Arquivo para a ‘Cognition’ Categoria

Truth, Certainty and the Self

07 Nov

We are full of certainties, which is different from reason although we often say that we are “right”, certainty is a cognitive aspect of the subject (idealism will be called subjective) that is lived by certain conviction, truth on the other hand is ontological , that is, it is of Being.
What did St. Augustine mean by saying that Truth dwells within every Being, being religious means the presence of God, but it can be thought of in a broader cosmological sense, we are all part of the same universe, and while Being though part, we belong to the whole, the cosmos and its complexity.
Thus ontological Truth are properties of statements as far as they can be proven, the Greeks use the expression Aletheia, in the a-lethe (not forgetting) sense which is still widely used in Western civilization, but there is another meaning which is “Language it is the house of being ”.
Latin carries a meaning of truth as a logical statement, in the opposite sense of Truth, although Latin has developed scholastic ontology, in fact, it is bound by the study of language, whose nominalist truth has created great controversies with realism.
A third meaning is the Jewish Emunach, from which comes the ethical-moral concept from which almost all Western ethics is descended, and not by chance is linked to “law”, but in Judaism it is within each person, and in this sense linked to the idea of “faithfulness” to rules and laws.
Modern society has built two new modalities of truth, philosophers prefer the word plurivocity, the utilitarian and pragmatic, what is useful is true, the rest is disposable and changeable. Just to explain plurivocity is not univocal.
It was through Husserl that ontology and general metaphysics gave way to new concepts, where the idea of Being can be seen within a formal and material science of essences.
The importance of cosmological discussion is that it being in the field of theology and psychology can and should be seen in contrast to dualistic ontology sees the world separated in body and spirit, curious because one of the most commonly used metaphors to define the set of souls is the body.
One of the best-known passages is the letter to Ephesians: “If the whole body were an eye, where would the hearing be? If the whole body were heard, where would the smell be? ”(1 Corinthians 12:17).
The basis of spiritualism and Pharisaism is ontological dualism, one sees the spirit and the other only the body, and this comes from idealism, where reality is all spiritual, matter is an illusory representation of truth.

Andy Postner is co-founder of Capital Good Fund (CGF), a nonprofit microcredit based in Providence Rhode, Island, and created ways outs of poverty, see he´s TEdX:


Euphoria and Serenity

04 Nov

The opposite of serenity is not irritation or anger, this is the opposite of calmness, that is euphory, we have already posted the relationship between serenity and Phronesis, a Greek word that could be translated as practical wisdom, central in Hans Georg Gadamer’s book, and which in our view is approaches serenity.

This is because we live in times of impulsive reactions to the questions posed, in which after euphoria comes depression and discouragement, which at heart are always lacking in phronesis, though many draw attention to action, to practice, but detached from wisdom.

In Truth and Method II (second volume), prevailing statements about the dialogical structure of language thought to guide the world (and our worldview) and the clearer relationship between thought and language.

His clarification of the historical question was Gadamer who overcame Dilthey’s and others’ discussion of romantic historicity, his philosophical hermeneutics deepening as a hermeneutic of listening, listening and listening, the true view of the Other.

Gadamer in the second volume gives structure to a phrase by the Russian writer Leon Tolstoy: “There is no greatness where there is no simplicity, goodness and truth,” if truth is hard to tell, when practiced in wisdom Phronesis it opens a “clearing”, the Listening to each other.

Does the universe “hear” us, do plants and animals “hear” us, we need to understand their language and in this sense language is not anything just talking, it is listening.

In the video below Gadamer portrays the history of philosophy, but with phronesis and truth:



Google’s quantum chip

28 Oct

The first important fact of the Sycamore chip, which works using quantum principles, is that it became known for a scientific article in the respected journal Nature.
Second is the speed and accuracy of the 200-second calculation that a supercomputer using the classic principles of binary digits would take 10,000 years to do.
The third important point is applications ranging from molecular processes that will benefit from this breakthrough, the development of better electric car batteries to replace fossil fuels, and less environmentally aggressive fertilizers.
The idea of bits is also at an end, as well as their duality, qubits can assume numerous states between 0 and 1, can also have simultaneous states, in a phenomenon called superposition, where they can represent 0 and 1 simultaneously, and with it itself a result beyond the technique.
You can handle even larger amounts of data than you do today with BigData, create chemicals or pharmaceuticals, and perform risk and safety analyzes quickly and accurately, for example, to avoid risk situations.
Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google and one of the authors of the article, states that “it will also allow us to understand the universe more deeply,” which means changing our worldview.
In the following video, Google’s demonstration of the supremacy of its quantum chip.


Burnout Society 2: Procrastination

16 Oct

Several references to Byung Chul Han’s book have already been posted here: The Society of Burnout the Pressure of Performance, the “Disciplinary Systems”, but especially the excess of activism leads many people to fall into borderline situations: mental tiredness, panic syndrome can reach Burnout’s syndrome, but only the simple “contemplative vita” solves, I don’t think so. 
One effect of when our life around us begins to become disorganized, it is impossible to always stay organized, is that the difficulty of knowing where to start can lead to procrastination. So both contemplation and action must come with some rationality that does not limit both of extending their limits in the positive sense, having passion in action, and having “emptiness” and breathing in contemplation, it is very common that neither are in fact well done.
One of the reasons that day to day can be driven to procrastination is because activity becomes totally routine and blaming the machines for this is entering the Fordist system, where activities and attitudes are routine and there is no creative way to do it. them.
Also creativity can be misleading, if we have to make a cake every day, of course it is possible to improve, but we must remember that our “cake” is well made in a way, so what is needed is to put a dose of satisfaction, of love and even greater care than before, for example, make it more hygienic, adjust sugar and salt, choose the best flour.
Contemplation too, I discovered after many years of reading, had the technique of making it paused and without “gluttony”, but I discovered very recently that I skipped “passages” that I didn’t like or disagree with, now I see that they are the most important for me they make me think.
I read these days, because I received the Nobel Prize of Literature a thought from Austrian writer Peter Handke: “A good thing, all of a sudden, forgetting the story, the past, stop feeling that present happiness is threatened by what it used to be.”
This means that I should not just focus on reading what I like, I must also leave the attachments and longings of the past, to live the present happiness, it is not just the hurts or joys we have from the past, we really need to cut and live the gift.
Thus we can organize the demand for what is disorganization, combat the abatement and procrastination of what we have to do, and finally do each action as a meditation, that is my addition to Byung Chul Han’s deep thinking, the action can be contemplative.


At exam or the butterfly flight

15 Oct

Byung Chul Han wrote in “Ar the Exam” talking about the influence of social media today on our thoughts and actions, which he calls psychopolitics, that the “gift of power reduces the improbability of accepting my selection of course, my decision willingness on the part of others ”(Chul Han, 2013, p. 17), which can lead to lack of reflection and swarm.

He wrote of this reflection that: “The word of power suddenly eliminates the noise that inflates. It produces a silence, namely, the space for action. ”(Idem). He also wrote, from reading Flusser’s “Digital Turn”: “that the human being is… an artist who designs alternative worlds. The difference between art and science disappears ”(p. 82).

It dislikes and is strange that Flusser’s “new anthropology” is grounded in the “Judeo-Christianity” that “sees in human being only dust” (Flusser apud Chul Han, p. 83) which I like and refer to. It is precisely in this line that he will say “There is no subject and no object: we can no longer be subjects, for there are no more objects to which we could be subject, and no hard core that could be subject to any object” (quoting Flusser from “Media Culture ”, P. 213s).

Dislikes and does not accept Flusser’s messianism and says that “it does not do justice to the current topology of the digital connection” (Chul Han, p. 83), but I like both and I fully accept Han’s idea that in the Digital Swarm we lose perspective of reflection, or how he likes contemplation for action, I counter the idea of ​​the butterfly.

The butterfly because of the butterfly effect of E. Lorenz, his famous thesis that “butterfly wing beating can influence the weather in Texas”, ie small individual or group actions can generate the reverse effect of the swarm, but this effect exists and became evident with the modern digital media that Flusser little knew, died in 1991 the Web was just born.

Flight of the erratic and disconcerting butterfly nevertheless has direction and meaning, its birth is also curious it is born dragging like a larva and when it leaves the cocoon it is prepared for flight, dresses in multiple colors and shapes, it is less noted that the bees, but also does her “work”, I would say she is the artist of nature, performative and colorful.

The comparison with the swarm is because, as Han wrote, again quoting Flusser: “we too are ‘digital computers’ with buzzing punctual possibilities,” but then makes a harsh criticism of Flusser, there is an alternate digital where the butterfly takes flight, the art meets contemplation, and the birth of the present “active” world without reflection is not from now, see our previous post about a 1909 writing.



Fear of machines is justified

14 Oct

In 1909, the British writer published the novel The Machine Stops ((England, Archibald Constable), spoke of a dark future in which we would be controlled and serviced by machines, so the fear is not of today.

Little or nothing is said about the educational gap around the world, the ignorance that classroom backgrounds have pushed ahead of social media and come to power in many countries, it is not unique to Brazil or the United States, nor is it even focused on the powers that be.

If there is social support, if there is social support, it means that there is a basis for this, and we analyze and explain this dystopian future.

Thus, it is not the exclusive problem of machines entering the industry, the so-called Revolution 4.0, but of an educational gap that can even be reversed using social media, artificial intelligence and the organization of information using technology, Web 3.0.

On the other side in 2018, Brand Smith and Harry Shum, respectively Microsoft President and Vice President (available in PDF The Future Computed: Artificial Intelligence and Its Role in Society) who said while sleeping, the virtual assistant, be it Cortana, Siri or Alexa Connected to other virtual devices in a “smart home” ensures that when you wake up there will be a breakfast to your liking, is still imaginary, as in general the devices and environments change.

I mention the case of a mouse designed for engineering and architecture that took the place of the promised light pen, which seemed to be the most suitable device for personal computers, also not promised in many futuristic essays.

Another case is the Semantic Web, which with users’ adherence to Web 2.0 (blogs, twitters, websites), has led to a scenario of growing misinformation, but that Web 3.0 could reverse the course.

We can and will be ready for a Web 4.0 with artificial intelligence helping to filter and organize information in the very near future, what relationship may with intelligent machines the holographic future with avatars and social multi-presence is uncertain but will come.

It is more worthwhile to think about preventing the dangers and looking forward with hope, to imagine that it is possible to block or end an initiated stage of technological development.

There are dangers, yes, there have always been, but the danger of a new world war is more related to great world interests than machines, of course they can and are already used by them.

In 2011 a documentary about Machine Stops was made and it talked about war, not about machines controlling men, but about human warfare.





Common sense and gratitude

10 Oct

The common sense from which Popper wrote is not the simple objectivity or subjectivity developed by idealist philosophy, or the intersubjectivity that connects the subjectivity of individuals or discourses, is the possibility of attaining knowledge of things, situations and people that leads to knowledge. in a way of knowing that they have cultural, social or even beliefs that lead them to proactive attitudes.
So you take acts done in isolation into a virtuous circle of attitudes, of course Popper did not speak of gratitude, but Marcel Mauss wrote in the 1920s the theory of giving, or the “gift” of simply rewarding or rewarding positive attitudes, But there is no problem in having remuneration, this is its idealistic aspect, even in this case there may be gratuity if made as a gift to those who receive the service.
What leads to gratitude rather than reward is how the word etymological origin is the notion of gratuitousness that must accompany even those acts for which there is just compensation, without being an instrumentalized or corrupting form of that act.
Thus collaboration, cooperation and even totally free actions that may involve values, such as paid wages, which should be thought of as acts of brotherhood and compassion as those involved in that act.
Just as continuous acts lead to an attitude, so continuous gratitude can lead to gratitude, can and should not because there is a difference in both cases that it is the fact that if it does not become an act and a social gratitude, even though attitude and gratitude can getting lost and leading to discontinuity of acts and gratitude, this is a problem in certain cultures.


Gratitude, the question of science and common sense

09 Oct

A person may be grateful without understanding the goals of gratitude, but they will not understand the goals if they do not know the true motivations of gratitude, that is, remaining in gratitude can be free of knowledge, but have gratitude (make it a habit healthy) requires going beyond the simple gratuitous act, knowing it and cultivating it to work in society.
Thus, it is necessary to separate appreciable common sense from objective knowledge, which is to dissect the object of knowledge that can be done both inductively and intuitively, both paths are valid, so it is not necessary conventional but intentional science.
To talk about science we need to talk about Karl Popper, he also speculated about being things, said about common sense is valid, but upholding the truths of it is something bigger. But objective knowledge, he said, was an eternal pursuit of his life, in his words: “The essays in this book break with a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle – the tradition of this common sense theory of knowledge.
I am a great admirer of common sense, which I claim is essentially self-critical ”, But to uphold it as truth requires more: “… if I am willing to uphold to the end the essential truth of common sense realism, I regard the common sense theory of knowledge as a subjectivist blunder.
This blunder has dominated Western philosophy, ”as understood by feelings, passions, and even sustaining nonobjective questions.
He goes on: “I have been trying to eradicate it and replace it with an objective theory of knowledge, essentially conjectural. This may be a bold claim, but I do not apologize for it ” (Popper, 1975, p. 07).
Popper’s division into three worlds shows a weakness in his theory by separating knowledge into three worlds: P1 the world of nature (or physical in the sense of physis), the world of minds (World 2) and the world of ideas (World 3), prioritizes the latter.
In a solution to a problem, people can attack or accept the solution found, but not the person who presented it, so it gives a greater value than the world of ideas (World 3) has to Popper, rather than the World of minds (World 2) who developed them.
Gratitude is just the opposite, because the minds that develop solutions to the problem (World 2) are more important than the ideas that drive them (World 3), although subjectivism, which is proper to the subject, may also have weaknesses.
What embraces these three distinct aspects: Nature, Knowledge and Ideas, are ontological aspects, for the three are proper to Being, gratitude is one of these aspects.

Popper, K. (1975) Conhecimento objetivo (Objective Knowledge). Brazil, São Paulo: Editora da Universidade de São Paulo.


(Português) Percepção, imagens e psicopoder

24 Sep

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Idealisms and science

17 Sep

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were marked by scientific, technical achievements due to the Industrial Revolution, with a world-wide expanding and flourishing trade, which gave rise to confidence that humanity seemed to flourish and history ruled by Reason, as the Enlightenment alike triumph.

With few dissonant voices, Kierkegaard first and then Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, the rest seemed to flow in a full and satisfying turn, the colonies were not spoken, and the Arab and Eastern world seemed to submit to the Western order, but there was something to disturb the colonial struggles. and the danger of war, which would see its outbreak in the 19th century. The science that seemed to do so much had an Achilles heel, had not yet solved the problem of social disputes, not only that which subjected workers and colonies, but especially the trade wars and disputes that came to subject the defeated.

It was the exacerbation of nationalism, which now returns, the trade war between nations, now between the US and China, but also between Iran and Saudi Arabia, that made the first to be called war of war, with 10 million dead. Amid the two wars emerged the Vienna Circle, neopositivism and neologicism, among several other names a prominent scientific name was Karl Popper, among others, such as Godel, Carnap, Hans Kelsen and Moritz Schlick.

In the scientific field besides Husserl who criticizes the method, Popper will also propose that the positivist inductive method presented itself to science as a volatile knowledge, which could not guarantee anything about the constancy of observed facts, and it is not possible to affirm that any assumption is the truth. with absolute precision, what Heisenberg physics already said.

But his return to Parmenides is more essential, where idealism began, and there is its ontological root: ‘being is’ and ‘non-being is not’, there is no contradiction or third hypothesis.

By stating in the previous post the return to root, it will not be in its heyday of German idealism, or even Hegel’s sacralization, Marx will say that there are new against old Hegelians, but in the origin we will find something essence to the idealism and enlightenment described by Karl Popper .

In the book “The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment” (Popper, 2014) that we find several pearls of idealistic foundations, the first in the preface by editor Arne Friemuth Petersen, he states that he gave the lecture quoting “To be or not Of Hamlet, to which Popper himself interrupted, stating more or less this:

“You see, Parmenides was neither a language analyst nor an ontologist, but a cosmologist. Your “Being” has nothing to do with ontology. ”(Popper, XIII, 2014).

I was also amazed to read this right from the preface to the book that speaks of the worldview at the origin of idealism and also of the Enlightenment, not only in Parmenides, but according to Popper himself also in Xenophanes cosmology and Parmenides epistemology (page XV). , which comes to clarify a non-rational origin, as one might suppose, he will propose that Heraclitus (everything changes) and Parmenides (nothing changes) “were reconciled and combined in modern science” (p. XX), and thus faces of it. currency.

In the notes of the Brazilian post-impression, fragments found after printing, there are several notes by Popper, the seventh that says: “Historical hypothesis: Tales is the inventor of the rational discussion method”, new surprise, but the Enlightenment was born there. back.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.