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Idealism and its religion

24 Oct

Beginning with the critique of idealism, in “The German Ideology” (1932), where he talks about Feuerbach, B. Bauer and Stirner, who even call them St. Buer and St. Stirner, for their claim to be theology.
If the essence of idealism is the separation of object and subject, I make a purposeful inversion, the essence of religious thinking for Ludwig Feuerbach is the separation of subject and sensible objects, for for him object consciousness can be, although distinct from itself, a consciousness that coincides shortly thereafter when dealing with the religious object, because of its “transcendence” is exactly what makes it return to self-consciousness, I explain.
For Feuerbach, and the sensitive object is out of being (though ontology here is only an appeal), the religious object is in it, it is an intrinsic object, and neither does it abandon it, its moral consciousness leaves it, it is an intimate object. , and even the most intimate, is the closest of all.
His critique of theology using idealism essentially presupposes a critical judgment, the “difference between the divine and the non-divine, between what is and is not worthy of worship,” so that with this dualism it is possible to play all the essence of the divine in the mass grave of the Ideal.
The consciousness of God is man’s consciousness itself to him, this is the Hegelian idealism made religion: the knowledge of God which is man’s self-knowledge, there is no God-self for man.
The negation of the subject is considered irreligious, and its relation to sensible objects, a negation of the subject, is the atheistic religion of Feuerbach, which Marx will turn to call them the Old Hegelians, and seeks to make their inversion here new now. from object to subject, here is the new “religious” version of the Young Hegelians, like Marx, even criticizing Feuerbach’s main atheistic thesis: “thought comes from the subject,” not the object.
It is no longer about Heaven to Earth,” said Marx, but now “from earth to heaven,” that is, from the object to the subject, the labor force and the production, to their divinization (of the object, of money, economy, etc.). If, for Marx, fetishization was the separation of labor from his instrument of labor and commodity, fetishization may be reification (res – thing) or objectification for these young “Hegelians”, where he sees the separation between subject and object. , in religious fetishism is the separation of (sinful) consumption of the individual (seen in self-awareness) to which the religious must “attend” and live his “concrete”. The fair relationship with money, work, health and education is only a surpassing of the idealistic religious view, its consummation in a man in harmonious relationship with the world, and in this case also beauty, poetry and life. healthy would have a perspective, for the “pure” religious not. This religiosity lacks an asceticism that in fact “elevates” them, although they seem as linked to contemporary themes, actually has an idealistic god and not pretending to be realistic as they would wish, their concrete is the modern state god their economy, or the positivist law and his narrow view of justice.


Antimatter and worldview

10 Sep

By Christmas 2016, the particle accelerator, known for the discovery of the Higgs particle, also called the God particle, was able to produce an antimatter, but precisely the antihydrogen, which for simplicity is supposed to be just like Helium. first substances produced in the Big Bang.
Many people, including scientists, in saying that matter and antimatter themselves produce, believe this rival the idea that God (or God in nonmonotist religions) created the universe, but the most important result would be that matter and antimatter have characteristics. similar, and this should be done by spectroscopic analysis.
At least in the case of Hydrogen, it is to prove that hydrogen and antihydrogen have identical spectroscopic characteristics, predicted in the model called Standard Physics that unifies all physics and gives matter the revelation as “autonomous” and “self-sufficient”. , that is to say it produces itself without needing an external form, this has not yet been proved.
This project is called ALPHA (this is Alpha and Omega, beginning and end), and according to project researcher Jeffrey Hangst this “is a dream come true, it was to this end that he started the project 23 years ago. , “To be able to look at such a transition in an antihydrogen particle.”
According to him, there is still much to do, adding that the discovery has opened “a whole variant of physics”, Jeffrey Hangst, head of CERN’s ALPHA project, said “this is a dream come true.”, and he agree: “that’s what I predisposed myself to 20 years ago: to be able to look at such a transition in an anti-hydrogen particle”.
Much remains to be done, but I can say right now: this is the biggest step in my career and in the history of this kind of experience.”
Hangst assumed, ensuring that this discovery“ opens up a whole new variant of physics. ”
The video below explains what the ALPHA project is:


A worldview beyond time

09 Sep

Aristarchus of Samos (320 BC – 250 BC) organized a cosmology far ahead of his time, what was known to date was the studies of Pythagoras (571-390 BC) and Heraclides (390-310 BC), who claimed that the stars were immobile that the earth was the center of the universe, only Mercury and Venus would orbit around the sun. While flourishing Euclid’s Geometry (300 BC – ?).
Aristarchus which also had works on optics, music and mechanics, astronomy and astrology, invited by Ptalomeu I will compose the famous Academy of Alexandria, and his influence on the Renaissance will in particular influence his studies on proportions and projections, and although others are cited, Piero dela Francesca (1415-1942) is the great success of Euclidean geometry in the Quattrocent Renaissance.
Aristarchus’ view far ahead of his time was that the earth revolved around the south, and the moon revolved around the earth, thought of two experiments to measure Earth’s radio and the distance from Earth to the Sun.
The experiment thought was to build a tower facing the sea and knowing the height of the tower and the angle between the sea horizon (where there is less distortion thinking the earth as a sphere), can similarity of triangles calculate the radius of the Earth, the The error was small for the measurement difficulties of the time, very close to the 6 378 km of the equatorial radius.
If an object is 1 ° from some measurement point, that object is necessarily 57 times its size, because the tangent of 1 ° is about 0.01745 (see figure) see figure and so Aristarchus calculated the radius of the earth.
The second experiment, knowing the radius of the earth was to find the distance to the sun, he knew that during the full moon, under the average 31 minute angle of the arc (half of 1) tells us that this measurement will be 115 times its diameter, and we can find the distance from the earth to the moon, using again the tangent (he found an angle of 87º) one can measure the distance to the sun that gave 7 million and 300 thousand kilometers, in fact the angle was 89º853´, and the distance between the earth and the sun is 150 million km.
Carl Sagan makes a beautiful presentation and Aristarchus of Samos and his worldview beyond his time:

Source: Costa, J. R. V. Aristarco de Samos e a distância Terra-Sol. Astronomia no Zênite, jul 2000. Disponível em:


New worldview and future

06 Sep

Tied to preconceptions and the worldview that is gradually overcome by reality can do little or nothing to make the future come true, the crisis is wider than the economic warns us Edgar Morin, is not the problem of technique, but of Being , to see the Other that is not the same, to leave worlds limited by limited worldviews and that admit no others.
This means abandoning many things that are dear to us, not the principles, but the ability to review them for even greater principles that include EVERYONE and not just the self or US of selfish, closed groups.
Quantum physics, dark bodies and energies (not holes, but still unknown matter and energy), show how limited our worldview is.
It is not about wisdom or phrases made superficial, theologies made by careful analysis of reading the text, the hermeneutic circle is precisely the possibility of a textual reading from the admission of preconceptions, seen here positively, the Indeed, we can accept another worldview with a different preconception from mine.
Invited to participate in the nascent Christian community, Jesus was also asking his disciples to abandon the ancient worldview of family attachments, work, and riches, but despite the growth of Christianity over millennia (now in reverse), this view has been misunderstood and misunderstood. by the exegetes.
In Luke 14.27: 30, the Master invites them to leave behind their worldviews to follow him: “He who does not carry his cross and walk behind me cannot be my disciple.
In fact, which of you, wanting to build a tower, does not sit first and calculate the expenses, to see if it has enough to finish? Otherwise, it will lay the foundation and will not be able to finish.
And all who see this will begin to mock, saying, “This man began to build and was unable to finish!”, But the contemporary step is bigger.
Yellow September requires that you see the Other not as someone with the same rights as US.


The technique and the current crisis

04 Sep

What is problems about technique, greek techné and question in Heidegger, but what others thinkers say about this.
It’s not a new question, but growing two extremes technophilia and technophobia make me think it’s urgent, we always use techniques, we’ve said, but what happens when even one of my favorite philosophers, Byung Chul Han seems all be convinced that it was the technique and not the man himself that led us to lack of light.
We said Heidegger’s fundamental thought, but what other thinkers said, Levy-Strauss after saying that the Nhambiquaras Indians were so primitive that they didn’t even have technique, contradicts themselves by saying that as primitive as society is, there is always technique.
Ortega Y Gasset will say that the early stage of the technique was “chance technique”, assuming that this stage of instrument making did not differ from many of its natural acts, I would say for example that it might think of a stone to break fruits and hard foods or something similar, however the important stage is the “manufacture”.
The Kantian way to which Cassirer is faithful writes an essay “Form and technique” (1930), in which he analyzes the specific essence of technique as symbolic form, as well as its relations with other symbolic forms: myth, art, science and the ethical cosmos, its worldview of Kantian perfectionism and transcendence, is its Enlightenment worldview.
Cassirer are made clearer in the book “The State Myth” (1946) where it explains the construction of totalitarian ideology by the fusion of technique and myth, stating that the genealogy of the Aryan myth and the techniques of manipulation worked in this regard.
In the same vein, but in a more up-to-date logic, Oswald Spengler, who was a big bestseller in the 1930s, when he wrote The Decline of the West, addressed the subject in his “The Man and the Technique,” turning homo lupus homini to to say that he uses technique as a means of domination (so many others say) Thomas Hobbes’s adage almost again justifies the authoritarian state in the cycle of the eternal return of idealists, prisoners in time.
The abandonment of the question of Being, the eternal return to the problems of the state, authoritarianism, now of corruptions and the desecration of the state, want to understand that it is surrounded by a layer of technique, yes and no, because technique is not indifferent. potentiate death, such as gunpowder, cannons, battle tanks, and atomic bombs, and now “autonomous” machines, but the man who builds and manipulates them with “intentionality” is man.
September is yellow September, the fight against suicide can be nothing but a fight against a growing phenomenon, which means first the “human emptiness”, its little understanding of its essence as Being and as relationship with the human beings.
Others and Nature, closure in self or us, when this is just a mirror, does not point to exits. Edgar Morin is very aware that the crisis has several problems, and one of them is the crisis of thought, it is still far from being faced (there is translation in English, set it):


The essential, the useful and the happiness

29 Jul

The times of a life in nature, when food was produced by medieval farmers, when many consumer products were handcrafted, had a look at nature, at the possibility of having a life in the essentials is first of all these days, it is the ability to forgo many things, make the list of the essentials and live well each day, and solve the problems without accumulating them and without procrastinating them.
The list of usefulness should not lead us to utilitarianism, easy formulas of happiness bring many people distress over time, frustration over unearned goods, unreached social positions, and if we have the essentials list, they are not needed.
What is useful then should be: healthy food, comfortable clothes and shoes, reading the news of the day without intoxication, there is a lot of toxic reading and social media “media” is not exclusive, newspapers and TV there is little culture and good news, remain calm even when it is not possible and acquire goods honestly, while taking care of those other than the essentials.
Happiness has no magic formulas as some ill-worked philosophies, or poorly deepened spiritualities suggest, and is certainly not indulging in consumption and futility.
Art, music, poetry and painting are necessary, as Victor Hugo said: “art is as useful as it is useful”, and perhaps even more in the days of agitation, stress and tiredness of a society that gives little respite and tranquility.
There are likely to be people who are happy with the accumulated goods, but they will one day run out and maturity will reflect on what love, utility, and peace are in a world without peace.
The meditation of the French Buddhist monk Matthieu Ricard, while focusing inwardly, contains some good Western reflections and at least made me laugh and cheer:


in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.


Black holes and worldview

16 Jul

Until recently the material world comprised only the so-called baryonic matter which is 4% of the only one, which is the material that most people know, with the dark energy and mass appeared the “black holes” that are actually black bodies.
Scientists still believe from Einstein’s theory that black holes suck objects and everything around them, including light itself, now a new phenomenon can change that. This process of sucking is called accretion, so there is a hot plasma that orbits around the black hole and is sucked by accretion, but this can also occur in bodies, and now a body that resists this accretion has been sighted. of accretion body, by the junction of material around it in the process of protoplanet formation.
The GRS1915 + 105 object is actually two stars a black hole (the body whose gravity prevents anything from escaping, hence being called the hungry), and a very modest star for the proportion of the black hole, similar to the sun. If compared to the 13 billion light-years of the observable universe, it is close to the Earth, because it is 40 thousand light-years away, what intrigues is that the black star (the name looks better than a hole) is that the star -star is not sucked though called accretion.
Next to an American laboratory, the star was observed using an ESO (Southern European Observatory) telescope, forming a trio from Germany and Chile that captured the light from the companion star of the black hole and determined to ” technical “:
According to a paper published in Nature, astrophysicist Charles Bailyn of Yale University, USA, said that the calculations are still not very accurate in size, mass and energy: “It is computed using very simple observations and calculations based only on the laws of orbital motion of Kepler, who are already known and have been trusted for centuries. ”
The mass is one of the problem points, in addition to the aspect of the addition, according to Jochen Greiner of the Astrophysical Institute of Potsdam, Germany, one of the authors of the article: “I would be very surprised if the mass was so wrong that theories applied.
By that I mean that I am convinced that theories have missed the mark: “In fact it is already suspected that what we think about mass is something quite different, by the theory of the current relativity, until the particle of Highs and the existence of the black holes they seemed to confirm, since the universe copernican and newtonian were surpassed.
Now if the mass is the one that is measured, and the hole does not suck it, it means that there will be a new worldview, where mass and matter must be re-conceptued.


Dogmatism and dialogue

29 Apr

Not only is authoritarianism responsible for the lack of dialogue, dogmatism is more dangerous and terrible
when a society lives deep divisions, it affirms a truth as absolute and yet it allows different visions does not do it with sincerity.
Following these currents is the division of groups, cultures or political positions without the necessary openness to the whole of society, does not mean to have no convictions, they are the basis of a dialogue, it means closing in on concepts and values ​​that are not universal.
These truths are manifest in some form of thought, and therefore their values ​​and foundations are ultimately some kind of philosophy of systematic thought and must therefore understand that it will be from which dialogue will be possible.
Hans Georg Gadamer, discusses the major currents of modern thought: Hegelianism and neo-kantism with a focus
on logic, the theories of knowledge and vitalism in Nietzsche, Bergson and Dilthey, were in focus before the First World War.
Starting from Dilthey’s analysis, he will define that the historical consciousness is not closed in itself, from the intentionality, its particularity is to be always open and torefer to something as its correlative  objective.
The object is not given to consciousness alone, it is not a question of assuming the consciousness as it is given to the Other, but inserting it in a larger context, where both are.
This context is the world, the world of life (lebensvelt), where there is a general horizon of all that is and can become the content of experience, thus overcomes idealism and empiricism.
Last week’s posts were aboutthe discussion of idealism and empiricism, this week we explore the possibilities of a larger context, where the discourses do not close in objectivism or subjectivism, two aspects that affect modern philosophy.



Beyond the senses

22 Apr

By separating subjects (or what is subjective) from objects, Kant’s and Hegelian idealism creates a transcendence of their own to interconnect them and thus separates it from the ontological, from the being.
The way of the Enlightenment was settled, but there was a necessary complement for the discourse not to become very “religious”, Locke describes the human mind as a tabula rasa (A blank picture), where, through experience, the ideas, thus completing this.
The knowledge of physics, especially of astronomy, the use of mathematics helped to construct a “logical” world, but based solely on it, there were no longer the ontological, that is, proper to the being.
Subjectivity will appear in another way, George Berkeley’s radical empiricism, for example, only creates a current of subjective idealism, although it is distant in time, much of what is called “practice” today is this kind of subjectivity, still separate from the object.
What was for the empiricists a phenomenon, for Hume for example, was the simple reason that one phenomenon is always followed by another, causes them to relate to each other by a formula known as cause-effect, which generated in the days of today the empiro-criticism, a way to construct narratives from disconnected facts, or not always with the vision of the set of facts and then to understand the cause in fact.
Phenomenology more recently takes a different stance, the problem of “apparition” or “meeting things in themselves” (Husserl, 2008, p.17) and which will create an important contemporary current in opposition to positivism and neopositivism .
Thus, rather than restricting experimental analysis, phenomenology opens up to regions veiled by this method, seeking a comprehensive and non-explanatory analysis of phenomena.
Husserl’s phenomenology proposes a comprehensive analysis of consciousness, since all the experiences (Erlebnis) of the world occur in and by consciousness.
This is where the celebrated Husserlian definition of consciousness arises: “all consciousness is consciousness of something,” and this definition of consciousness is linked to the notion of intentionality which Husserl inherited from Franz Brentano but modified it.
Finally there are realities both physical and existence beyond our senses.
HUSSERL, E. The crisis of European humanity and philosophy (in portuguese). Porto Alegre; EDIPUCRS, 2008.
David Deutsch’s TED is just to understand that differents explanations about methods: