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Arquivo para a ‘Libraries’ Categoria

It is not a cIt is not a crisis of thought alone

02 Jul

The crisis may seem like something too intellectual, thinking would be far from the concrete reality of science, and thus from ordinary life, but its extension reaches the everyday science from statistics to medicine, from bibliometrics to biology and this can affect confidence in science and in In the spiritual field there is an immense openness to quackery and the manipulation of good faith.

This criticism questioned, for example, the fact-value dichotomy, emphasizing the social construction of facts, and can be traced back to the works of philosophers like Friedrich Nietzsche and Edmund Husserl, with their rejection of science as a metaphysical substitute.

Stephen Toulmin was very articulate in his criticism of the Cartesian idea of ​​rationality (1958), while the essence of the scientific method has been the subject of writings (and disputes) by authors such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos.

The essence of the scientific method has been the subject of writings (and disputes) by authors such as Karl Popper, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Feyerabend and Imre Lakatos, the echo of these disputes reaching the world of physics as the debate about string theories and their physical reality.

An interesting literature on the current crisis was the work of Derek of Solla Price “Little Science, Big Science” of 1963, he states that there is a point of saturation and senility, which was the result of the exponential growth he experienced in the 20th century.

Another more interesting work is the book by Jerome Ravetz “Scientific knowledge and its social problems”, which offers a critique of the myths of objectivity (it is our main object of this blog), and which asks about the solution of practical problems, that is , social.

In a recent work he recently argued Ravetz (2016) that “Applying a” scientific “methodology to science governance tasks leads directly to corruption, as any system can be at stake”, in another article, Ravetz (2011) defines the issue in terms of the “maturation of the structural contradictions of modern European society”.

The pandemic showed the inefficiency of both the medical field where “specialists” defend medicines that have not been proven effective and generate collateral problems, such as hydroxychloroquine and others (according to the magazine Veja (in section Saude), 69 medicines are tested: 18 are anticancer, 14 immunosuppressants, 13 antihypertensive drugs, 12 antiparasitic drugs and 12 anti-inflammatory drugs, and statistical treatment also hide the real results, as are the analyzes of the evolution of the pandemic in Brazil

References:

De Solla Price, D. J. (1963). Little science big science. Columbia University Press.

Ravetz, J. R. (1971). Scientific knowledge and its social problems. Oxford University Press.

Ravetz, J. (2008). Faith and reason in the mathematics of the credit crunch. The Oxford Magazine. Eight Week, Michaelmas term 14–16, Available online at http://www. pantaneto.co.uk/issue35/ravetz.htm.

Ravetz, J. R. (2011). Postnormal Science and the maturing of the structural contradictions of modern European science. Futures, 43, 142–148.

Ravetz, J. R. (2016). How should we treat science’s growing pains? The Guardian 8 June 2016.

Toulmin, S. E. (1958) The Uses of Argument, UK: Cambridge University Press. 

 

 

 

 

 

The pandemic and the sign of Jonah

14 May

Nínive (present-day Mossum) was one of the largest cities during the Assyrian reign, by the standards of the time it had more than 100,000 inhabitants and was quite extensive since the Bible reveals that Jonas took 3 days to explore it and ask for the change of conduct of its inhabitants.

The date on which the preaching took place in Nineveh is uncertain and the author of the book that bears the name of this prophet is also unknown, but as it refers to the reign of Jeroboam II as king of Israel, the date must be between the years 700 and 742 BC, by writing the text in Aramaic typical of late Hebrew, both in style and in grammar, it is post-exile which means between 722 and 742 BC

From the end of the 17th century BC (when the Neoassirian Empire fell), until the middle of the 7th century, it was a geopolitical entity, ruled by other peoples, the Assyrians were known for their wickedness and violence, where they could even kill for debt, and the biblical narrative said that the prophet Jonah, who was to preach and ask for the change and conversion of the people, was afraid to do his mission.

It is not known for sure what was the plague that could come to the people there, but the people including the king all changed their attitude and converted, and the plague did not happen in that region, the current pandemic already has its sign of changing habits and the demand for solidarity with everyone, but there are still those who think that the pandemic will pass without any change in attitude.

The history books do not record exactly what the change was, but it was during the government of Assurbanipal, son Assaradão, who died in 667 BC, that Assiria lived its most profitable period, including the first Library of history, precisely the Library of Nineveh, which is where thousands of texts are found (chronicles, royal letters, decrees, religion, myths and many others) written on a baked clay tablet.

The change that we need not only to avoid the number of deaths that grows, ranges from personal habits to the concern with food and life maintenance of those who no longer had jobs, those who now do not have and those who must lose with the growth of pandemic.

For those who believe, they must also rethink what they believe and experience what they believe, otherwise it is just a legend or fable told as a beautiful story.

 

 

 

Simplification, idealism and pandemic

28 Apr

The idea that we can simplify phenomena that are complex seems a good way, but to simplify what is by nature complex is to ignore the set of phenomena and interpretations that are within the phenomenon you want to analyze, whatever the nature.
It is very different from the search for essence, the pre-Socratics sought to define what was the essential element of nature: fire, air, atoms, numbers, the Being, and thus defined the main pre-Socratic schools, when realizing that it was a broader phenomenon Socrates, which is read by Plato divides into two worlds: the world of Ideas and the sensitive world, however any attentive reader will not say that his school has simplified, it only paved the way for greater complexity.
The eidos of Plato and the pre-Socratic Parmenides is different from modern idealism, because in it there is so much the concept of form, for example, a chair whatever form it has its Being as being made to sit.
The Greek eidos from which the etymology of the word idea comes, has two accepted meanings, one that is a synonym for concept, but in a broader sense it is thought of as an expression, with the implicit principle of the idea of intentionality (*), and this concept it was only taken up in modern philosophy by Franz Brentano and later in Husserl’s phenomenology, who was his student.
Modern idealism, whose fundamental basis is Kant, although it has a common part to the Greek eidos, which is the idea that when studying the thing we have a projection of knowledge on it, reducing the idea that this study would be what characterizes the object of study (objectivity), and thus introduces a specific type of subjectivity, abstracting it from Being, this abstraction has in Hegel the apex.
Kant came to think that it would be possible to reduce all thought to a few concepts, it would be a great facilitator for study and thought, but his thinking resulted in an even greater complexity, and his simplicity fell into the subject x object dualism, which we suffer.
Every simplification leads to some kind of subjectivism or objectivism, even in religious terms, when studying The Human Phenomenon, Teilhard Chardin declared that Man is the complexification of nature, difficult for theologians and exegetes to accept, but I ask you the question: why did Jesus use of parables to explain things that apparently could be simple¬, because it isn’t.
Idealism is basically a “doctrine” that contains the belief that it is thought and not the physical world that is at the origin of all things, that is, the objective world, which we discover with the pandemic, and physics quantum already knew and actual cosmology is deepening, is that uncertainty is part of knowledge, and we are faced every day with a new phenomenon.
After all, one of the assumptions of Kantian idealism was the submission of nature, she rebelled.
This is the original novelty that idealists do not accept, and this novelty should give us back the humility, proclaimed by all, but as idealism gets stuck in duality, the error is the others, we knew the truth, not even science, nor faith could imagine the complexity of the phenomenon that all humanity lives, the first step to face the pandemic is this: I depend on the step of the Other, and that we can take steps together, it still seems difficult.

*Encyclopædia Britannica, Available in: https://www.britannica.com/topic/idea , Access in: 04/26/2020.

 

In-formation and modern state

12 Feb

It is impossible to think about the modern state, without thinking about its laws and the social contract that is established from them, and it is not by chance that they arise after the Gutenberg press (and the book).

One can think in an equally naive way that this is just theory, it is easy to demonstrate that it is not the form of action of the polis, it is impossible to think without the Greek polis, and the thoughts ranging from the pre-Socratic to the modern contractualists : Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and the Swiss (he was not French) Jean Jacques Rousseau.

The in-formation of the modern state comes from the basic idea of ​​these thinkers is that the relationship between rulers and governments must be established in the form of a contract, and that they argue in the background is that man is the wolf of man Thomas Hobbes, man is determined by the social relationship John Locke, this is born good and the environment shapes it, and man is a good savage that the environment has corrupted, Rousseau’s thought.

What some contemporary authors will say is that these forms, or these rules of social domination, have collapsed, whether due to the emancipation of the spectator as advocated by Jacques Rancière, or due to the failure of the rules of the human park as explored by Peter Sloterdijk, of course there are others possible interpretations, like the conservative in fashion, resume the solid state.

 

Revolutionary method for videos

19 Sep

Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University have developed a method that without human intervention modifies a video content from one style to another. The method is based on a data processing known as Recycle-GAN that can transform large amounts of video making them useful for movies or documentaries.

The new system can be used for example to color films originally in black and white, some already made like the one shown in the video below, but the techniques were expensive and needed a lot of human effort during working hours.

The process arose from experiences in virtual reality, which in addition to the attempts to create “deep falsities” (altering objects or distorting contents, could appear a person inserted in an image, without it was allowed, in everyday scenes almost always happens this and much people do not accept.

“I think there are a lot of stories to tell,” said Aayush Bansal, a Ph.D. student at the CMU Robotics Institute, who said of a film production that was the main motivation to help design the method, he said, allowing that the films were produced faster and cheaper, and added: “it is a tool for the artist that gives them an initial model that they can improve,” according to the CMU website.

More information on method and videos can be found at Recycle-Gan website.

 

 

Basic Questions of Semantic Web and Ontologies

05 Jul

We are always faced with concepts that seem common sense and are not, is the case of many examples: social networks (confused with the media), fractals (numbers still too generic to be used in everyday life, but important), the artificial intelligence, finally innumerable cases, being able to go to the virtual (it is not the unreal), the ontologies, etc.

These are the cases of Semantic Web and Ontologies, where all simplification leads to an error. Probably so, one of the forerunners of the Semantic Web Tim Hendler, wrote a book Semantic Web for Ontologists modeling (Allemang, Hendler, 2008).

The authors explain in Chapter 3 that when we speak of Semantic Web “of a programming language, we usually refer to the mapping of language syntax to some formalism that expresses the” meaning “of that language.

Now when we speak of ‘semantics’ of natural language, we often refer to something about what it means to understand the utterance – how to go from the structured lyrics or sounds of a language to some kind of meaning behind them.

Perhaps the most primitive part of this notion of semantics is a representation of the connection of a term in a statement to the entity in the world to which the term refers.” (Allemang, Hendler, 2008).

When we talk about things in the world, in the case of the Semantic Web we talk about Resources, as the authors say perhaps this is the most unusual thing for the word resource, and for them a definition language called RDF has been created as a Resource Description Framework, and they on the Web have a basic identification unit called URI, along with a Uniform Resource Identifier.

In the book the authors develop an advanced form of RDF called RDF Plus, which already has many users and developers, to also model ontologies using a language of their own that is OWL, the first application is called SKOS, A Simple Organization of Knowledge, which proposes the organization of concepts such as thesaurus dictionaries, taxonomies and controlled vocabularies in RDF.

Because RDF-Plus is a modeling system that provides considerable support for distributed information and federation of information, it is a model that introduces the use of ontologies in the Semantic Web in a clear and rigorous, though complex, way.

Allemang, D. Hendler, J. Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist: Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL, Morgan Kaufmann Publishing, 2008.

 

 

News in Google News

02 Jul

After several announcements, finally in the second half of May Google launched its new application, only now I have been able to take a look at the application that replaces Google Play Nwesstad, now with use of Artificial Intelligence.

The application works on using machine learning to train algorithms that scour complex and recent news stories and divides them into an easy-to-understand format with timelines, local news and stories presented in a sequence according to the evolution of the facts, for example , the start of a football match, its most important bids, the result and the consequences.

This section which are news that the algorithms think important to you have the name For You, follow 3 more sections so divided: The second section is called Manchete, where the latest news and specific topics are presented. Here is a subsection where you can choose to read the news through Full Coverage by Google, where Google splits it into items from a variety of social media sources, letting you know where and when it happened.

The third section shows favorites, such as the top topics the user usually accesses, the AI ​​has great work there, goes to the owner’s favorite sources, saves stories for later readings, and saves searches according to the location of the texts.

And finally the White Play (White Play) which is the addition of the new Google news, which allows the user to access and subscribe services with premium content in news sites.

While a part of the critique continues to duel with the old canned news schemes linked to editorial groups, the world of personalized news evolves

 

 

Alexa: Amazon personal assistant

26 Jun

It may not seem like a new phenomenon in technology since there are wizards like Siri, Cortana or Google Now, but the fact that this wizard is really personal, that’s why I called the others for voice assistants, is the fact that it learns and stores the data in a private cloud from Amazon Web Service (AWS).
These personal assistants although all grounded by the use of voice there are differences, they can learn from specific people habits and functions they desire, while the voice assistant, as I call Siri and Google Now now empordered by Dialogflow, as we explained in the post above, they can respond and learn from human interaction, but may, if it is desirable to organize their own database.
Alexa (because I’m the personal assistant I think is masculine, but it can be the same) is centralized in the Amazon cloud and has its own equipment that is Amazon Echo, a column always connected to the Internet via WiFi that is attentive to dialogues of its “owner”.
Streaming music services using Spotify or Pandora, you can read the news of the main newspapers you prefer, inform the weather forecast or the traffic on the way to work, can control all equipment at home that are Smart Home, including it can identify and tell about compatibility, plus its capacity goes beyond.
In addition, it promises to check basic things like solving math accounts or getting into a conversation and even telling jokes, over time this bank and this ability will evolve.
But beware, we have already written here about the myth of singularity (especially the book by Jean Gabriel Ganascia), the idea that this will turn a monster and control you is less true than to individualize and stop talking to friends and relatives

 

How do we think it is to think

15 May

From the Algebra of 0 and 1 of Boole, through the first computers of Charles Babbage, arriving at the thoughts of Vannevar Bush and Norbert Wiener of the MIT of the 40, we came across Alan Turing and Claude Shannon, the final question: the machine one day will think
What we see between Sophia Robot’s investment appeal to the “personal assistants” market is a long history of what it means to think, but the question now due to technoprofets (name given to the alarmists by Jean-Gabriel Ganascia) is inevitable.
Vannevar Bush had a data processing machine in his MIT lab, where he went to work a trainee named Claude Shannon, says James Gleick who was the one who suggested to his student that he study Boole’s Algebra.
Vannevar Bush in his historical text As We May Think, although it does not say as we would think, speaks of the future possibilities of new advances: “Consider a future device …  in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.” (Bush, As We may think).
It creates the embryonic idea of ​​a computer that relates text, as it has done in searches since the beginning of the Gutenberg print, but its Memex machine  (picture) was already thought of as a vast capacity of records and communications, even if the phone was still nascent in the final years of World War II and communications depended on powerful antennas.
What is certain is that in the end your text little or almost nothing says about what is actually thinking and as it still is today in Artificial Intelligence, what we have done is to expand more and more the capacity of memory and communication, as well as of large amounts of data, now with techniques called Big Data.
Another contemporary tendency is to ask for the autonomy of the machines, the experiments carried out, even with the so-called “autonomous vehicles” are the basis of algorithms and they depend on the decision making of how the human being will do in certain circumstances, in critical cases, like deciding between two tragedies, the choice can be terrible.

 

The (in) visible relations and networks

09 Apr

One of the issues in focus today is social networks, they are not of today, the problem is that today they are in evidence, but they continue to keep certain aspects of invisibility, confused with virtuality, make a historical analysis.

The networks of commerce in antiquity, by sea and by land, the invisible colleges, defined by Solla Price in her work “The development of science: historical, philosophical, sociological and economic analysis” of 1976 (in Brazilian edition), calls the scientific networks of collaborative networks, where researchers communicate, exchange information and experiences, means that even in the absence, through printed works and conferences, authors collaborate.

Essentially, a network is a web of nodes and links between nodes, although these participants are autonomous, the consequences of network connections can exceed their own limits by connecting to “out” through weak links. In the analysis of networks can be identified only for didactic reasons, three types: ego networking, global networking networks and networks of actors relationships, called TAN (Theory Actor-Network) with origin in the works of Michel Callon.

Airport networks, container transport networks around the world, Global networks are strongly influenced by the media, and they create a certain amount of invisibility, since the collaborative networks of publications are also called invisible colleges by authors like Solla Price, but accelerated by the speed of the media, electronic media is larger speed of publication and communication that prints it, then blog, twitter and the social media media like Facebook occupy a new role at the present time, but are not in themselves networks, but networks media.

Several measures can be thought of, the centrality of closeness of an actor measures how close a node is to all others, the greater the proximity measure, the intermediation betweenness measures the importance of a node in the circulation of information. So, for information effect, betweenness is the measure of control that an actor holds in the flow of information and closeness is the facility that an actor has of access to information.

The invisibility, emphasizing present in the “invisible” colleges in modernity, is relative to the process of communication and information that can go beyond the actor actors along the network, virtuality in turn refers to the potentiality of increasing the capacity of the network