Arquivo para a ‘circuits’ Categoria

Unknown Stories of Computing

21 Aug

Charles Babbage built two machines called Analytical Engine and Diferential EngineMEMEX, these machines, their systematizations and thoughts would not have arrived until we were not working patiently Ada de Lovelace (1815-1852), daughter of Lord Byron who compiled and organized the work of this Pioneer, making it understandable to mathematicians of the time.

Later David Hilbert (1862-1943) listed 23 mathematical problems at the time without solutions, one of which was to organize an algebraic system in order to solve the problem computability problem by algorithms, Kurt Gödel thinking about this problem creates a paradox about Completeness of systems, stating that it can not prove having proof by an assertion within the system, then consistency problems weaken such systems.

Thus it was necessary that logic, besides being constructed with good properties, had consistency (no contradictions), completeness (any proposition would be either truth or false exclusively) and the systems were decidable (existence of a method allowing to establish if any formula whether the formula was true or false).

This latter property was called by Hilbert as the “entcheidungsproblem”, or problem of “decision”.

Alan Turing and Claude Shannon working on coding machines (for US government messages) and decoding (a machine called Enigma was captured from Hitler’s army), as both projects were secret, found in meals and work breaks as indicated The book by James Gleick and talk about the problem proposed by Hilbert and not solved by Gödel, a secret document proves this passage of Turing, who was English, by Bell Laboratories, where he worked on deciphering the Enigma machine code.

Shannon at that time worked as a monitor at MIT in Vannevar Bush’s laboratory, who had proposed a “read” machine called MEMEX (it appeared in TIME magazine) was not a computer itself, but a machine to cross information from books.

Vannevar Bush suggested to Claude Shannon Boole’s Algebra..

Later using the model of the mathematician Alonzo Church that finalized the design of Alain Turing, and the call Turing Machine is actually based on Turing / Church model.
Norbert Wiener’s model were electronic models of feedback machines, although he founded Cybernetics, the idea was to create models for movements and turn them into problem-solving models, they were contemporary with Vannevar Bush of MIT


Chip revolutionizes IoT

24 Feb

A company almost bankrupt decides to invest in the development of a chip for the ESP8266Internet of Things (IoT) not only saves the company itself but promises to revolutionize the market.

The chip is the ESP8266, from Espressif company, the price $ 5 (5 collars), less than a coin and integrated in several solutions, for example, communication with the serial interface of most computer models, the UART Universal asynchronous transmission), this means transmission with which devices with TCP Internet interface.

It is a System-On-Chip with built-in Wi-Fi, It has GPIO connectors, I2C buses, SPI, UART, ADC input, PWM output and Internal temperature sensor, CPU operating at 80MHz, capable of operating at 160MHz, 32-bit RISC architecture, 32KBytes of RAM for instructions, 96KB of RAM for data, 64KB of ROM for booting, SP SP memory and Winbond W25Q40BVNIG of 512KBytes .

To program them, the company has a repository in GitHub, where it provides code samples for RTOS firmware and AT commands, and its SDK, for example, in addition there is an ESP8266 developer forum, maintained by Espressif, where it is possible Find a wide range of materials.

Will we have new developers of garages around the world?


(Português) ARM será produzido pela Intel ?

22 Aug

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Pass the box to pay now is fast

07 Jul

Near to fiction until recently, watches with sensors NFC (Near Field Communication) reachedBellamy the Brazilian market through Bellamy model, with it you approach the product of the clock and the payment is made in seconds.

The battery it lasts for years, only different from the traditional cards on the clock there is nothing to show that it is being used for purchases making discreet and secure payment, and the partnership was made with Visa and Brazil Pré-pago.

It has an NFC antenna with a chip “contactless” Visa that communicates with contactless payment terminals, so are expensed credits are previously made by a bank payment function and the company ensures that credit is safe .
Like any technology market the initial change is slow, this type of NFC device already existing in some pieces of clothing and luxury goods should then be present in the simplest grocery product, coexisting with the current bar codes, but with the time the bar code itself may disappear.


IoT is arriving  

23 May


If we have 7 billion people in the world, of which nearly 5 billion areBillionDevices connected, the number of devices is 50 billion and the connection between devices may be even more surprising change that has happened to the internet.


The protocols until recently were reduced, now new patterns begin to emerge beyond the known BlueTooth, arrives with force now ZBee or ZigBee.


The BlueTooth also evolved into the BlueTooth Low-Energy (BLE) or Smart Bluetooth, as old and known protocol for the Internet of things remains strong, since energy consumption is a significant item for the adoption of IoT technologies.


But ZigBee is growing in number of applications and devices, and start earning much interest in developers used in automation of homes, buildings and industrial areas, use an IEEE 802.15.4 standard protocol that is an industry standard wireless technology that operates to applications in the 2.4 GHz range require little data exchange and operate a range of 100 m, so excellent for homes, buildings and industrial.


An evolution of ZBee is the standard RF4CE which has some advantages for complex systems with low power consumption, high security, robustness and high scalability with the addition of nodes and can be inserted into wireless sensor control networks for M2M applications (Machine to Machine) in the IoT.


The latest version is ZBee 3.0, which unifies all ZigBee standards into a single standard.


There are other standards will comment in the next posts.


200 years of George Boole

02 Nov

Born November 2, 1815, Algebra which created was instrumental inBoole the birth of digital logic (0 and 1, or F=false and V=True), and later at MIT, Vannevar Bush suggested to Claude Shannon who was to become one of the foundations of modern digital computing .

The development of Boole became one of the important mathematical schools, which would influence the philosopher Bertrand Russerl, who wrote; “Pure mathematics was discovered by Boole in his work ‘Laws of Thought’ ‘which was published in 1850.

Although this is a mistake, because the thought does not move for binary laws, Yes and No, as there is perhaps the power and an endless variety of possibilities, Boole later did important work called invariant (or calculus of variations) , which influenced the Theory of Relativity of Albert Einstein.

In 1838, he published a pamphlet called The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, which influenced De Morgan who made a number of simplifications to make the laws of Algebra Boole more simple and easy to be “adopted” in mechanical, electromechanical processes (relays that have emerged more afternoon) and all digital devices that have emerged from these “laws”.

Although it has already died with great respect, it was Whitehead and Russell work Principia Mathematica (1910-1913) who convinced mathematicians that symbolic logic should receive your serious attention.


(Português) Velocidade e armazenamento: o limite do silício

30 Sep

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


(Português) Limites reais da Lei de Moore

19 Aug

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


(Português) Repensando os computadores

18 Aug

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


(Português) Chip do tamanho de um selo

15 Aug

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.