Arquivo para a ‘Cognition’ Categoria

Apodítico e epoché in Husserl

23 Apr

Words strange and of high significance for the philosophy of Husserl, apoditic we use much in the day-to-day only that of improper way, something that we think evident and it is not God, the life, the death, finally a series of concepts that seem to be evident and are not, as you see them, hylé appears.
Subjective matter, the sense given by the Greeks to what seems material, to Husserl possesses a veiled truth, this composes a subjective matter attached to any perception, or what he defined as “returning the thing itself”, in the sense of having a intention about it.
Thus Husserl calls “the intention” the meaningful content of something, the intention of a book on it, though the intention does not have the flesh-and-blood presence of the book.
When we have a “meaningful intention” (“Bedutungsintention”) we mean with an intention the book and the table, that is, the object without even considering its presence, for example, if we have the meaningful content of that book, in this sense “intuition” Is  “evidence.”
Although for Husserl words are used interchangeably, intuition is the fulfillment of an intention, or consciousness of it, this is important for its thought, since the perfect filling between intention and intuition will never be fully satisfied.
In this, it immerses itself in the concept of consciousness, that is, the “consciousness of something”, to make explicit its method, which consists in traversing the phenomenon, using phenomenological reduction, or epoché, which for Greeks is the suspension of judgment. empirical evidence), and for Husserl it is a place between parentheses.
This consists in provisionally leaving aside all preconceptions, theories, definitions and pre-judgments, and only then gradually give meaning to the things that seek their “originality.”
This introduction to Husserl’s Phenomenology for Phenomenology, may clarify:


Shut me up, the stones will speak

12 Apr

It is not illusionism, pure utopia (Thomas Morus’s Utopia is the desire for a world with fairness), it is about understanding and respecting the mystery, of being aware that we do not know everything. It was not Einstein, but Heisenberg who first announced the quantum theory, which inspired Dali in his Mystical Manifesto, which changed the idea of ​​science, space, and time.

The image of the real black hole is just the tip of the iceberg of a mysterious universe, which surprises us and shows us our limitation.

Much of the contemporary regression is the incomprehension of cosmology and cosmogony, which in a different way are present in all cultures and religions.

Scientism, determinism, and materialism wanted to abolish the subjective thinking of cosmogonies, but it survived, and the discovery of the black hole is the enlargement of scientific cosmogony.

Says the biblical Reading (Lk 19:40) “if they shut me up, the stones will speak,” in the passage that the religious themselves asked Jesus not to speak of his eschatology, his mission and his end in the hands of the powerful. The quantum computation is explained by Shohini Ghose in 10 minutes:



A Relaxed History of Philosophy

08 Apr

Among the books I promised to read (post), Nigel Warburton’s Brief History of Philosophy (L & PM Pocket, 2017) was the first, had other priorities.

It is a relaxed and cheerful way of reading philosophy, it has the advantage of being easy for readers who are not initiated, but in my view lack some depth and some authors, just to name two Husserl and Heidegger, however the rest of the set is consistent.

It begins properly with Plato and Socrates, with the suggestive and philosophical title “The Man Who Asked” and from the beginning makes the reader reason to show the difference between being immoral and deceitful in a dialogue between Socrates and Euthydemus, which shows the reader the importance concepts and dialogue as a method of educating.

He will explain in a dialogue with Queroponte that when asking an old wise woman an oracle of Delphi, if there was someone wiser than Socrates receives the answer “No” and will say it to Socrates, who wonders about the fact since “I knew so little.”

He thus clarifies what philosophy is, as “love of wisdom” and from there his disciple will leave (in fact only Socrates is known by Plato), say that the wise should rule, and this will be how the Platonic school will begin, and then more later that of his disciple Aristotle.

The chapter of Aristotle has the title “The true happiness”, a curious and intelligent trait of Warburton that is to give soon in the title a key of reading, again which is simplistic, but it helps the reader and creates an interest in the subject.

The third that I comment on here, also a wise choice, is Pyrrhus, for he was the most skeptical of that time (365 BC), which is important for opposing dogmatism.

It is possible to elect this author because avoiding too much reading, which few people do today, is able to teach lay readers in the subject, for this is seen as popularizer of the philosophy.


Resentment and sorrow in history

29 Mar

The behavior of the “elder brother” in the Parable of the Prodigal Son is even more serious when we analyze groups, cultures and peoples throughout history whose processes of oppression, war or simply cultural differences mark facts that can lead to violence.
In this scenario the first Great War, the German defeat and submission, the second and extermination of the Jews and the Hiroshima bomb that cannot be forgotten, May 68, the fall of communism, September 11 in the United States, Venezuela and the social issues and the exclusion seen by the American government, the Brazilian polarization and latent corruption.
There are many other facts, such as the yellow jackets in France and Brexit in the UK, an analysis was made by Marc Ferro, a French historian of 95 years, who wrote in 2007 on the problem of Resentment in History, and “Blindness – another story of the world ” (ed. Cavalo de Ferro, 2017), I did not have time to read, but it has already been included in my list, in the figure the woodcut “Country of the blind” of H. Wells (of 1904).
These eternal twists in history may surprise some people, but I realize that Marc Ferro does not, and neither do I, we see crises emerge when journalists, thinkers (not always good) and people who form opinions begin to walk in a dangerous direction, we already write a post by Karl Kraus that claimed this in the 1900s.
Finally, fake news is not new, and different visions and interpretations of history may also have differences and dialogue, withdrawal of resentments and wounds is necessary for an accurate view of history, as a method for this I defend hermeneutics.
The excessive polarization, the incomprehension of the different generates what Byung Chull Han calls “exclusion of the other”, even conscious circles do this systematically and for this is a revision of what the question of “historical consciousness” means.
I think Gadamer initiates this in Truth and Method, but the historical moment demands something profound. As a day-to-day practice I suggest removing poison, harsh language, incitement to violence, at last without dialogue what we always claim, to building the pace in world. 

The video shows and sintetic form and point of view of Marc Ferro on memory data and French resistance:


To navigate is need, we must live too.

25 Mar

The phrase is not from Fernando Pessoa nor from a Brazilian composer, it was General Pompeu’s phrase to encourage his fearful sailors saying: “Navigare necesse, vivere non est necesse” and later it was also the Italian poet Petrarca in the fourteenth century.
The verses of Fernando Pessoa had the sense of confining his sense of way to creation, and in this sense of life is that we can make a parallel with the current Web browsers.
Besides the Web we have the GPS and numerous navigation instruments for ships, airplanes and spacecraft, which will soon also be tourist trips thanks to Tesla company (post).
Reflections for today must involve fears (there is a book by Martha Nussbaum), the options with many possible paths, the question of security and the transitions to a possible Web that fights the fake news, remembering that these are all problems previous to the Internet (1975) and the Web (1990), since it comes from the industrial revolution.
The issue of life that involves is the Society of Tiredness, put our mind and body under a barrage of stimuli that may seem beneficial but also lead to stress.
The modern man, the pause, the respite, or what Byung-Chull Han calls the “aroma of time”, I thank Portugal who gave me back this possibility for the rhythm of life, social security and especially the Portuguese lyrical soul.
All of this brings life back to life, but to put it in an agitated life without “aroma” is an effort that demands virtues, in the sense of virtue and in the sense of virtuous circles.
But navigating is necessary, almost for everything in life today and living, pausing and breathing as well.

This vídeo is commentary about tips for navigating a Websites:


Physicists prove: reality is not objective

19 Mar

What was a hypothesis is a fact demonstrated by experience, which in itself is already contradictory since something contradictory may be true, yet the experience at Scotland’s Heriot-Watt University has shown that two people can see the same reality of different forms and both are right, the article is published.

From the appearance of the observer the great hypothesis of contemporary science that reality is independent of the observer has fallen, the suggestive name of the article is exactly this: “Experimental rejection of the observer’s independence in the quantum world”, its authors are: Massimiliano Proietti, Alexandre Pickston, Francesco Graffitti, Pedro Barrow, Dmytro Kundys, Cirilo Branciard, Martin Ringbauer, Alessandro Fedrizzi, and is published in the archivX of Cornell University.

The experiment involved two people who observe the same photon, the smallest unit of light that can act as a particle or wave under different conditions, this being the novelty, which both observing on the same condition observe distinct realities, then it can be said that there is a superposition of reality, that is, both are both true.

While one scientist analyzes the photon and determines its alignment, the other without knowing its measurement, checks whether there is a quantum superposition or not, while one experiences reality as a particle and the other as wave, and both are technically correct.

The so-called 6-photon experiment, which is the simplest for experiments, verifies the so-called Bell inequality (which Einstein used to try to contradict the quantum phenomenon), and this measure can be verified experimentally by 5 measures of deviation standard (statistics) associated with it, is a bit complicated, but the result is this for those who know the phenomenon.



Binary and dual

14 Mar

It is not the contemporary world that created binary dualistic logic, it only simplified arithmetic using Boolean Algebra, by the fact that simulating 0 and 1 in a machine is simpler than a decimal arithmetic that Western civilization has adopted.

But the onto-logic of Being that comes from Parmenides that says being is, and non-being is not, and has come to our day by Cartesian rationalism and Kant-Hegelian idealism, we are divided into two worlds: being and not to be, right and wrong, oppressive and oppressed, being and being, which distances objectivism and subjectivism from any ontological discussion. In philosophical terms.

It is difficult, but enlightening, “Because metaphysics interrogates the being, while being, it remains close to the being and does not turn to being as a being” (Heidegger 1983: 55).

It is a misconception to think that Heidegger has imputed metaphysics by destroying it, for it links it in an essential way to Dasein (the being in a simple definition), written clearly in its text: “Metaphysics is the essential event within be-there.

It is the very being-there “(HEIDEGGER 1983: 44). It is by the metaphysical event that the being-there human that establishes relation with the being, but this occurs in the world, it is necessary to be-in-the-world (in the broadest way) and this being demands a non-being relation for being with the Other, who is not the Self, then not-being is also Being.

It can be confused with nothingness, nihilism is an essence of our time, and can lead to the time of emptiness, as Nietzsche thought, and now Lipovetsky (The age of emptiness).

The Trinitarian being demands beyond the Self (which is not the Self because it admits the Other), the Other and the non-Being that is something beyond nothing, as Teilhard de Chardin explains: “nothing-being coincides with fully realized plurality. Pure nothingness is an empty concept, a pseudo-idea “(Chardin, 2006, p. 107).

It is possible for a relationship that goes beyond the level of formal dialogue, this non-being is necessary, an emptiness that admits the Other, different from the Same.

CHARDIN, T. P. Em outras palavras. São Paulo – SP: Martins Fontes, 2006.

HEIDEGGER, E. Que é metafísica. São Paulo – SP: Abril Cultural, 1983. (Coleção Os Pensadores)

This video of Academy of Ideas suggest any questions about Parmenides philosophy:



Seeing, aiming and vision of World

01 Mar

Seeing, aiming and vision of Citizenship of the world can be limited to the sense of vision only, this means to see, to have vision in the visionary sense means to understand the meanings of what is seen, but also to have a broad view of life, of one’s own culture and that of others, and be capable of going beyond preconceptions, seen also in a positive way, that is, the concepts that we have in a certain field.

“The important thing is not what we look at, but what we see,” recalls American poet, naturalist and philosopher H.D. Thoureau (1817-1867), precursor in the defense of nature.

 In philosophy, the bond to the senses has created a limited world view, where preconceptions can be crystallized to what we feel and accept, and render us incapable of going beyond what we see, surpassing the senses and having a culturally more rich It is the worldview that produces fake news, the need for the Other to have our vision, often limited by the horizons, of how we read the world, often without seeing.

Thus it is written in the Bible Lk. 6:41: “Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, and you do not perceive the beam that is in your own eye?”, Knowing how to hear and speak is also a complement to the vision, but there is a vision beyond the senses.

The pragmatism of these visions has penetrated and consolidated in modern Western thought, deepened as culture and now we live what I call the monarchy of the senses, a similar view on the level of empathy and social relations, to what Martha Nussbaum calls the Monarchy of the Fear, which I have not read yet, but I make the speculation that before the fear we went through a cultural process of acquisition of values ​​and among them the fear of the different.

It is urgent to broaden the world view, to create the citizen of the world, the return of nationalism may represent for some a vision of peace, but it is a dangerous cultural, ethical and religious closure capable of producing new wars and conflicts even more cruel than the two wars It is possible a common civilization, a global citizenship or how I prefer a united world.

Martha Nussbaum who is little known outside the Anglo-Saxon world gives his answer:



Virtual reality, vision and clearing

28 Feb

Mankind has always used shadows to make paintings and to open glades other than for its contemporaries, at least for future generations and for their fellows, the cave paintings, now with the Cavern of Chauvet dates back to 32 thousand BC, can demonstrate this. There are a few ways of writing, and some new ones have been thought by Vilém Flusser, who wrote while speaking of the masks: “The software artist’s mask has not been available for a long time. There may be different levels of creativity. Maybe being a writer will be different from being a software expert, and then perhaps inventing the writer. In this respect, we have prejudices with which to break.” (Flusser, 2014, p.191).

Since Plato’s Myth, the idea of ​​a clearing was theorized by mankind, it is different from cave man because it involves a level of intentionality and creativity as Flusser wants, and more recently the Enlightenment is nothing more than this quest. Heidegger drew attention to the world view, the Weltanchauuun, a set of cultural values ​​that build our vision. The central problem of the clearing is that it can be linked to the senses, so it was for the empiricists, but the fourth dimension (already proven) and other superior ones (that may be) give a new dimension of what this vision is now, with virtual realities, increased and mixed this may be even higher.

There will be no lack of fatalistic and apocalyptic, lacking Flusser’s humility, but immersion is already under way with mixed reality, for which various environments are available to the conventional public, since the word lay can be misinterpreted, 3D viewers and software for creation are available in environments made available by tablet and smartphone manufacturers.

It’s true that just as the new media: internet, web, chats, Pinterest and videos have changed our vision of how to see things, does not mean that changed the world view, but seeing beyond what the senses see we are at least expanding our “sensations,” as Marshall McLuhan wished, in explaining the passage of circular houses, explains by giving an aid to anthropologists: “In the same way, the visualist may not see much difference between the TV film, between a Corvair and a Volkswagen, because the difference lies not between two visual spaces, but between a tactile space and a visual.” (McLuhan, 1964, p. 145).

Flusser, V. (2014) Comunicologia: reflexões sobre o futuro. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.

McLuhan, M. (1964) Understanding media: the extensions of Man. New York: McGraw-Hill. 

The same thing happens now with virtual reality, the augmented and the mixed, nor the moment with the greatest potential to become popular, because what changes is not the field of vision, but the empathic relationship that these media possess, adults may not understand, but to young people this is immediate. An entrepreneur and virtual reality expert explains this empathy, Thong Nguyen’s TEDx is very interesting:




The mystery and the spiritual

06 Feb

Both physics and mathematics have already surpassed not only the ideal dimensions: the point, the line, the plane, and the cube, by introducing the fractional dimensions which belong to the fractals immersed in the Hausdorff space, but also by the adoption of the fourth dimension.
The pioneering work was done by Charles H. Hinton (post) in A New Era of Thought (1888), previous to the quantum dimension of Werner Heisenberg and the discovery of the Worm Holes in which already imagine intergalactic trips like see in the fictional film Interstellar (2014),  and the film Contact (1997, of the book of Carl Sagan).
Hinton after having a dialogue with Kantian idealism will say about the human sensorial nature: “in the instinctive and sensorial perception of man and nature, everything is hidden, what reflection then brings to consciousness. We can be conscious a little higher than each individual man when we look at men. In some, this consciousness reaches an extreme point, and becomes a religious apprehension. “, That is, it admitted the spiritual aspect (post). 
It is in this dimension above the individual that Teilhard Chardin worked his noosphere, there may be a greater awareness when people work together, that is, obvious on the human plane, but not so obvious on the spiritual plane, it does not mean just being in agreement, but admitting a spiritual sphere, a noon (spirit) sphere, the noosphere.
As it is possible to penetrate this dimension, to make men work spiritually together, this is above prayer or spiritual meditation, in which one rises individually and even today for medical treatment is commendable, but a collective spiritual action.
The interesting thing is to note that both Chardin, who thought of a kind of cosmic consciousness, which was worth a departure from Catholic dogmas (he was a priest), but also the mathematician Charles Hinton seems to be moving towards the fourth dimension, Salvador Dali also spoke of this in his Mystic Manifesto (1951) and in conversations with the mathematician Thomas Banchoff.
Like Hinton’s philosophical discourse, Chardin’s philosophical anthropology in one of his seminal works “The Human Phenomenon” seems to address aspects of the same theme, a spirituality that leads to a larger collective consciousness and to feel the Universe as a body and as part of the Noosphere, approaching that which is substantial from that which is spiritual.
The reason that both Chardin and Hinton were discarded in their time is that they sought to penetrate a mystery, which Einstein also penetrated with physicist Rosen, wormholes are also called Einstein-Rosen Bridge (figure), being consistent with the theory of relativity.
What is beyond the physical, or the metaphysical is not always contradictory to it, but may be the solution to some of the mysteries of nature, 90% of the universe is mass or dark energy, little known, and recent discoveries are huge, see the Higgs particle (incorrectly called God) and black holes with several new discoveries.