Arquivo para a ‘Cognition’ Categoria

Bruno, besides the heretic

15 Jan

I read in my youth Giordano Bruno’s “La cena de las cenizas”, one of six dialogues written in Italian, written during his two-year stay in London (1583-1585).

The Dominican priest discussed the Copernican Revolution in this book, and although he was accused of heretic, his discussion was no other than Christian eschatology in his worldview beyond his time glimpsing the ways of the infinite world and his view of God.

He paid with his own life, being burned alive on February 17, 1600 in Rome, but all his commentators claim that their dialogue opened the way for a new link between the paths of cosmology and philosophy, but contrary to the medieval Christian worldview.

His philosophy went beyond the limitations of reason (mathematical and logical) using for his bold vision an amalgamation of basic facts and cosmic reality, but without neglecting a reflection that led to humanistic action.

Also fleeing empiricism and using mental experiments from which he deduced the ramifications of his worldview, some interpreters claim that he used reasoning similar to what Einstein used for his intuitions about the universe.

Referring to the cosmos as infinite reality, Bruno went beyond the spheres of Aristotle and Ptolemy, to him as well as to Kepler, Paracelsus and Nicolas de Cusa the universe is a living being that holds an essential unity that unites all particular beings, which are but emanations of the whole, this cosmological view influenced the entire Renaissance.

His worldview, which did not triumph in the Renaissance, perished and was interrupted by the emergence of Cartesian reason, Hume’s idealism and empiricism, but deserves to be reread and studied as a strong influence on Renaissance thought.

Here’s what was said about Giordano Bruno in the famous cosmos series:





Complex thinking

14 Jan

Nothing favors obscurantism more than the idea that is possible to make what is complex simpler, ignore the organicity of social, ecological and cultural problems and how they compose themselves.

Complex thinking is born from the idea of nature and the universe as organisms that are increasingly mysterious and whose structure is gradually revealed, through the hard work of those who first admit the complexity of phenomena and second resist temptation to simplify them by imagining that simple solutions and ideas would be enough to solve them.

Man himself is but a complexification of nature, they agree with this not only the most elaborate scientific thought but also theologians like Teilhard Chardin.

Scientific simplification is called reductionism, religious simplification reductionism, cultural and social simplification has no specific name, but it can be said that it is confused with ignorance and dualism.

Morin explains in Introduction to Complex Thinking: “the ancient pathology of thought gave an independent life to the myths and gods it created. The modern pathology of the spirit is in the hypersimplification that makes it blind in the face of the complexity of the real” (Morin, 2008 p. 22).

In the scientific field explains it epistemological blindness: “Those disputed between Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Feyerabend, etc., are ignored. Now this blindness is part of our barbarism. It makes us understand that we are always in the barbaric age of ideas. We are always in the prehistory of the human spirit.” (Morin, 2008, p. 23).

Nothing more complex than reducing it to the simple, as Bachelard stated, there is no simple, there is only simplified, which most often mutilates and deforms the phenomenon, inducing thought to obscure liquidity.

Morin, E. (2008) Introduction to complex thinking. 5th. ed. Lisbon: Institute Piaget.


A re-reading of the three wise men

03 Jan

In times of fundamentalism and religious intolerance, a re-reading of the Magi that they have adopted and also “contemplating” the birth of Jesus is essential for dialogue.
The first necessary is that God has communicated with the “wizards” of the East, he can reopen closed hearts for reconnection (religion of the Latin verb religare which is to reconnect), for they were not even religious in the conventional sense, but
magicians and God reconnected them.
The second is that the divine communication was through stars, which means that they could understand this language and that God spoke in their human language, that is, there are forms beyond the dogmatic communication between God and men, even non-believers.
Cosmology is an ancient and fundamental part of philosophy, its evolution and composition studies the universe, and comes from antiquity, the pre-Socratics studied it, also seek the explanation of the origin and transformation of nature and the universe and build myths and divinity, creating a relationship between mortal and imortal beings.
So God is not so indiferente to this, a universal proposition should not disregard cosmology, and if one wishes to construct a cosmogony, that is the beginning and end of all life, then an eschatology is also constructed, and Christian eschatology may be related to Is not this, after all, God the beginning and the end of everything?
Thesecond re-reading, the question about of the stars, in fact even today they are looking for cosmological evidences ofthe star that the Magi followed, a star, a come t, this could help to date Christmas of a more precise date.
Theologians such as Teilhard Chardin did not fail to consider the cosmological hypothesis, and the notion of a Christ-centered universe helps a non-fundamentalist interpretation of a more complex eschatology, and so we have recourse in the previous post (in 1 / 4 /2019) to St. Gregory of Nazianzen.
The third is that the magi were “contemplating” the boy-God, in addition to the active vita, Hannah Arendt also spoke of her in The Human Condition (published in 1956, with Brazilian edition of 2009), which comes from the conference Work, Work and Action (Brazilian publication of 2006), but already spoke of this question Aristotle in the bios politikos and the vita negotiosa or actuosa in Augustine, and, recently Byung Chull Han in The society of the fatigue.
But they did not come to worship only, where the element offered incense is essentially this, but also brought gold in the sense of wealth and myrrh in the sense of sacrifices offered.
Magi should signify the opening of Christianity to other languages ​​which are also an expression of the infinite, of the universe, and of the sacredly constructed life in all and in all.


Spirit, World and unit

08 Jul

There is something in our consciousness that we can not define exactly what it is, a spirit, a mechanism of decision, a “vision of the world,” the certain thing is that what we call interiority has a deep layer that the philosophers of classical antiquity have called of “anima”, that which gives life, that animates and that is ultimately also a vision of the world.
Whether we like it or not, we have in the interior an “anima”, already the pre-Socratic philosopher Pythagoras (580-496 BC) believed in the metempsychosis that was the transmigration of the soul from one body to the other after death, and so in his worldview he believed in immortality of the soul.
Plutarch was also the author of “Consumption of the Flesh”, a theme that not only speaks of the soul, but initiates a separation between the body of the flesh and the immortal soul.
The theme is deepened by Plato in The Republic, his anima mundi (“soul of the world, from ancient Latin had another sense that was the” psyché tou pantós “), has the worldview of a shared soul or regent force of the universe by which the divine thought can manifest itself in laws that affect matter, so there is an immaterial force, which is at the same time inseparable from matter, which provides form and movement.
His doctrine was not endorsed by Aristotle, who in his work De anima, approaches more knowledge or active intellect, from which reflect from the Stoic and Neoplatonic schools, so the indirect link between Plotinus and Plato passes through Aristotle.
Plotinus will be a rare philosopher of antiquity attempting a non-dualistic concept of soul, the soul described in his work Eleades, part of the concept of the hypostasis that proceeds from the creative power, which is actually a third hypostase, a nous that generates the soul of the world.
Among the medieval thinkers who maintained the ideas of the anima mundi are Ficino, Pico dela Mirandola and Giordano Bruno with hermetic teachings, Cambridge pioneers, German vitalists Angelus Silesius, Goethe and Schelling, who had great influence on Bergson and through him Vladimir Vernadsky and Teilhard de Chardin.
Schelling wrote The Soul of the World (1798), although idealist influence guarded a worldview trying to unite organic and inorganic nature by connecting it to a continuum.

The noosphere here is the idea that a “soul-world” can cooperate with the contemporary world and a totalizing vision, the world view of the planet as a “common house” and that has a “soul-world” present and can not sustain a citizenship. Roger Scruton (75 years) is a contemporary author who tackles controversially the theme.

The noosphere here is the idea that a “soul-world” can cooperate with the contemporary world and a totalizing vision, the world view of the planet as a “common house” and that has a “soul-world” present and can not sustain a citizenship. Roger Scruton (75 years) is a contemporary author who tackles controversially the theme.



Serenity, diagnosis and education

29 Nov

The apparent cause of our day-to-day problems seems to be the latest advances, innovations, social life, social media “media” and human work in many areas, we embark on the easy discourse of liquidity, hypercommunication, and excess information, this diagnosis is correct.
With the wrong diagnosis, we prescribe the wrong medicine, put more exercise into our lives, an exercise life, Sloterdijk would say, more natural food and more active life for it, fault of diagnosis error and absence of a clear future.
The clearing can only come from the thought, the appeal to practice is the worst remedy we have not have a weekend of rest and recreational activities because there are matters “urgent.”
The diagnosis of this current drama was already in Nietzsche (1834-1900), wrote in Human too Human: “For lack of rest our civilization is headed for a new barbarism. At no other time did the assets, that is, the restless ones, avail so much. Thus it belongs to the necessary corrections to be made as to the character of humanity to greatly strengthen the contemplative element, ‘a clear indication of the date of the present problem.
It may even be earlier, Kierkegaard (1813-1855) wrote: “the remedy for anxiety is to be as we truly are,” pointing out at the beginning of modernity the ontological problem of which humanity suffers a great deal, wanting to be what one is not , even if the daring and the search for new horizons is good, it must be done in solidarity with the Other.
The diagnosis, said Priest Manuel Antunes, whose birth celebrated 100 years on November 3, is to counter the homo mechanicus, the fruit of modernity, which created what the Portuguese wise man called “foam man”: light, without consistency, without fidelity and without strong convictions.
The education that must follow must be highly dialogic, comprehensive and transdisciplinary, defended Father Manuel Antunes, defend Edgar Morin, Basarab Nicolescu and so many others, however a method is necessary so that it does not stop in the speech.
The method proposed by Gadamer in his reading of Heidegger is the hermeneutic circle, the possibility that from preconceptions we arrive at a fusion of horizons and a greater possibility of re-reading of the present time, outlining ways for the future.


Phronesis and serenity

28 Nov

It is no coincidence that Gadamer adopts Phronesis as one of the key elementsin his discourse on Truth and Method, incompletely translated as prudence, the term actually to be confused with “wisdom” practice of serenity, free translation.
This is because in our view, Gadamer is a rehabilitator of practical philosophy, those who call for practicality, objectivity (sic! Idealist), are impractical for lack of wisdom, impulsive and active, typical of the society of fatigue.
In the Greek sense, ethics is added, but it is not a private knowledge in the moral sense, but public and social, which aims to minimize exacerbations of ego self-impulsiveness, when placed in a perspective of the work of art reaches a level of universal principle.
This includes the work of art because it was the excessive centralization in the self that reduced the relation of ethics to aesthetics, public amorality, slavery is not a new aesthetic, not even the negativity sometimes necessary to art, is its absence by lack of relationship with ethics and the training process.
Gadamer retrieves phronesis from Aristotle’s proposal in the Nicomachean Ethics, where he seeks to establish the articulation between the universal and the particular, still more between the individual and society, within historical forms of life, but with a common ethos.
One can thus establish a relationship with education, at a time when one talks about a school without a party, one has to think that there is another, without wanting neutrality because it will be an illusion, we explore in a post to follow.
We need to establish the relation of the phonesis with the techné and the episteme, which is the theoretical knowledge and know-how of techné, which is etymologically linked to art (τέχνη) and to crafts.
The harmony between the three forms of wisdom results in practical wisdom, praxis


What is clarification for Charles H. Hinton

13 Nov

The writing that preceded quantum physics, hermeneutic philosophy and a new spirituality (or ancient in the sense of true), brought new and curious reasoning.
When speaking of a greater dimension of space (Higher Space) and greater dimension of Being (Heigher Being): “We have been subject to a limitation of the most absurd character. let us open our eyes and see the facts” (Hinton, 1888), appear simple but need been trained, said about himself: “I worked at the subject without the slightest success. All was mere formalism. But by adopting the simplest means, and by a more thorough knowledge of space, the whole flashed clear.” (idem)
Clear more: “We are conscious of somewhat higher than each individual man when we look at men. In some, this consciousness reaches an extreme pitch, and becomes a religious apprehension. But in none is it otherwise than instinctive. The apprehension is sufficiently definite to be certain. But it is not expressible to us in terms of the reason”.
Part of the physical aspect, the idea that “our apparent isolation as bodies of one another is by no means as necessary to assume as it would seem,” here his intuitive relationship with quantum physics that would only become reality at the beginning of the twentieth century admitting that at that moment it was only a possibility, but it added one more point: “and if we were to examine the matter closely, we should find a natural relationship that explained our consciousness to be limited as it is today” (Hinton, 1888)
Hilton states: “our apparent isolation as bodies of one another is by no means as necessary to assume as it would seem,” we may say we are related to the whole, make a mathematical argument for this. If spatial forms can only be symbolic of four-dimensional forms: and if we do not deal directly with spatial forms, but treat it only by symbols in the plane – as in analytic geometry – we are trying to obtain the perception of the upper space through symbols of symbols, and the task is hopeless “(Hinton, 1888).
He will say in an almost mystical whole, but compatible with the thought of Teilhard Chardin for example, “Instead of an abstraction, what we have to serve is a reality, for even our real things are only shadows. We are part of a great being, in whose service and with the love of whom, the greatest demands of duty are fulfilled. “(Hinton, 1888)
Then it will give the sentence: “The power to see with our bodily eye is limited to the three-dimensional section” (Hilton, 188) and will from there create its vision of the 4th. dimension: the Tesseractus.

Hinton, Charles H. (1888) The new era of thought. London: S. Sonnenschein & Co. (Chap. 7, 9, 10 and 11)


The cure of the blind from birth

26 Oct

In his Essay on Blindness (in brazilian edition of the Companhia das Letras, 2002), José Saramago gives a very simple lesson on ontology: “Within us there is something that has no name, this is what we are”, social interaction, culture and politics reveals us gradually to others.
In a way we all see a little and we all have “blind spots” and we need the Other.
Among all the biblical miracles, certainly many consider the resurrection of Lazarus as something extraordinary, but I remember many cases of people who have been in a coma for years and come back to life, I consider the case of the most fantastic birth blind (John 9: 6- 7), why?
A person who has never seen does not have the functional cognitive part prepared to discern the worlds, until the 2 years are the sensations of distance and obstacles that are stimulated attached to the movements, until the child walks, until the age of the symbolic constructions where each object of the complex universe of things is identified.
Therefore to cure blindness, is ultimately to reconfigure the symbolic system of a blind, in a democracy means to grope from the “infantile” universe until reaching a symbolic universe of values ​​that must be present in a mature democracy: respect, tolerance and discussions the symbolic universe.
We would say that democracy in Brazil has matured, it has had little space in history to develop, it is at the end of the critical age of adolescence, energetic parents seem to solve problems, but at the same time they distance youth from dialogue.
But there is another passage that is that of the blind Timaeus, who wants to be cured of blindness, is the case of some in Brazilian democracy, and asks Jesus: “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” Mk 10,49 ) and Jesus heals him and says, “Thy faith hath saved thee.”
The vow of those who have true faith and who want to cure true blindness can decide an election, if we want peace, justice and a country that will make us proud, we can reflect on our own blindness, the difficulty of seeing everything clearly and ask for healing


Wikipedia and Artificial Intelligence

24 Oct

Having already almost surpassed the point of singularity (see our post), the point that the machine would surpass human intelligence, the question now turns to consciousness and a well-considered point is the question of consciousness.
In this sense the main criticism is the perpetuation of prejudices, which would avoid what I call hermeneutics, but it is an incorrect view of the evolution of digital technology, for example, the use of Digital Ontologies and the ability to seek scientific studies outside of Wikipedia.
This is what recently announced an article in The Verge, and the most serious omission after researching scientists who are omitted from Wikipedia, was to note that 82% of written biographies are about men.
In a blog post, according to The Verge website, John Bohannon, director of science at Primer, explains the development of Quicksilver tool to read 500 million original documents, sift through the most cited numbers and then write a basic article about the work of these scientists not mentioned in Wikipedia.
Two examples of illustrious women found and written for AI are Teresa Woodruff, a scientist who designed mice ovaries using 3D printers, was cited by Time magazine in 2013 with one of the most influential people in the world scientist, and the other case is that of Jessica Wade, a physicist at Imperial College London, who wrote the new entry for Pineau.
Wade was one of the scientists who said “Wikipedia is incredibly tantalizing, and the underrepresentation of women in science is particularly bad,” and praised Quicksilver stating that with it you can quickly find large amounts of information very quickly.
Wikipedia will have to evolve with Machine Learning tool, this may happen in the coming years, the fact that there are specific tools for this does not invalidate Wikipedia, shows that it has weaknesses and should be corrected


The expulsion of the Other

23 Oct

Byung-Chul Han’s gaze on contemporaneity could not be more authentic for the author of , the Salvation of the Beautiful and the Aroma of Time, among other books of course, but has in its first pages the relationship with all this and the beautiful: “If a flower had in itself its ontic fullness, it would not need to be contemplated” (Han, 2016, 13), this sentence is paradoxical but it is not, it is in his book “A expulsão do Outro” (the expulsion of the Other) (Han, 2016).
The author analyzes the question [in Max Scheler] of Saint Augustine to attribute “in a strange and dangerous way ° a necessity to plants:
“That men behold them, as if, through a knowledge of their being guided by love, they experienced something analogous to redemption” [Han apud Scheler, 2016, p. 13).
Han clarifies that knowledge seen in this way is redemption, but it should be noted that there is no way in this form to separate subject from object in contemplation, which is discussed at length in his other book, The Society of Fatigue. object while another.
In this the author distinguishes the simple news or information, “to which the dimension of otherness is utterly lacking” (idem, page 13), that which would be able to reveal a new world, a new understanding of what it really is, suddenly that the new one appears (idem).
Going back to Heidegger, he asserts that all this false objectivity means nothing other than “otherwise this blindness to events” (Han, 2016, 14).
Although his view is excessively pessimistic about the network and the digital, he is right in saying that “proximity brings in itself distance as its dialectical opposite. The elimination of distance does not generate more closeness, but rather destroys it “(Han, 2016, p.15) and pronounces it categorically, which in the absence of distance or the identical that it creates contains life.
He retakes the theme of another book “The Agony of Eros”, saying that “in pornography all bodies resemble” and the body is reduced to sexual does not know anything else.
He makes a quick analysis of the animation film Anomalisa (pictured above) made by Charlie Kaufman in 2015, which reveals the hell of the identical, puts the painting Golconda by René Magritte, the Belgian surrealist in his book “Swarm”.
The book also analyzes the terror of authenticity, fear and alienation before analyzing the language and thought of the Other, modern thought is nothing else as a consequence of the “forgetting of being”, the separation of subject and object, expulsion from the other.
HAN, Byung Chul. A expulsão do Outro (portuguese edition). Lisbon: Relógio d´água. 2016.