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Arquivo para a ‘Cognition’ Categoria

Immanence, transcendence and cristianism

24 May

Certainly the search for a true spirituality has one thing in common: it is a search for happiness and peace, this is particularly tragic in times of crisis and low light, it seems almost unattainable this state.
Let us return to two concepts of phenomenology: the transcendent that is inner and the transcendental that is external and allows some form of relation with the objects of the world, then any relation of immanence would be denied, seems an inevitable consequence because it reinforces the classical opposition between transcendence and immanence .
The Holy Spirit allows man some form of immanence, for example, for our intelligence and our interiority we ask for the light, and one of the names most appropriate to the Holy Spirit, in the sense that Christianity gives him is Paraclete, which means both defender and comforter, without him we would be plunged into anguish and frailty.
Thus, in admitting the transcendence of our interior, we must admit that we have somehow the possibility of the consciousness of something, an essential form of phenomenology, and it allows us an immanence of the objects, not only through the senses, but in a high way, a superior transcendence, and can be justified by the existence of a superior transcendental.
It is not a force or an energy, but a form of Being, which means to be in the full light, in the Heideggerian sense being in the “clearing”, of course there must be several requirements for it, which is ultimately a fullness of Being, fleeting and non-permanent, in the video proposal of the previous post (by Jonathan Haidt), a ladder or to use another image of the Tales of Narnia (book of Clive Staples Lewis), which are basically Christian, a passage inside a mobile takes it to the kingdom of Narnia, from which films were made as well.
It is a metaphorical way of rethinking the “fatigue” of the world, in a more spiritualized way than the phenomenology proposes, but as a method is similar.
The experiences and memories were thought by phenomenology, and if we think in the Christian sense of experiences and memories of what should be the life of love of brotherhood and love of the Other “as” himself and “as” Jesus taught us, is in the Scripture passage John 14:26: “But the Advocate, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and remind you of all that I have said to you.”
But this God is unknown in other cultures and misunderstood by Christian currents. The mystic Raniero Cantalamessa, who was once a preacher of papal retreat, explains this trinitary God:

 

Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence:

 

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

Husserl and the intentionality

14 May

We have already put some initial ideas of phenomenology, as well as the set of ideas (photo), now we analyze one of its foundations: intentionality. 

From the intentionality of his master Brentano, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) preserves the aspect of the experience of “being aware of something”, but will modify the empirical phenomenology, to make it transcendental, not in the still spiritual sense, but of living experiences cognitive (this is for example Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation of Ideas I).

To be faithful to his thought, Husserl states in Ideas of the Phenomenology: “that:” Experiences of knowledge possess, this belongs to its essence, an intentio, aim something, report in such a way or an objectivity, “but leaves the idea of ​​the empirical. Husserl retains the basic idea that intentionality is the peculiarity of the experience of being aware of something.

Husserl will maintain, throughout his course of approaching the Aristotelian-Thomist concept, an “immanent objectivity”. Husserl’s epoché, his suspension of judgment in relation to the facticity of the world, will make from the phenomenological reduction, a leap from the domain to that which is transcendent (in the sense of not being self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence absolute clarity, of self-giving), the pure phenomenon reveals itself to a sense-giving consciousness.

The sense of experience in Husserl is fundamental, must be understood by her everything that she finds in the flow of what is lived in general, intentional vivid:

[…] not only the intentional vividness, the actual and potential cogitationes taken in its full realization, but all the real moments (reellen is different of echt) that can be discovered in this stream and in its concrete parts. (Husserl.), this book first published in 1913.

In a series of lectures held at the Descartes Amphitheater at the famous Sorbonne in Paris between February 23 and 25, 1929, Husserl and his assistant Eugene Fink expanded the text of the initial lessons, which was published in French in 1931, the title is due only to references to Descartes, but may well introduce the thought of Husserl.

The fact that he never published the meditations in German generated doubts if he would not be satisfied with the text, the Husserl of maturity will publish the Crisis of the European sciences, his densest book.

Here are some ideas from his studies, in more academic view:

 

 

 

 

A forgotten connection with medieval philosophy

13 May

Concepts such as essence, being, ontology, and especially intentionality, fell into obscurity in the Renaissance until they were abandoned in modernity, until being reinvented by Franz Brentano (1838-1917) in 1874 in a work entitled Psychology from the empirical point of view, where he wants to understand the extent to which phenomena are physical or mental, in relation to objects.
In this book in the first chapter of Book II, he states: “All the data of consciousness are divided into two great classes: the class of the physical phenomenon and the class of the mental phenomenon” (Brentano, 1973), where it retrieves the idea of relation intentional relationship between mental acts and their objects, which comes from the work of Thomas Aquinas Quaestiones disputatae de veritate
Brentano characterizes this relationship from a reprint of the Aristotelian-Thomist conception of an “intentional in-existence” of an object, it is not a matter of not existing, but of existing in which it suggests a mode of immanence relationship between the intentional act and its object.
This is important because it recovers the subject and object relationship, lost by rational / idealism.
Phenomenology will use the concept of the suspension of judgment, the epoché that transforms into a place between parentheses, in this case is to suspend the facticity of the world has the judgment suspended by the phenomenological reduction, now that is transcendent (which is not self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence (the absolute clarification, of giving oneself, giving meaning).
This is fundamental in a post-truth world where facticity can hide the phenomenon in itself, and it is necessary to return to what Husserl will propose to return things themselves.
These are some applications of Dale Jacquette’s work on intentionality in Brentano:

BRENTANO, F. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

 

Thought, meditation and life

10 May

If thinking is difficult in contemporary society, meditation is almost impossible, even in spaces dedicated to it, it is pure exoterism that meditates, deepens a thought or a situation, that would lead us to do the activities with greater tranquility.

The Greeks called the stage in which we withdraw our judgments and pre-occupations from our head the “epoché”, the absence of judgment on things to initiate a thought.

The philosopher Husserl took up this concept to create his phenomenology and affirmed that this was one of the principles of the current crisis of science, beyond its logicist and positivist structure, it was necessary to return the thing itself, and affirmed that consciousness is “consciousness of something” .

Byung-Chul Han in the Society of Fatigue warns us that active life needs a complement that is the meditation life, without which we immerse ourselves in tiredness and can be led to Bournot syndrome, in which we live in eternal confusion.

This is not new of course, but the acceleration of society due to new technologies, haste and the lack of environments and situations of deep meditation has led to an emptying of life.

To take it back is urgent, it will give us consciousness of Being, it will allow us to face problems that exist for all people and in almost every situation, and it will give us a better life.

Sloterdijk in “you can change your life,” while ironizing the false spiritual exercises of our day, called them as unsprayed ascesis, just exercise. It is not an escape from reality, and developoment antropotechnic concept. 

In Christian spirituality it means to find the humanity of the historical and divine Jesus, for when his disciples ask to see God he has the answer: “he who sees me, sees the Father”, in general terms, is in the reality, it is necessary to clarify and see. The lecture Andy Peddicombe says that 10 minutes are enough to regain consciousness:

 

Is hard thinking today

09 May

The thinker visited Barcelona where he met with several hundred people in a conversation at the Center for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (CCCB).
Despite his affability and his apparent tranquility, interviewing Sloterdijk, whose pages an ordinary human often needs to read over and over in order to understand them, is a challenge.
With the passages of Spheres still floating on the head – “the inner, consubjective sphere can not possess at all a eucyclic and parmenideal structure: the psychic globe does not have, with the well rounded philosophical, a single center that radiates and encompasses everything, and but two epicenters that interpellate each other by resonance “, Sloterdijk interviewed as if it were in front of Plotinus.
In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, the thinker says that it is difficult to think nowadays, and certainly read a more difficult thinker, especially if he goes to the essential problems.
When asked by the journalist if we lost the ability to think he replied: “It is not capacity as such. But it does not occur the vital circumstances that allow us to distance ourselves and gain distance. For Husserl and his phenomenology it was necessary to leave the impetuous time of life, the most elementary device was always to take a step back”.
This action allows you to become an observer.
Without a certain distance, without a certain disconnection the theoretical attitude is impossible. “Today’s life does not invite thinking. ”
Julia Galef is a writer and speaker on the topics of rationality, science, technology and design.
Julia Galef examines the motivations behind these two mindsets and how they shape the way we interpret information, intertwined with a compelling 19th century history lesson from France, from a torn paper found where military secrets were sold to Germany.
The only Jewish soldier Alfred Dreyfus was convicted without convincing evidence, and sent to a prison on an island, later proven innocent and rehabilitated, what Julia Galef asks is: “Do you yearn to see the world more clearly, or just to defend your beliefs?”, see Julia’s Ted:

https://www.ted.com/talks/julia_galef_why_you_think_you_re_right_even_if_you_re_wrong?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

 

Theory of Information or Signals

07 May

David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for Mathematics to solve, among them the 2nd. problem was the consistency of Arithmetic to solve problems (which started the idea of algorithm). Later from 1910 to 1913 Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russerl published the 3 volumes of Principia Mathematica recalling Isaac Newton’s Principia (Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica) of 1980, but logic has shown contradictions.
It was Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) who showed the contradictions of logic by demonstrating that a mathematical system is either complete or consistent, a problem that was discussed by Alan Turing and Claude Shannon at Bell Labs in the late 1930s amidst World War II .
Both were in secret projects, Turing was to decipher the Enigma machine, captured from the German army, and Shannon build the System X machine to encode messages from Roosevelt and Churchill from the allied troops.
Both spoke at the lab meetings about Gödel’s problem, and wondered if the machine could think. Boole’s circuits and the Turing machine are at the origin of modern computers, this information theory is actually information in another context, Shannon himself would call it a message, and modern computing calls it signals.
The computation evolved with the construction of the first computer by von Neuman, and we initiate at the moment to ask again if the machine will surpass the human, the philosopher Sam Harris has a opinion:

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The smooth, linear and non-life

30 Apr

Certainly most people feel uncomfortable with the amount of activities, of course there is another type (which is not the opposite) that is passivity or procrastination, the fact that someone is in paralysis, the panic or anxiety syndrome is exactly this.
What is tiredness, it is not only social, intellectual, political activism or hyperactivity, that is attributed to children, but there are numerous workaholic, compulsive and tense adults.
What impels us to this, contrary to what one might imagine to be a confused life, or the loss of focus (there are innumerable books on this, and others of self-help for aspects that are not the central ones), is a “life of exercises, “would say Peter Sloterdijk, or the society of fatigue Byung Chul Han, where this comes from and why we arrived in this state seems unanswered.
The idea of linearity, “focus” or personal management, emotional intelligence and so many other jargon do not escape a life even though “straight” continues to take us to the bottom of the pit.
The network represents complexity, but even opening the possibility of a universe of relationships (in fact only 6 relationships, called the six degrees of separation are needed) does not improve the deteriorated degree of relationships, explains Byung Chul Han in a lecture made in Barcelona , in 2018:
“We are on the Net but we do not listen to the other, we just make noise,” said Byung-Chul Han, saying that only travels the necessary, does not do conventional tourism “to not participate in the flow of goods and people,” he said at the Culture Center Contemporary of Barcelona.
This led psychiatrist Steven Berglas of Harvard Medical School’s Department of Psychiatry to elegantly protest: “To be fair to (… a certain author …) and other self-help authors, there is much useful material in their works and much of the damage done by such literature is due to the fact that these books are not read or even read. Many people cite insights from books based on a hurried reading of the fourth covers or titles, in “Reclaiming the Fire” of the 2001.
The psychiatrist Albert Ellis claims that most of the problems of modern society arise because are based on absolutist beliefs of “I must” or “have” about oneself, about others, he created a Therapy Rational Emotional of Conduct (TREC), the TED of Jules Evans clarifies the therapy:

 

Apodítico e epoché in Husserl

23 Apr

Words strange and of high significance for the philosophy of Husserl, apoditic we use much in the day-to-day only that of improper way, something that we think evident and it is not God, the life, the death, finally a series of concepts that seem to be evident and are not, as you see them, hylé appears.
Subjective matter, the sense given by the Greeks to what seems material, to Husserl possesses a veiled truth, this composes a subjective matter attached to any perception, or what he defined as “returning the thing itself”, in the sense of having a intention about it.
Thus Husserl calls “the intention” the meaningful content of something, the intention of a book on it, though the intention does not have the flesh-and-blood presence of the book.
When we have a “meaningful intention” (“Bedutungsintention”) we mean with an intention the book and the table, that is, the object without even considering its presence, for example, if we have the meaningful content of that book, in this sense “intuition” Is  “evidence.”
Although for Husserl words are used interchangeably, intuition is the fulfillment of an intention, or consciousness of it, this is important for its thought, since the perfect filling between intention and intuition will never be fully satisfied.
In this, it immerses itself in the concept of consciousness, that is, the “consciousness of something”, to make explicit its method, which consists in traversing the phenomenon, using phenomenological reduction, or epoché, which for Greeks is the suspension of judgment. empirical evidence), and for Husserl it is a place between parentheses.
This consists in provisionally leaving aside all preconceptions, theories, definitions and pre-judgments, and only then gradually give meaning to the things that seek their “originality.”
This introduction to Husserl’s Phenomenology for Phenomenology, may clarify: