Arquivo para a ‘James Webb’ Categoria

The mystery of black holes

04 Jan

The center of the Milky Way, the galaxy where our solar system inhabits, is formed by a disk with spiral arms and a dense, yellowish central region known as the “bulge” and there are around ten billion stars orbiting the colossal object that is its center called the supermassive black hole Sagittrius A*.

So, if in the past geocentrism (the Earth as the center) was a naive idea, now Heliocentrism (the sun as the center) is also a provincial and outdated idea, but what black holes are, it was not Einstein but Karl Schwarzschild who was the first to propose its existence.

Steven S. Gubser’s book “The Little Book of Black Holes”, deals in a simple way, as much as possible, explains Einstein’s special and general relativity and Schwarzschild’s equations that gave rise to the topic, black holes are one of the strong themes in current astronomy and one of the sources of research for the James Webb mega-telescope.

The book begins by recounting an experiment carried out on September 14, 2015, almost a hundred years after Einstein announced his theory of general relativity, two massive detectors, one in Louisiana and the other in Washington, were carrying out a gravitational wave experiment when they detected an audible signal, such as a serious knock and five months later they announced that they had detected two colliding black holes forming a larger one, the discovery was spectacular.

Both black holes and gravitational waves were predicted in Einstein’s Theory. In this theory, the black hole is a region of space-time (the notion of absolute time and space has already been overcome) where all nearby matter is attracted and is impossible to escape.

There is a popular saying that everything that goes up must come down, says the author, however the idea of ​​the Schwarzschild equations is that nothing can go up, only come down and in the case of black holes where does that which must come down go, that is, what happens to what is attracted to the black hole.

We know the story of the apple that would have inspired Newton’s law of universal gravitation, the author of the book then suggests an apple falling into a black hole.

An apple outside the black hole events everything is static, at the horizon of these events everything is dynamic, flowing towards an all-encompassing singularity (where space-time changes dynamically in an extraordinary way, there two dimensions compress and the third is stretched.

Stephen Hawking, famous for proposing Big Bang equations, speculated that black holes are not actually black, they have their color (in fact, outside our visual range of colors from violet to red) determined by temperature, energy and entropy of its surface (if we can call the two dimensions that, since it is space-time).

This simplified introduction is developed over seven chapters of the book, in astronomical details and their equations, which requires some more specific knowledge of physics.


Gubser, Steven S., Pretorius, F. 2021. The Little Book of Black Hole. US: Princeton Press, 2018.



Seeing far and blinding near

11 Jul

Recently James Webb’s special observatory saw the most distant galaxy that man can ever observe, the galaxy called JADES-GS-Z13-0 (photo) is approximately 320 million years from the Big Bang, which for us is a great measure, for a universe of 13.5 billion years old means relatively a few seconds after the Big Bang (one of the theories of the formation of the universe).

On the other hand, we are witnessing an increasingly unstable, unfair, ruthless and dangerous world, and with a catastrophic nuclear danger close at hand, it seems that a good part of humanity treats everything as if it were normality, not caring much about the fate of the planet. and the civilizing process that is not stagnant, but regressing in frightening steps.

The strangeness of this discovery of the universe is at the same time that we find amounts of Carbon and Oxygen in these bodies, the same James Web discovered a little later that six more galaxies (Jades was discovered with another three “near”), which were very massive where bodies smaller than those found there were expected at the beginning of the Universe.

The discovery showed that they have masses of approximately 100 million solar masses, while the normal would be for younger galaxies smaller masses, our Milky Way for example “older” has a mass of 1.5 trillion solar masses.

Furthermore it is a nursery of stars, about three suns are born there every year, and their masses are poor in metals of chemical substances heavier than helium and hydrogen (remember that they are at the top of the chemical periodic table on the left and right ).

If this restores humility to the knowledge we have of the universe, the same does not happen with social scientists, anthropologists and paleontologists, who the more they discover about our origin on the planet, for example that Neanderthals and homo sapiens coexisted and even crossed paths creating a diverse humanity, little tolerant we are with races and cultures.

And intolerance means less peace, more dangers and now we don’t have stones, axes and bows, we have nuclear weapons and dangerous atomic power plants that are subject not only to human limits, but also to natural and geological ones.

The geosphere and biosphere depend today as never before in the history of the noosphere and on what we cultivate as a civilizing culture and as a vision of other cultures and races.



The question of the consciousness of Being

04 May

Thanks to the new and surprising advancement of deep intelligence machines (deep learning), the issue of consciousness, which was already thought of in philosophy, now spreads across all areas of thought, and what we dealt with in previous posts also dealt with this.

Now it is a matter of deciding whether it is possible to think of consciousness only as something logical and instrumental, so the machine, through deep and elaborate algorithms in dialogue with humans, could reach this level, if something beyond, which we reformulate in the category for-itself, then we have to think of a consciousness of the universe and it cannot be a thing, but a Being.

Why is there something and not nothing is a question raised since Leibniz, who solves it through the monad, and God is (would be) the “Monad of monads” (the phrase is from Hegel, sic!), then the universe was putting into movement, then in a quantum space-time, the Big Bang, and now the James Webb telescope captures an image that would be of a possible origin of the universe, with many galaxies, something is wrong.

In an article published in the journal Nature on February 22, “A population of red candidate massive galaxies 600 Myr after the Big Bang” (Labbé et al.) (Myr, millions of light years) indicates that close to the big bang there would already be massive galaxies and not the first formations of nebulae, for example (see our post), so could it be that there was already a universe in formation from the beginning?

Regardless of this, the question remains: who what or what mystery sent the beginning of everything.

Just as one cannot speak of ethics without metaphysics, it is not something substantial but spiritual, one cannot speak of consciousness only as something natural, based on experience.

Starting from Husserlian phenomenology, his disciple Heidegger elaborated consciousness as follows: the phenomenology (experience) of consciousness is not a path that lies before natural consciousness and leads it towards the absolute, like an itinerarium mentis in deum (Heidegger, 2007 , p. 169), rather it is the course that the absolute itself follows on the way to the truth of its complete appearing. (Heidegger, 2007, p. 169)

But Heidegger continues as in any modern building, he has the question of knowledge as a pillar of natural consciousness, he does not admit a transcendent revealed consciousness (for-itself), thus being a knowledge that has not yet realized in itself the whole truth (Heidegger 2007 , p. 169).

So it is about denying the truth revealed as truth, although your consciousness remains linked to the Being (it is ontological as your thought), there is no possibility of a pure primordial Being, a Being-for-itself, omniscient and omnipotent, so we are left looking at the telescope image.

There is a transcendent for-itself that surrounds this question, and thus a consciousness that projects beyond even the beginning of the universe, and that at the same time is present in every being-in-itself.

Heidegger, Martin (2007). Hegel. Translation by Dina V. Picotti C. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros, 2007.


Where is the divine locus

10 Nov

Of course the divine locus is anti-spatial and temporal, even modern quantum physics developed the theory of the space-time dimension as the only dimension and where there are folds in time, but it is likely that physics will still make discoveries greater than wormholes. , accelerated space travel dimensions and will change our cosmic view of space.

The latest discoveries by James Webb, the telescope that looks at the origin of creation, already sees in what astronomers call the pillars of creation, the new images (10/19) show formations that look like rocks, but which are clouds of gas and dust of astronomical dimensions, where stars and celestial bodies are formed, in a kind of nursery.

The new image, using James Webb’s infrared resource [and it is possible to better observe the dust in this region of star formation (Image from NASA above), improving the image on the left of 2014 from the Hubble telescope, the image on the right being the image by James Webb.

In terms of the eschatological cosmovision, the one that studies the beginning and end of humanity, it is possible to imagine that through a “time warp”, we are still stuck in Einstein’s physics, this cloud forms and starts a development of stars, supernovae and galaxies in the universe.

The divine plan is even broader, since the time of Jesus, men wanted to know when the “kingdom of God” would be formed, an earthly dimension in which our human condition would be elevated to a level of happiness and prosperity that would reach everyone. , “where milk and honey flow”, but the master’s answer was not very pleasing to those who wanted something more tangible.

The reading in John 1:20-21 says they wanted to know the moment of this “kingdom” and Jesus replied: “the kingdom of God does not come ostensibly, nor can it be said ‘is here or ‘is there, because the kingdom of God is among you”, that is, it must take place among men, so there will still be many changes in the human and earthly dimension until this stage.

And the passage clearly says that before this the son of man (Jesus who is a presence of God among us said above), will have to be rejected and will suffer much.

Thus, it is necessary to find spaces of solidarity and fraternity among men where these seeds of full life are developed, men understand each other and look with love for their fellow man, without contempt or exclusion.

So this kingdom is near where there is love and brotherhood and far away where there is greed and exclusion.



The Einstein Ring and the Spheres

08 Sep

It was the philosopher Sloterdijk who was the first to create the relationship between man and his spheres, from the maternal womb to the planet, he is largely right, also in criticizing cynical reason, the one that justifies spherical reality is largely correct, it is a metaphor, but very good.

Let us think of the fetus, which remains within the sphere of the uterus until it leaves and looks at its ex-sphere, the mother, will still feel her dependence for a long time, it happens that this sociological, anthropological, semiotic reality has its own topological properties that are hidden in the cynical reason.

One of them is to understand that there is an immunological relationship whose primary purpose is to protect, nourish, train and immunize homo from an unknown sapiens exterior, like the baby who at birth depends on the mother, he needs her immunological protection.

The search for other spaces, inhabiting the moon (the new mission finds it difficult) and mars (astronauts think it would be horrible to live there) does not resolve the planetary spherical relationship, in crisis, it is necessary to open up to the other and leave of the hut, some psychologists speculate about the hut syndrome, which the pandemic has accelerated, not wanting to leave a sheltered, spherical environment.

The super telescope James Webb photographs Einstein’s ring in a place far away and physically unreachable by man (the image), at least under current technological conditions, and the physicist’s prediction was “photographed” (actually the instruments are of frequencies and not of “photos”) with formidable precision, one can extend Sloterdijk’s metaphor.

Gerald’s 1916 theory of Gravity revolutionized physics by creating a physics that claimed that gravity is a curvature of the space-time continuum caused by the mass of objects, almost two massive objects were perfectly aligned with the Earth this space-time would deflect the photons forming rings around the alignment of these two objects.

An English physicist named Sir Oliver Lodge suggested that this phenomenon of a massive gravitational field would not only deflect light from an object behind it, but also magnify it forming a gravitational lens, and the recent James Webb photo confirms this phenomenon.

What is the metaphor, massive immunological spheres, cultures, religions or ideologies whose purpose is to protect themselves when close (or on a collision course which makes the metaphor more complicated) not only form a strong gravitational field that draws bodies around, they do not they only distort space-time, but they are also lenses that, if carefully observed, allow us to see what is behind.

So it is time to look beyond the differences, the imperfections of the spherological models and enable a gravitational attraction that helps to better understand the civilizing process.



James Webb’s First 5 Images

13 Jul

The first color images of James Webb have arrived, they are really amazing and also the tools available to users, in addition to all the internal resources of course.

A historic target was Stephan’s Quintet, the first compact group of galaxies that was discovered in 1787, it is in the constellation of Pegasus, as the name implies, there are five galaxies, four of which dance between them and two are very close.

Birth in the so-called Southern Ring, an immense cloud of gas surrounding a dying star resulted from eight explosions from an ancient sun now reduced to a white dwarf.

An authentic “nursery” of a star, the white dots inside an enormous “mystical mountain” made by elements that “feed” the formation of a star, the so-called Carina nebula.

The other equally spectacular images were the first giant exoplanet, about half the size of Jupiter, of WASP-96 b, discovered in 2014 and which was shown using internal resources the spectrum of elements present on it, that is, if it has water and other chemical elements that make it up.

And finally a fifth image was shown of the cluster of galaxies, SMACS 0723, which works as if it were a cosmic magnifying glass to see and see what other galaxies are like and this is just the first.

Using an available zoom tool allows you to choose your target (in options above, for 5 images: JWST) and take the tour by traveling millions of light years and having an experience close to scientists.