth was the center of the universe, of course in addition to other models that considered the flat earth the Earth attached to a “ spherical shell ”and others.

Other ideas emerged, but the model of Claudio Ptolemy (85-150) prevailed, until the model of Nicolau Copernicus (1473-1543) appeared in the late Middle Ages, but the Sun was still the center of the Universe, the important here is the mathematical and geometric “order” that he established, which influenced all modern science.

Our limit as a galaxy was proposed in ancient times by Democritus of Abdera (450-370 B.C.), seeing the bright low in the night sky, stated that it consisted of distant stars.

It was only in the 10th century, that the Persian astronomer known as Azophi (Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi), who observed the Andromeda Galaxy, describing it as a “little cloud” and was rediscovered by Simon Marius in 1612, and in 1610 Galileo Galilei confirms that the Milky Way was composed of several stars.

The model of the Milky Way was established by William Hershel in 1785 (drawing above) and until the discovery of the expansion of the universe, it was composed of galaxies and these by stars and planets.

The current cosmological models came from the hypothesis, today practically confirmed by the clergyman Georges Lamaitre (1854-1966), demonstrated by Edwin Hubble (1889-1953) and theorized and completed by the English physicist Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) and his student Roger Penrose (1931-).

It was from the study of density fluctuations (or anisotropic irregularities of the “matter”) which, analyzing the larger structures began to develop, the result is what is called barionic matter that condenses inside halos of cold dark matter , and these are the ones that formed galaxies as we see today, but dark matter and energy are still studies.

What we want to establish here is how our view of the world and matter also has implications for the view of life studies, and in the present case, of the structures of viruses and small organisms that can help science find solutions to epidemics and pandemics.

In a study that we are doing on publications in Social Networks, the scientist with the largest number of publications in the area of ​​Social Networks is Carl a. Latkin, an infectious disease physician who is a member of the Center for Global Medicine, which is not by chance, our worldview and complexity has changed and it can help us to fight the pandemic.