Arquivo para a ‘Politics’ Categoria

Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003


Postmodern, Late Modernity, and Life

01 May

The period of post-war was followed by a period of mass culture, with the reaction of the counterculture and resistance to the war in Vietnam, this was even before the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Union, before the birth of internet, and therefore there was already a crisis in Western thinking since Kieekgaard, Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.
Stuart Hall, in The Culture Identity in Postmodernity (2000) attempts to assess what would be happening with a crisis of (social) identity and that this led to the fragmentation of the individual generating new identities, subject to a concrete plan of history and no longer with the perception of the previous stages, in our view, nationalism and conservatism are a strong reaction to this aspect, or the attempt to return to an identity before the crisis.
The process that has taken place since the 1980s, where there was already a mass culture, now occurs on a global scale, a true world-system, which is influenced by globalization without doubt, but the background is now a mass culture world, where national, ethnic and social identities are confused, and the Web is just a media of this process, the mass culture of the previous process prepared this stage.
Stuart Hall’s attempt is to analyze the cultural plan, if it is economic truth that we are in a late modernity, for those who look at the ongoing change is in the art plane that one can try to understand the movement that one makes and where one goes.
Today artists even have greater possibilities of communicating, but the enormous amount of tendency and languages makes impossible some formal unicity, then dialog and compose.
Aesthetics are also products and consequences of the production and circulation of the same, and unlike the movement of art, as Byung Chul Han says “everyone wants to be different from each other”, which forces “to produce itself” said in the conference in 2018 in Barcelona, because only those who open themselves to the Other can appreciate the different and respect.
The speech of hatred is made in the group of equals, speak in dialogue without hearing soon find an excuse for intolerance, resentment and attack.
The networks that were to put us together, put together the equals that are reinforced, as Byung Chul Han says, “in the desert, or in hell, of the equal”, sometimes with sweet words and sometimes with declared hatred.
The African TED Seconde Nimenya clarifies why we want to be equal, when we are different and this should be normal, but it is not:


The Easter of Humanity

19 Apr

It is certain that we live a dark time, not from the digital transformations that in their essence are not evil because they expanded the worldview by telecommunications and electronic networks, expanded the participation by MEDIAS of social networks, and made more Visible the great atrocities that have been practiced ever since: oppression, inequality and various types of social intolerances.
Only one passage is possible (a great Passover of death and resurrection), if we understand what must die and need to resurrect it.
The ideological construction that we conventionally call enlightenment has three pillars: the Kantian idealism sublimated by Hegel and used by many including Marx, the Enlightenment and the empiricist thought, who believed that true knowledge is in Senses, reason and science came from these pillars.
The Industrial revolution represented the departure of the rural worker who fought in communal regime for the city where it sells its workforce, at the beginning without rules and contracts of employment, then the Social contract of the state (read: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau) leaves the Famous 3 powers and goes to the working class, with concessions but insufficient.
Thus the religious thought was progressively abandoned, what Max Weber called “Disenchantment of the world”, but it is necessary to understand that the part that idealism calls subjective (relative to the subject) is his own and with Heidegger there is a twist Ontological.
Also the Enlightenment thought was already in crisis with Husserl, since the logicism had already been questioned by the Vienna Circle, but still without disattaching it.
The Husserl development elaborates the concept of world-of-life (Lebenswelt), but another central aspect little cited is that Husserl takes the problem of historicity of philosophy, undertaking profound teleological-historical analyses, pointing philosophy As able to review the essential aspects of modern science.
Ernest Cassirer (1874-1945) wrote The philosophy of the Enlightenment, and held a significant debate on the issue of Liberty and Kantian reason with Heidegger that reveals these issues, the central point of this debate is the questions of the exact and moral sciences of enlightenment.
In this plan philosophical thought may be able to rethink the Enlightenment model, and certainly no solution will be more national, cultural or religiously isolated, global problems need and can only be solved the light of global governance.
It takes a new thought, a new man who embrace the world and of course a new world culture that allows for social balance, with nature and with cultures.


Arrogance, nets and feet-washed

17 Apr

It is a holy week, a fact that goes unnoticed, but it is fundamental in the spirituality that is said to be “Christian” (yes, for the society in crisis, everything is confused: democracy, freedom, moral, ethics and also the principles and values of certain cultures) a detail is the foot-washing ceremony, the master is lowered to a function made by slaves and washes the feet of the disciples.
There is no greater contradiction in the contemporary world, for the idea of power, wealth and arrogance without measures make the Other object of manipulation, desire and submission, and almost no circle escapes, from the power of the state to the periphery of cities, through schools, churches and various types of associations.
Behind this idea is to always see the Other as smaller, less prepared or less capable, the networks have reversed this and disorganized a vertical power structure, clear with exaggerations, but the central, often even established and democratic power too, see the censures of the ministers of the Brazilian STF (Tribunal Superior Judge), who were supposed to defend the constitution.
Yes the networks also exaggerate, but without the exercise they will never learn, is now given a power that only the editorial groups, the centers of power and the wealthy had, manipulate the truth in their favor, and were already fake news, I was going to ask where the truth was then.
Feet-washing puts this logic, will power or power Nietszche, something that seems natural, but for sick reasons evolve in times of crisis.
To wash the feet of prisoners, as did Pope Francisco in last year, to go to those who will not be able to reciprocate, to open their arms and pockets to those who need it, and in the case of Christian Easter, to give their lives for their friends, love, started with washing the feet.
Most people do not recognize the gesture, Peter did not want Jesus to do this, or think it is a false feeling, or that the person himself does not give himself the courage, never that [voluntary and conscious: washing the feet of those who could by some logic being below us.
Few do, in a society in crisis is more than a gesture, it is necessary, it is healing.
While the Brazilian thinker Leandro Karnal thinks that humility does not get well, Mario Sérgio Cortela said that is humility:



The Interiority: garden, indifference or puppets

09 Apr

Following a great development of the idea of the Polis, the next movement of thought goes into interiority, Aristotle had been the preceptor of Alexander the Great, who built the first great empire of antiquity, but then came the Roman Empire, the polis was confined in ideas about law, wars of conquest and finally the Roman pax, which was the surrender to the great empire.
The thought will confine the interiority, Warburton will call the chapter on Garden Epicurus, because he ran his school in a house with a garden, and his basic ideas was how to make the philosophy practical to make life happy, the practical was so rules of how to work inner issues, and between them avoiding ideas about death.
A second school that emerged in this period were called skeptics, for their indifference in many relevant matters, or Stoics because they met at the gates of the cities called “stoa”, hence the name of the school.
The basic idea is captured by Warburton as: “Our attitude toward what happens is within the limits of our control, though whatever happens is not.”(Warburton: 2012, 32).
To a birth of reason, because the Stoics believed that we should not feel sad about something wrong that happens to us, when we are deceived or have emotions that would hinder our thinking, we should always eliminate it completely.
Thus, if contemporary philosophy can be said to be objectivist in the sense of the subjectivists, the influence of Cicero on the Enlightenment is recognized, especially in Locke, Hume, and Montesquieu.
Finally, Augustine’s view of Warburton as that which all reality as “puppets” of divine thought, nothing more unjust, Augustine tried to free himself from the Manichean thought that imprisoned him in a struggle between good and evil, and his conversion to Christianity was just that cristianism isn’t manichaeism view of life.
I know that even Christian scholars see it that way, and Manichaeism is still an influential part of religion.

Warburton, N. Uma história da filosofia. São Paulo: LP&M, 2012. (in portuguese).
The philosopher Massimo Pugliucci has interess in stoicism and explain this thinking:



Judge not to be judged

05 Apr

In addition to the resentment that holds the will to change and the renewal of relationships, the most criminal and cruel human sentiment is to judge, these days Hubert Nathan Myers and Uncle Clifford Williams Jr were released after 43 years in prison on charges of a crime.
Today they are 61 and 76, they were 18 and 34 when they were detained, the United States will indemnify them with 1.78 million euros, enough money? even if it were ten times as long as the young people who were still and lost were to be replaced, they hugged each other at the end of the prison.
Judging crimes is necessary, but justice exists precisely for this and to avoid abuses, especially against races, cultures and religions, the idea of conceiving a certain culture, race or creed as inferior or malignant in relation to others is that in fact evil .
Also in human relationships when we are unable to see what is good and positive in certain people make relationships poisoned and even those that are healthy can deteriorate through some hasty judgment.
We rarely know the set of facts, that is, what leads a person to a particular crime or problem, and it is not enough to propose a solution to it, you must give him the means to get out of the web that is often and can not detach itself .
The adulterous woman, who at the time of Jesus could be stoned in public, is saved when the Master asks those who wish to do so if anyone there had not sinned, they all go out and then he asks the woman John 8: 10-11: “Woman, where are they?” No one has condemned you? ” She replied, “No one, Lord.” Then Jesus said to him, “Neither do I condemn you.
You can go, and from now on sin no more, “that is, he acquitted her. That is, a family, a community, a society or a country begins to collapse if the judgment no longer finds a stopping point, and then begins to punish everyone.
Domestic violence is a disgusting type of violence, but violence itself is, there is a TED to show that it exists in many so-called “civilized” countries, but why does it exist?


Resentment and sorrow in history

29 Mar

The behavior of the “elder brother” in the Parable of the Prodigal Son is even more serious when we analyze groups, cultures and peoples throughout history whose processes of oppression, war or simply cultural differences mark facts that can lead to violence.
In this scenario the first Great War, the German defeat and submission, the second and extermination of the Jews and the Hiroshima bomb that cannot be forgotten, May 68, the fall of communism, September 11 in the United States, Venezuela and the social issues and the exclusion seen by the American government, the Brazilian polarization and latent corruption.
There are many other facts, such as the yellow jackets in France and Brexit in the UK, an analysis was made by Marc Ferro, a French historian of 95 years, who wrote in 2007 on the problem of Resentment in History, and “Blindness – another story of the world ” (ed. Cavalo de Ferro, 2017), I did not have time to read, but it has already been included in my list, in the figure the woodcut “Country of the blind” of H. Wells (of 1904).
These eternal twists in history may surprise some people, but I realize that Marc Ferro does not, and neither do I, we see crises emerge when journalists, thinkers (not always good) and people who form opinions begin to walk in a dangerous direction, we already write a post by Karl Kraus that claimed this in the 1900s.
Finally, fake news is not new, and different visions and interpretations of history may also have differences and dialogue, withdrawal of resentments and wounds is necessary for an accurate view of history, as a method for this I defend hermeneutics.
The excessive polarization, the incomprehension of the different generates what Byung Chull Han calls “exclusion of the other”, even conscious circles do this systematically and for this is a revision of what the question of “historical consciousness” means.
I think Gadamer initiates this in Truth and Method, but the historical moment demands something profound. As a day-to-day practice I suggest removing poison, harsh language, incitement to violence, at last without dialogue what we always claim, to building the pace in world. 

The video shows and sintetic form and point of view of Marc Ferro on memory data and French resistance:


What characterizes the changes today

07 Mar

In order to change social structures, it was necessary for a long time to mobilize formal structures capable of reacting to structures of power that oppressed the feeling of change in various ways, feeling and emotion were always present, saying that they are emotional now is a mistake, it is due the old idealist separation between objective and subjective motivation.
The virtual is real are coming, not just because of the speed, intensity and quantity of devices able to connect people almost permanently regardless of distances.
The virtual depends on the updating, and therefore is opposite to the current and not the real, even in the space of the imaginary, where the cultural cosmologies are composed, the virtual is close to a cultural real.
What is changing now is that it is possible through the use of communication to establish real (not just virtual) links between people and to mobilize them for a reaction to structures of domination, and those who are unaware that information is available on the net and can being hacked, the last one is the football leaks that shook the world of soccer, by the denunciations of the Portuguese Rui Pinto.
As Manuel Castells explains, social movements have always had at the origin the feelings of shared injustice and indignation, what changes today is that these networked technologies allow a collective subject, but of course this can be negative.
Castells explains that this is not a utopia, but what is happening, and that technology is not decisive, but is influential, as McLuhan says by changing the means and changing communication, change social relations.
The structures of the old state, groups of religious and ideological polarization weaken, and a more real society comes to light than that whose state, for its vices and its virtues appear, the vehicles of communication all controlled by editorial groups and the old ones oligarchies dominated and retained power.
Castells explains this in a 2013 video:


Ashes in the Snow, now the movie

06 Mar

The novel by novelist Ruta Sepetys, on the theme of Stalinist repression at the beginning of Stalinism and World War II, the character Lina is deported from Lithuania to Siberia with her mother and the younger son, the novel, translated into 27 languages, is 2012, won several awards and now goes to the screens.
The film directed by Marius A. Markevicius, had several producers, among them Sepetys own, will have among other appearances: the actress Isobel Dorothy Powley, or Bel Powley of 26 years, in the paper of Lina Vilkas, Lisa Loven Kongsli like Elena Vilkas, Sophie Cookson as Ona, Sam Hazeldine as Kostas Vilkas, Peter Franzén as Commander Komarov, Martin Wallström as Nikolai Kretzky and others.
As important as the theme of repression is the artistic resistance of Lina, who placed her separated from the family in another prison camp struggling to survive documenting her experience with artistic notes and waiting for her messages to reach her father’s prison camp separate from her, so you know she’s alive.
She risks everything, waiting for her messages in art to reach her father’s prison camp and she hopes her messages will arrive and console her.
Sepetys decided it was more important to write a novel of fiction than a documentary of more than a dozen people he interviewed, this would make it easier for the survivors to talk to her without fear.
The film premiered January 19 and the photography, costumes and art look very good:


Statocentric policies and social networks

27 Feb

Yes, the word does not exist, but this was the great idealistic and liberal revolution promotes this concept, the idea that the state is the provider of all social guarantees, which may be above the cultures, the roots of the population and the original societies, that is, with their cosmological and eschatological visions.
The idea of social welfare, providence state or social state, vary in politics, degree and tonalities, but essentially it is the idea that it is the state of social promotion, organizer of economy and culture, which is more worrying and statocentric.
The idea that this was born during the Great Depression is not true, again it is the ignorance of what we call history-knowledge, it was the economist Joseph Schumpeter who developed the concept of social value in the years 1907-1907, as shown in his article in the Quarterly Journal of Economics
There is no idea of society as a living body, the citizen as the possessor of rights (only the one that the state establishes, the rest is illegal), and for this we emphasize in the previous post the idea of a free press, but now it expands to social media, society has always been a network, although the state generally does not see it as such.
The fact that there are media that can vitalize the enzymatic functions of the social fabric should lead to policies that contemplate these ideas, for example, it is common in Portugal to speak of neighborhood (bairrismo in Portuguese), not in the pejorative sense that exists in Brazil, but in the sense of social coexistence and to create nuclei and social spaces for this convivial, a cultural Portuguese characteristic.
The concept may seem too technical to some extent, but Levy Strauss, who researched social cultural roots, said: “Each of us is a kind of crossroads where things happen. (LÉVI-STRAUSS, 1987, p.10).
Borgatti and Jones (1998), known for developing the powerful social networking tool Pajek, describes the term social capital, retrieving the term “group” from Wellmann and Bartram, but recalls that Putnam (1995) also develops the idea as a facet of good collective, still found in Coleman (1988, 1990) and Bourdieu (1886) and recalls that the classic tradition of authors such as Adam Smith and Alexis Tocqueville did not use the term directly but would do so today.
A measure of neighborhood, which are several, can be seen as “degrees” of proximity (figure), it is important to know by how many steps a node (or a person) can “reach” in a social network.
The concept may seem theoretical only, but this video shows how it becomes real, a video show this.

BORGATTI, S.P. & JONES, C. Network Measures of Social Capital. Carroll School of Management, Boston College Martin G. Everett University of Greenwich, CONNECTIONS 21(2):27-36, 1998.

LÉVI-STRAUSS, Claude. Mito e significado. Lisboa: Edições 70, 1987.