Arquivo para a ‘Information Philosophy’ Categoria

Idealism and the wide door of misconceptions

22 Aug

At the same time discovered as quantum physics, holography, and a new worldview of the universe emerge, there are those who believe that the earth is flat and that we were never the moon. These are too many specific problems to be dealt with, but philosophy in general contemporary rather than neoliberal, this is its pragmatic economic aspect.
It is idealistic and even philosopher-youtubers who discourse on philosophy follow it. Kant is complex, but his central point is the dichotomy between subject and object, as they cannot be separated, at least in terms of theory of knowledge, he created the analytical and synthetic judgments.
The analytic judgment is that the predicate is within the subject, and so it specifies its logic, and this logic comes from a physical-mathematical view of knowledge in modernity. It exemplifies using geometric figures such as the triangle and the square, of course it has four sides, but this is not a deduction but a tautological, circular definitions.
The synthetic judgment, on the other hand, cannot be contained in the subject, so it adds reasoning as something completely new, that is, the novelty is the predicate.
It is very simplified, but essentially develops a logic where Being and Entity are confusing and dismantles the possibility of an ontology, even if it is partial, and imagined with this throwing away all the “superstitions”, the famous “Sapere audi”, dare to know.
As reason alone was not enough, it was necessary to introduce the idea of empiricism, which came from David Hume’s arguments (1711-1776, so judgments may a priori, which already exist in the subject, and a posteriori, experimentally acquired.
Schlick (1882-1936), who founded the Vienna Circle neologicist school, criticized the idealistic basis of a priori knowledge, claiming that since statements have a logical truth, they are neither analytical nor synthetic as they are. Kant argued because it was paradoxical; and that if the truth depends on the factual content, the statements are therefore a posteriori and not a priori, since the facts must happen, Schlick was assassinated by Nazism.
In the circle of Vienna were present Kurt Godel, Karl Popper, Hans Kelsen and others.
The same proposition can be known by cognitive agents both a priori and a posteriori, using the same example as Kant, a creation only knows that the square has four sides after learning to count, while for an adult it seems “inductive.”
The video is a short discussion about idealism of Kant to Hegel:


Dialogue and identity

13 Aug

Our society and our thinking since Plato and Aristotle is an identity-oriented thinking, Socrates and the pre-Socrates were more eclectic, because the difference, although tolerated, was fundamentally fought and still in our day even among those who dialogue.
It is the desire that we have things to remain stable, to change very little, meaning that deep down they must hold a certain sense of identity, that even if they admit difference or diversity, it must be placed somehow on rules and restrictions.
That is why I prefer the term distinction, the distinct is the different that does not allow for similarity, so the Asian is Asian for its distinction between Westerners, differences are enumerations and types of rules that ultimately want to erase the difference, but there are the distinguished one. Identity creates the Same, while distinction creates the Other.
Difference accentuates the uncommon and somewhat hinders dialogue, but Western philosophy did not think so.
This prevents change, because identity requires that what changes will not change its essence, remaining a background of the same, is a dialogue full of proselytizing, the idea of not accepting the distinction, what distinguishes is what is rooted.

Diversity throughout the history of identity and difference thought, several revisions have been submitted, the most current being the one made by Giles Deleuze (1925-1995) who studies the problem in depth.
Speaking of difference and repetition, Deleuze penetrates the symbolic, constructed and more conventional character of repetition, for him repetition is the need we have to see what creates our identity, without seeing the intermediation of the logic that creates our relationship with things.
Thus, for him, the repetition that tries to make a “world view” determination stable is nothing but a convention, since it does not allow us to see the ongoing change that despite feeling we try to hide the difficulty of leaving our “identity” and seeing the Other.
Brazilian philosopher Franklin Leopoldo Martins seeks to explain these relationships:



The Philosophy of Michel Serres

06 Jun

I have always been impressed by Serres’s philosophy, but I could not make a synthesis, at first it seemed physical, sometimes metaphysical, sometimes chaotic, sometimes logical-mathematical, sometimes organized and schematic, other times poetic and chaotic.

It was his death, and the impossibility of saying new things through his mouth that made a synthesis, perhaps because he will never write, because whenever he wrote there was something new, there was light to each new work he wrote. In his text body variations clarifies his choice of character Harlequin: “Why does Harlequin wear cloths mingled, inlaid, striped, stained?

Because he imitated everyone and his masters, he acquired form and color from them. The density and depth of his clothes and the surface mosaic of his cape provide a certain idea of ​​the immense body memory. (…) By stripping and re-establishing them, Harlequin remembers the gestures (of the people, in the sense of masks or disguises) that the body schema stores. “(Serres, 2004, 79).

Serres’s philosophy is light and at the same time new, for him learning is invention, as philosophy is (Serres, 1991: 27), thus creating the figure of the “learned third”, which for one who starts from the mathematical logic, is precisely a rupture because between the A and the non-A, there is a third possibility: the learned one.

It thus creates the pedagogical society, for which it predicts a revolution in education, with information in full circulation because of new technologies, wrote this in 1997. Michel Serres is a leading philosopher, there is still no pedagogy that has a direct influence on the new type of pedagogical practice that the new technologies provide, his concept and miscegenation, of continuous learning has much to add to anyone who seriously studies the new paths of education.

It is necessary that a southpaw leans to the right and that the right hand to the left in order to awaken a certain animal stillness, which seems more prone to the mortal, which he calls “mortal sleep” and to warm each one.

It is necessary that the southpaw leans to the right and the right hand to the left in order to awaken thus from their animal stillness or their mortal slumber, to warm their paralysis, from which may arise a “learned third.”

Thank you Serres, go in peace to your “Legend of the Angels”, they wait you. 


Serres, Michel. Variações do Corpo (Variations on the Body). Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2004.

________. O Contrato Natural (The natural contract). Translation by Beatriz Sioux. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1991.


Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:


The informational impact

08 May

Society, information abundance, information turnaround and other appeals to the novelty that arose not with the internet, but with the computer and the possibility of handling the data in volume (Big Data) certainly brought a new perspective.

Anyone who wanted to understand eighteenth-century society should study the industrial revolution and its impact on manpower and the production of serial products, today anyone who wants to analyze contemporary society cannot lose sight of the volume of data they are produced to try to make this volume accessible to society.

But it is not so, because together with this volume came by previous process, it is only to check with history, not the romantic dreamed by idealists, but the real one and to realize that the problem of both Information in volume and depth, made it difficult to digging and knowing what is essential.

We have already posted here Karl Kraus, who complained to journalists in the midst of the threat of a second world war because of misunderstood news highlighting only interests. In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, Peter Sloterdijk also warned that “it is difficult to think of contemporary society,” Byung Chul Han his disciple alert to “active vita” (Chul-Han)

The phenomenon we witnessed in which information became practically a commodity, started with the digital model of Shannon (photo) and the Turing machine in the 1930s, and accelerated with the construction of modern computers.

What we witnessed and did not always participate in an “active” and reflexive way, able to elaborate thinking about information, is the fragmentation of knowledge accelerated by new gadgets, but which was initiated by a crisis in the thinking of Western society, which only deepened over the years, its initializing in modernity.

The Movie The game of imitation (2015) illustrates the life of Alain Turing and his theory:




Theory of Information or Signals

07 May

David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for Mathematics to solve, among them the 2nd. problem was the consistency of Arithmetic to solve problems (which started the idea of algorithm). Later from 1910 to 1913 Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russerl published the 3 volumes of Principia Mathematica recalling Isaac Newton’s Principia (Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica) of 1980, but logic has shown contradictions.
It was Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) who showed the contradictions of logic by demonstrating that a mathematical system is either complete or consistent, a problem that was discussed by Alan Turing and Claude Shannon at Bell Labs in the late 1930s amidst World War II .
Both were in secret projects, Turing was to decipher the Enigma machine, captured from the German army, and Shannon build the System X machine to encode messages from Roosevelt and Churchill from the allied troops.
Both spoke at the lab meetings about Gödel’s problem, and wondered if the machine could think. Boole’s circuits and the Turing machine are at the origin of modern computers, this information theory is actually information in another context, Shannon himself would call it a message, and modern computing calls it signals.
The computation evolved with the construction of the first computer by von Neuman, and we initiate at the moment to ask again if the machine will surpass the human, the philosopher Sam Harris has a opinion:



Playing with the mind: Claude Shannon

06 May

It was time to pay tribute at the time of Claude Shannon’s contribution and genius, two journalists wrote in 2017 a book about the one that, in our vision with Vannevar Bush of whom he was a MIT lecturer, created Information Theory, although the name might be different, he knew he used information like “machine.”

In the book the information will be called a message, but it could be a sign. I did not read the book, but it was studying the Boolean Algebra that Shannon started to make a digital world, but opposing the analog is the second misconception because everything we do is analog, the clock for example, there is an analogy with the movement of the sun and of course, the rotation of the earth.

In his master’s thesis, in 1937 he analyzed electric circuits that were based only on “yes” or “no”, with connectives “and” or “and” and “not”, and it will be only in his 1948 work that his “Mathematical Theory of Communication”, became Information Theory.

The basic idea was based on calculations of the amount of information needed for a message (I prefer a signal) so that information (of human origin, transmitted by a channel or physical medium) does not lose its original relevance.

Few books have so many citations in relevant works, the book cites 91,000, and virtually the entire theory of “signal processing,” “imaging,” and any information transformed into digital “signal” must use its theory.

The central contribution of his work is called “sampling theory”, which states that in any system the maximum sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency of the signal to be transmitted.

For example, an audible sound to the human ear, which reaches the maximum at 20 KHz, should have a sampling rate of at least 40 KHz. In addition to anticipating the computer along with Alan Turing, also the first Machine Learning, quite simple, but sophisticated for that time, a mouse robot in a maze:





Intentionality, materiality and world

03 May

It seems distant the discourse of the world of life and intentionality, for idealistic thought would be because it is not, it is not about having the intention to go to the knowledge of the object and to have its possession, the important thing is not to separate them, intention is consciousness of the object.

Putting it more precisely, and using the Greek terms, this duality is the relation between the  (morphé) form and the matter (Hylé), the use of the Greek concept is because we enter the intentional layer of the lived that is present in the world the form.

Husserl updated these concepts in noema and noese, this being the intentional act as the set of subjectively oriented experience of the object, what we call information and the first is hylético data (the Greek concept), which can be updated as cognitive experiences, this is that they become knowledge independent of their facticity or materiality in the modern sense, which is different from Hylé.

The intentionality as consciousness Husserl met her with his master Franz Brentano and he took it from Thomas Aquinas who in turn took it from Aristoteles and Saint Augustine. It is important to understand that awareness of something does not mean truth in Truth and Method Hans Georg Gadamer gives a long speech on this.

 Although it is not correct to say that Aquinas is Platonic, the spiritual substance that exists in Plato and Augustine is maintained, as the conventional vision of soul, so soul is morphé, form of the body, it is it that communicates the act of being.

In the biblical passage, there are others that refer to recognizing Jesus in breaking bread, he is not known by his material form in the physical sense of the present, but by his act of being, in the passage of John (21: 1-19) after they have gone fishing without fishing, Jesus appears to him and asks if he has something to eat (they do not recognize his form), then they send the fishery and fish again, there they recognize his being by his intention and finally they go to eat together and with the coals already burning Jesus says to them: “Bring some fish that you have caught” (John, 21: 10).

The three strange facts in this passage, they did not fish for anything and then they succeeded, they did not recognize Jesus by his form but by his experience (He orders them to fish and he breaks the bread) and Jesus eating (He is not more in world of form, He resurrected).

At the end he asks Peter his intention and says “You love me“, He said about the all experiences of intentionality.

The contemporary world seeks to create narratives and facts to reaffirm them, but has difficulty with its materiality that unite form and materiality, remains in the dualism.

The intentionality is a property not physical of the mind, see this vídeo:




Dogmatism and dialogue

29 Apr

Not only is authoritarianism responsible for the lack of dialogue, dogmatism is more dangerous and terrible
when a society lives deep divisions, it affirms a truth as absolute and yet it allows different visions does not do it with sincerity.
Following these currents is the division of groups, cultures or political positions without the necessary openness to the whole of society, does not mean to have no convictions, they are the basis of a dialogue, it means closing in on concepts and values ​​that are not universal.
These truths are manifest in some form of thought, and therefore their values ​​and foundations are ultimately some kind of philosophy of systematic thought and must therefore understand that it will be from which dialogue will be possible.
Hans Georg Gadamer, discusses the major currents of modern thought: Hegelianism and neo-kantism with a focus
on logic, the theories of knowledge and vitalism in Nietzsche, Bergson and Dilthey, were in focus before the First World War.
Starting from Dilthey’s analysis, he will define that the historical consciousness is not closed in itself, from the intentionality, its particularity is to be always open and torefer to something as its correlative  objective.
The object is not given to consciousness alone, it is not a question of assuming the consciousness as it is given to the Other, but inserting it in a larger context, where both are.
This context is the world, the world of life (lebensvelt), where there is a general horizon of all that is and can become the content of experience, thus overcomes idealism and empiricism.
Last week’s posts were aboutthe discussion of idealism and empiricism, this week we explore the possibilities of a larger context, where the discourses do not close in objectivism or subjectivism, two aspects that affect modern philosophy.



Change in physical thinking

24 Apr

The great upheaval of science at the beginning of the last century was the loss of the conviction of scientific determinism along with the idea that the observer is neutral to the phenomenon.
The so-called scientific neutrality, was based on the thought that independent of the observer a repeated phenomenon always produced the same results, the indeterminism announced by Heisenberg, changed the vision that we had of the atomic phenomena.
Newton’s physics, on which deterministic science is based, was good to see science roughly, but in the field of particles this regularity and determination does not exist.
Granularity means that there are finite packets of energy, which for quantum physics were the “quanta” (the theory of relativity is a little different), and this gave rise to studies of the so-called Physics of Particles, which as a complete theory is relationship between phenomena gives rise to events, and is as important as things (the principle of granularity remains), and this explains even more profoundly, and strange to empiricism, the way a body moves, and the effects of gravity, light and energy can also be thought of as relation.
So for example for the existence of the attraction between celestial bodies exists besides a gravitational energy, also gravitons, that is, particles, but this we return tomorrow.
What is essential is that these three principles, besides changing our view of science, begin to change what we think about the human brain, and may change the concept of consciousness, but without exoteric haste that wants to affirm things that are not true.