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Arquivo para a ‘Information Science’ Categoria

The being between the break and the way

24 Jun

Two sentences of Heidegger’s well reflect his essential questions that make more sense in moments of deep crisis: “We must raise again the question of the meaning of being” and “The human being is an ontologically privileged entity because in its existence its own is at stake”. being.” (in ‘Being and time’), then the path must start from a contemplative pause.

The agenda is also a moment for the opening of being and an epoché about the meaning of existing, with other men, within a historical and solidary context with nature that is the “house” where it lives, while language is the abode of the human being. To be.

This requires a desert, a change of mentality, leaving the Fatigue Society, facing the pain and risks of a pandemic with another vision (Byung Chul Han wrote the Palliative Society) and finally finding peace in a new way, breaking with the structures of evil.

Only those who have passed through the desert, through the “valley of shadows”, which are now not exclusive to a single Being, but are shadows over the civilizing process around the world, including the possibility of war, hunger and an endless pandemic if we don’t change the posture.

The biblical story tells John the Baptist who went to the desert and announced a new time, which Christians celebrate his birth these days, Jesus also went to the desert where he was tempted and experienced hunger being fed by “angels”, and humanity as will cross your desert

To follow the path it is necessary to go through these questions, answer these questions, as the biblical passage says in (Lk 9, 20), Jesus after being rejected in Samaria and preventing the apostles from coming into conflict with that people, says to the having a disciple who wanted to bury his father: “Let the dead bury their dead, but you, go and announce the kingdom of God”.

This means that we should not look at what is dying, but at what is being born in the middle of the desert, because that is where a new path begins.

 

 

The path and being

23 Jun

Even if I have read Heidegger, few have read at least in its entirety O ser e o tempo, or another work that I consider important The origin of the work of art, and the most controversial (at least currently) that is Letters on Humanism, not only because Sloterdijk rejected it, but because thinking about what humanism is today is the most important task in trying to save civilization.

Just look around, from the pandemic to war, the extreme and sometimes irrational political politicization, and not only all of this, but especially the sharp look and thinking that saw beyond appearances.

There are two good biographies of Heidegger, one by Hugo Ott, which I read in pieces and another that I read and passed on to so many friends, which is Rudiger Safranski’s, both deserve to be read and are not Heidegger.

On the way through the forest, the time that Heidegger spent around the fire, where he smoked his pipe with the peasants and woodsmen of the Black Forest, it is said that in silence, perhaps it says more about Heidegger than his philosophy, says something of the poetry he did not write. , but lived.

It was there in an interview that Heidegger gave to Der Spiegel that he said (not in a religious tone but in a tone of disbelief) he said the phrase: “Only a God can save us”, and he was right.

The rustic and simple hut that Heidegger inhabited during the time he wrote Being and Time, was also his refuge in the time of the Forest Path, and of a short little-known writing that “Creative Landscape: why we perpass in the province”, that it is not a compliment to the province, but the need for a contemplation that urban life had lost, a path similar to the one that a younger philosopher Byung-Chul Han wrote in The Society of Fatigue.

It is written in “Creative Landscape”: “The city dweller thinks he “mingles with the people” as soon as he deigns to have a long conversation with a peasant. At night, on a break from work, when I sit by the fire with the peasants, or at the table in the Herrgott swinkel, then most of the time we don’t say anything. We smoke our pipes in silence”, the note clarifies that Herrgottswinkel is an establishment in the countryside.

So it’s not isolation or provincialism, but a pause to get back on track.

 

HEIDEGGER, M. (2014) Paisagem Criativa: Por que permanecemos na província , in: Idéia. Campinas (SP)|n. 9.  

 

 

Path and method

22 Jun

Every path requires a path, a path traced and directed to a scientific object is a method, there are more complex definitions, but in general they are already linked to a methodology.

A widely used definition is “scientific method refers to an agglomeration of ground rules of procedures that produce scientific knowledge, whether new knowledge or a correction or an increase in the given area”.

This type of general rule can fall either into logical positivism, a determinism about the sciences, or into an empiricist reductionism that sees the object under certain parameters.

Both Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn would argue against this view of method, Popper sees it as provisional knowledge, with successive falsifications, whereas Thomas Kuhn elaborated the idea of ​​changing paradigms that he calls scientific revolutions, either by one or the other science must have theories that evolve over time.

Just as the path itself can lead to falsifications or new discoveries, we prefer the term path, but in order not to fall into sophistry (theories that deny an episteme) it is necessary both to focus on the investigated object and to be open to the new, as in philosophy not it must begin with a hypothesis, but with a question that one seeks to resolve.

Looking at an object imagining something similar to the Other helps, but it does not solve the problem, it is necessary to investigate its variants and its pitfalls, in short, always questioning.

Both ontology and phenomenology, both are philosophically interconnected, and both admit metaphysics, have this reference in relation to the method and its object, as well as reject any methodological and theoretical dogmatism about the investigated object.

Also the historical path is not deterministic, in this respect Hans Georg Gadamer wrote questioning Wilhem Dilthey’s romantic historicism and retracing Heidegger’s hermeneutic circle, thus changing Dilthey’s methodological hermeneutics to which hermeneutics leads the interpretation of cultural changes within a historical context,

Both Gadamer, Antony Giddens and Boaventura de Souza Santos are concerned theorists concerned with developing a methodological approach to verify the fundamental conditions under which paradigm shifts occur.

For this, one must observe the “path”, understand the path and be open to a new horizon.

References:

GADAMER, H-G. (1998) Verdade e método: traços fundamentais de uma hermenêutica filosófica. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, Brazil.

GIDDENS, Anthony. (1984) Structuration theory, empirical research and social critique. In: _____. The constitution of society. Cambridge: Polity Press.

SANTOS, Boaventura de Souza. (1989) Introdução a uma Ciência Pós-Moderna. Rio de Janeiro: Graal.

 

 

Peace also has protagonists

21 Jun

If war makes its “heroes”, peace makes its “heroes”, three cases were reported last week: Russian journalist and Nobel Peace Prize winner Dmitry Muratov who is auctioning his medal for Ukrainian refugees, the former captain of the Russian football team Igor Demisov, midfielder said that I send a video to President Vladimir Putin in March asking him not to continue with the conflict and the last and most touching was the release of nurse Yuliia “Taira” Pavievska (photo 1), known like Taira, heroine of Ukraine in Mariupol where she also took care of Russian soldiers.

Taira had released a video with images of the “horrors” in Mariupol, and worked in precarious conditions of medicine and equipment, even so he also served the Russians.

Nobel laureate Dmitry Muratov, on the other hand, said that there is less and less independent press in his country, but that he already observes a growing distrust of the population around the war, Dimitry received the Nobel Peace Prize along with Filipino-American journalist Maria Ressa ( photo 2).

The footballer Igor Demisov (photo 3) said that he feared for his life after making his request for peace public, saying “I don’t know. They may arrest me or kill me for these words, but I say things as they are. I even told him: I’m willing to kneel before you”, even though he said he was proud.

The fourth photo is a painting by Maria Prymachenko (photo 4), about 25 works may be destroyed in the small old Ivankiv museum, on the outskirts of Kiev, she made drawings, painted pictures (photo 4) and did embroidery, Pablo Picasso considered her “brilliant” after seeing her works in Paris.

The lamentable statement by former Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, who expects the United States to beg for a discussion of nuclear weapons, and no less regrettable NATO declaration Jens Stoltenberg, that the war will be long, no breath for peace, no word of hope or dialogue.

Peaceful people never tire of asking for peace, the appeal to reason and dialogue, even if it is belated.

 

 

Being and Contemplation

16 Jun

The thinker Byung-Chul Han developed the themes of Hannah Arendt Vita Activa and Vita Contemplativa in his book “A society of Bournout”, where he reveals that “the loss of the contemplative capacity is in correspondence with the absolutization of the vita activa – which measure to the hysteria and nervousness of the modern society of action”, and this leads to tiredness, depression, self-exploitation and Burnout.

According to the Korean-German thinker, current life has led to the “imperative of work, which degrades the person into animal laborans”, which makes him lose the “world” and “time”. new “the contemplative vita in your bosom” and “put yourself at your service again” (O Aroma do tempo. A philosophical essay on the art of delay, 2009).

Despite this loss, there is a renewed interest in spirituality in Western civilization, but it does not consider traditional religions more important, which occurs in the sphere of a phenomenon called “mindfulness”, linked to neurosciences and in health care, education and business.

There is no deeper meaning in this relationship that reaches the divine, the superhuman or the beyond-human, it turns to what Peter Sloterdijk calls “the exercise society”, without the possibility of a true spirituality, or a despiritualized asceticism.

Hannah Arendt had touched on the problem lightly, it must be remembered that her thesis was on “Love in St. Augustin” without the help of the divine it does so without success, it remains hidden.

“With the title Vita contemplativa, that world in which it was originally located should not be reconjured. It is linked to that experience of being, according to which the beautiful and the perfect is Immutable and Imperishable and withdraws from any and all human use” (HAN, p. 35), although for the author the contemplative capacity is not necessarily linked to the imperishable Being (p. 36).

The concept of what the soul is was treated by Saint Justin, in the second century of the Christian era, before becoming a Christian he had approached the Stoics, but they did not consider it important to know God, then he approached the Pythagoreans and had to dedicate himself to numbers and music, and finally it was Plato’s disciples who thought as much about corporeal things as about ideas, but the key problem that distanced him was the question of the “soul” and is in his “Dialogue with Trypho”.

For older Christians (Catholic, Orthodox and Eastern) Eucharistic Adoration is the greatest contemplation, because God makes himself a piece of bread, a consecrated host.

 

Han, Byung-Chul Sociedade do cansaço. tradução de Enio Paulo Giachini. – Petropolis, RJ: Vozes, 2015.

 

Being and action

15 Jun

Being is not inactivity, because it is being that determines its action, but the pure project on action empties being, it is activism or “vita activa”, the one that Husserl, Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, and more recently Byung Chul Han question about the absence of vita contemplativa, the interior.

It is not about subjectivity, because it is precisely the separation between objective and subjective being that is the first great impulse for the emptying of being, it is not also about the social being, it is what is projected in man’s consciousness, in the intention that it directs to the object, to the external life.

The “vita activa” (life in action) was thus expressed by Hanna Arendt: “The expression vita activa, comprising all human activities and defined from the point of view of the absolute stillness of contemplation, therefore corresponds more to the Greek askholia (occupation, restlessness) with which Aristotle [defines] all activity, which the bio politikos of the Greeks. The expression vita activa is permeated and overloaded with tradition. It is as old as our tradition of political thought, but no older than it. The expression itself, which in medieval philosophy is the consecrated translation of Aristotle’s bios politikos, already occurs in Augustine where, as vita negotiosa or actuosa, it still reflects its original meaning: a life dedicated to public and political affairs” (Arendt, 2007, p.23), in this explanation by Arendt there is also a complete translation of the political animal.

What action is for Arendt, is not that of activism or voluntarism, but that which takes place “between” men, depends on intersubjectivity (the relationship of interiorities), which she says thus: “the end, the last of the elements of vita activa addressed by Arendt is action. Action is the element of interpersonality and the environment of intersubjectivity, that is, it occurs between men. Therefore, because it is developed between people, the action is observed in a prominent way from labor and work, such elements do not influence it.

So what considers the human condition of action is plurality, he says textually: “Considering that action is an activity of free men in the public sphere, it is an expression of human plurality. Its realization depends on the coexistence between different individuals. However, since action requires an interactive diversity, it particularizes men. It promotes the appearance of individualities and enables the construction of identities. Now, man will never be able to manifest his uniqueness in isolation. Nobody shows what it is in the personal sphere of intimacy. Only when he is with others can man reveal what he is” (ARENDT, 2007, p.189).

But Hannah Arendt considers modernity in crisis only from the beginning of totalitarianism and the events of the two world wars, and in our view the problem already arises in rationalist/idealist thinking.

ARENDT, Hannah. (2007) A condição Humana. (The Human Condition). 10th ed. Rio de Janeiro:  ed. Forense Universitária. .

 

 

 

The Being and the Truth

10 Jun

In times of crisis, fake news and a pandemic, little truth comes out, each and every group wants to interpret the truth according to their narrative, but the truth is the Being, and its address is in language, it is necessary to have interiority and Spirit of Truth to inhabit it.

The play on words, the cruelty of war or the political and even legal manipulation of the truth are instruments for emptying the truth, even pure subjectivity is not a really spiritual exercise, it is, as Sloterdijk says, part of a “society of exercises”, in this case it is despiritualized.

The hermeneutic circle that proposes the fusion of horizons and the opening of orthodox discourses and narratives was the path of Hans-Georg Gadamer to write his magnum opus “Truth and Method”, in which the author develops the Heideggerian hermeneutics putting it before the Being.

The absence of depth that reveals Being, the highest and most interior truth, causes lies to spill over realities (fake-news is just a media use of them), narratives that do not account for the totality of the truth, fanaticism, wars and aberrations.

The man outside his Being is thrown into the meaningless void, it is not the void of the search and the epoché, it is the void of anguish and the absence of solid paths that lead us to the full truth.

For Christians, the biblical passage John 16:12 is quite strong: “But when the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into the whole truth. For he will not speak on his own, but whatever he hears he will speak, and even things to come he will announce to you.”

So this spirit is able to unveil even the future, now so uncertain and fearful, and only it can really free us from such a heavy and dark present for humanism.

 

Gadamer, H. G. (1999) Verdade e Método. Tradução de Flávio Paulo Meurer. Brazil, RJ: Vozes.

 

Glade, abode and Being

09 Jun

For Heidegger, Being has abode and presence, and this is what enhances the clearing as a destination, this void of modernity is precisely the emptying of Being as Dwelling and Presence, necessary for Being to fill this void, in which Being of re-veiling or unveiling, the concept is confusing in Portuguese because to re-veal would be to veil again and to unveil would be presence.

Says the Heideggerian text: “Destiny appropriates itself as the clearing of being, which is as clearing. It is the clearing that grants the proximity of being. In this proximity, in the clearing of “Giving space”, man lives as a former assistant, without him being able to experience and assume this dwelling today” (HEIDEGGER,

The abode can be said that the house of being as language, in it the manifestation of being is consummated, ancient philosophy would say this is a return to nominalism, but the linguistic turn has overcome this, as it radiates from it and transforms itself into action, as something from thinking, because only from the act of thinking can we remove the process of doing and operating, so that is why language is “dwelling”.

In this dwelling, the ex-tactical is preserved, and in it the clearing is determined, it removes us from the abyss of our ex-sistent essence, the clearing is the “world”, and language is the advent that clears and reveals the very being. , this was contested by Peter Sloterdijk, in his answer in the book Rules for the Human Park, where he reveals the failure of the humanism project, yes, but the Humanism that Heidegger reveals in “Letters to Humanism”, which is nothing more than the of modernity.

This is easy to demonstrate since Sloterdijk considers the humanism he criticizes (of Heidegger) as a shepherd of being, that its essence and its task originate in knowing how to guard the being and corresponds to it, thus keeping its flock in the clearing, which is the open world, but which

All of Sloterdijk’s work is thus surrounded by this dilemma of modernity, occasionally evoking terms that come from theology, in his later works Spheres I, II and III: “Matrix in grêmio” that recalls the religious figure of Mary, or the In-sein In-Sein has, according to Sloterdijk, an anthropological origin, which is the experience of the fetus in the mother’s womb, without the Christian perspective, of course.

It will be a disciple of yours, Byung Chul Han, who will address more broadly the question of Being as a questioning in modernity, certainly due to its oriental origin, the reading of the clearing goes deeper into modernity: The society of fatigue, The aroma of time and The agony of Eros, unveil the drama of modernity, I look forward to something from Chul Han on the war landscape.

However, a picture of the Chul Han pandemic has already been outlined in his Palliative Society and Pain Today, we have already made a post, how much the Being moves away from pain or from what can approach it, so we created a series of palliatives, which is the distance from the clearing (my conclusion).

HAN, Byung-Chul. (2021) The palliative society: pain today. trans. Lucas Machado. Brazil, Petrópolis: Vozes.

Heidegger, M. LETTER ON HUMANISM. Transl. by Miles Groth, s/d. (PDF)

Sloterdijk, P. Regeln für den Menschenpark: Ein Antwortschreiben zu Heideggers Brief über den Humanismus. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp, 1999.

 

Being, clearing and unveiling

08 Jun

Every material, human and substantial question developed in the Enlightenment humanism provoked a veiling of Being, in which the external questions are more important and thought out than the interior ones, even though from Kant to Hegel the question of the spirit has been dealt with, it has always resulted in a dualism between active life (exterior) and contemplative life (interior), the latter translated as subjectivity (which belongs to the subject) and the former as objectivity.

For Heidegger it goes further, because it touches on the deep question of truth, it is in it that Western metaphysical thought was decided and developed, for this the thinker took up the question that the Greeks called “aletheia”, commonly translated simply as truth, but the suffix a-léthea, indicates negation, thus unveiled or as Heidegger preferred to translate it: unveiled.

The veiling is linked to the “presence” [on], which is the presence and the light, synthesized in the question that drives Plato’s thought in the myth of the cave, coming to light, coming out of the cave, in times of darkness, it means finding the clearing and unveiling it.

The presence of light, summarized in the question of Eidos, which was translated in the West by the word idea, cannot forget that for the Greeks the big question is to remain in the light, or to get out of the objective/subjective dualism that is to have the light of Being, not only inwardly, but in outward acts.

When questioning the end of philosophy as a task of thought, the act of questioning while thinking becomes pure interpretation of “data”, it is no longer a question of “[on” (presence) but what is present only as a thing, which for Heidegger from phenomenology is an adjective of “light”, while thinking is an “open free”, which has nothing in common, not even from the point of view of language, he wrote in this question: “of course, in the sense of open free , has “nothing” in common, neither from a linguistic point of view, nor in terms of the thing that is expressed with the adjective “luminous”, which means clear” (HEIDEGGER, 1979, p. 79).

It’s not about abolishing tradition, it played a role in history, but unveiling it, bringing it to light.

It is, therefore, about free thinking about the world, in permanent exercise of the world view.

Heidegger, Martin. (1979) “O fim da filosofia e a tarefa do pensamento” (The End of Philosophy and the Task of Thought”. In: Os pensadores. Brazil, São Paulo: Abril Cultural, pp. 79.

 

 

Ontologic Dualism and Spirit in Hegel

02 Jun

In opposition to the classical ontology Being and Nothingness, in Hegel they do not exclude each other in absolute affirmation or negation, they are integrated in him within a rational discourse, thus “being” can be totally empty and identifies itself with nothingness, thus its first determination. logic is Becoming.

Following this logic, which comes from Kant and further from Parmenides, Being is and not Being is not, creates the idea of absolute spirit which is identity eternally in itself, which knows by itself, and thus the infinite substance is one and universal, not as particular and finite, being divided by means of judgment in itself, in a knowledge in which it exists such.

For the sophists, knowledge must also be related to pleasures and the good life, the discourse is in Plato’s Philebus, which has the intervention of Socrates that will give meaning to Being.

For both art, religion and philosophy, for Hegel, they have different levels of reality, these correspond to the meanings of nature, spirit and idea, all are manifestations of the absolute spirit.

Just as classical idealism allows for the separation of subject and object, Hegel’s ontological idealism allows absolute spirit taken to the level of religion, which has nothing to do with classical religions, or with dialectical materialism, so the old and new were differentiated. Hegelians.

Religion in Hegel can be characterized as something that starts from the subject belonging to him, the absolute spirit, that is, his subjectivity, says in his work:

“The subjective consciousness of the absolute spirit is essentially, in itself, a process; whose immediate and substantial unity is faith in the witness of the spirit as the certainty of objective truth. Faith, which at the same time contains this immediate unity, this unity insofar as the relationship of those different determinations has passed into devotion, into implicit or explicit worship. For the process of suppressing [aufhebn] in spiritual liberation the opposition of confirming through this mediation that first certainty, and in gaining the concrete determination of that certainty, that is, the reconciliation, the effectiveness of the spirit”. (HEGEL, 1995, p.340).

For those who want a deeper understanding of religion in Hegel, which he called “absolute religion” in reference to absolute spirit, the work Phenomenology of Spirit is indicated.

HEGEL, G.W.F. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences In: Compendium. Translation in portuguese: Paulo Meneses and José Machado. 2nd ed. Brazil, São Paulo: Vozes, 1995.

* aufheben is used by Hegel to explain what happens when a thesis and antithesis interact, and in this sense it is mostly translated as “suprasumption”.