The Roman Republic

20 Jul

The Romans initially believed that the king’s origin was divine and established ImperieRomanthe Monarchy, but later in 509 BC, they overthrown the Etruscan king Tarquinius the Great and founded the Roman Republic by establishing two magistrates as a government.
At the beginning of the Republic, Roman society was divided into four classes: Patricians, Clients, Plebeians and Slaves, generally peoples who were defeated in wars.
Among these wars, it stands out more than 100 years against Carthage, the Punic Wars and then wars in the Iberian Peninsula (conquest that took more than 200 years), Gaul and the Eastern Mediterranean.
The occupied territories were transformed into provinces, they were forced to pay taxes to the government of Rome and gradually, the Roman army became an unbeatable group.
Its military organization was formed by three types of people:
– Citizens of Rome, territories, colonies and Latin tribes who also had Roman citizenship
– Communities whose members did not have full Roman citizenship (could not vote or be voted on)
– Autonomous allies (they made treaties of alliance with Rome).
The army built roads throughout the Italian peninsula also contributed to explain the Roman conquests, were experts in mounting fortifications.
Military discipline was severe and punishment consisted of beatings and beheadings. The winning soldiers received awards and honors and the general was honored, while the losers were beheaded in prisons.
Successive victories provoked great social, economic and political changes in Rome, but already in the fourth century AD, there were signs of decay.




The politics of Aristotle

19 Jul

 In contrast to Plato, which formation should be the man of the Republic, PolisGreekthe whole of Aristotle’s work goes beyond politics, or sees it in a broader sense, for it deals with what human affairs develop within the space of a city (the polis).

Among these subjects, Politics was probably classes given to his students in the Lyceum and recorded by them, it is also possible that they are reflections of the period in which he was preceptor of Alexander of Macedon, and his father Nicomaco (to whom he wrote an ethic) was Doctor of the father of Alexander, Felipe II.

Aristotle examines the Greek cities themselves, analyzes them and sees which constitutions were good, and which favored Eudaimonia (the ‘good’ and the ‘daimon’), sometimes translated as ‘the common good’ However, this category is more modern, and along with these concepts of its political philosophy, three are equally important: the areté (generally translated as “virtue” or “excellence”) and “phronesis” (often translated “wisdom Practice “), and the ethics that define how this good genius is achieved.

It is therefore advisable to read the policy together with “Nicomoco Ethics,” so that the concepts are confused, and improperly upgraded into a-temporal categories.
In books I to III of Politics, we have the introduction to the subject, books IV, V and VI are about political practice, the nature of various constitutions and their principles, in books VII and VIII how citizens’ lives develop and how Education is important for achieving the city’s goals


The Republic or Politeia

18 Jul

The main work of Plato was written around 380 BC, is a speech developed Politeiain philosophical, political and social terms.
Its problem is the search for a formula that ensures harmony to a city, trying since that time to unlock private interests and disputes, as the sophists wanted.
This dialogue takes place in the house of Polemarco, brother of Lysias and Euthydemus, son of the old Cefalus, and there are the two brothers of Plato, Glauco and Adimanto; Nicerato, in addition to the host Polemarco, Lísias, Cefalus and Thrasymachus.
Thrasymachus is the sophist, Plato’s dialectical method is of dialogue and not of strife, the sophist argues that force is a right, and that justice is guaranteed by the strongest, so determines that the unjust can transgress its rules, Then it is said that they do not exist.
Books I and II are the first attempt to define what the application of justice to the community would really be, in Socrates’ dialogue with Glaucon and Adimanto, explains that justice is superior to injustice, and that alone leads to happiness.
Thus from the books II to V the dialogues will evolve to affirm what are the principles of justice, that is, what constitutes the true justice administered to the population, principle of its Republic.
From the books VI and VII evolve the principles of what the needs of justice itself are, it is where the famous allegory of the Cave appears, where they are trying to show that truth can be attained through knowledge, and therefore, justice depends on Know it, so the myth is mainly the fact that men “in the cave” only see shadows.
Books VIII and IX, develop the themes on the decadence of the city, which for Plato is due to the concentration of power in the oligarchies and the emergence of tyranny.
Book X makes a critique of poetry as an educational medium, this is not secondary, but fundamental to understand that the problem from the beginning of modernity is this conflict defended by Plato putting it in the mouth of Socrates that poetry should be replaced by Philosophy, educational environment, we would say today more “objective”, more real.
The rest of the book brings an exhortation to the practice of justice and other virtues, these are only indications for reading, which is nothing but looking at our deep roots.



(Português) A sociedade grega antes de Sócrates

17 Jul

Sorry, this entry is only available in Português.


Metaphor, parables and tragedy

13 Jul

In times of crisis culture and values, the most common thing is the hasty judgment Parábolasabout a certain behavior or person, but not everything that seems to be is the same, is the case, for example, to combat a prejudice that falls into another type Of judgment.

When one determines that a certain form of behavior or relationship is more politically correct, one can eliminate the conventional or the traditional, in the history of humanity the relationship between tradition and the new popular “fashions” has always been important in this history. We do not fall into pure fashions or disasters.

We are still experiencing the effects of a post-World War, and of many wars with a religious and cultural focus and gradually returning to ideological ones, in fact it is a crisis of models.
“Today is realized what was written in biblical times about the prophecy of:” You shall hear, without understanding. You will have to look without seeing anything. 15For the hearts of this people have become insensible, “which is quoted by the evangelist Matthew 13: 14-15, in explaining why Jesus spoke in parables, but how insensible today is to look at the Other without prejudice, to allow diversity To be present in society and to respect it.

It is not only the fact that we have problems with immigration, but that the world through TVs and the Web is seen and we come into contact with all kinds of culture and religiosity of the planet, but the respect that we must have for all is still small, so only One can speak in metaphors.

Paul Ricouer’s book The Living Metaphor is part of the reading of Aristotle’s Poetics, a book that has remained only a part of the original, to say that its construction is the basis of Western literature, where we can highlight mimesis, myth and catharsis as a basis , And as it forms the tragedy, the catharsis and the mimesis, perhaps the latter the most unknown.

Both in the tragedies of Sophocles and in the epics of Homer, the mimetic arts approach, to consider that both represent beings superior to the common ones. Aristophanes, author of comedies, also imitates people acting, doing the drama, we can say so the biblical parables are also mimesis in excerpts such as: “the sower went forth to sow,” “the administrator entrusted the talents to his employees,” and many others.

As much as the parable, and some forms of metaphors, tragedy identifies itself with the mimeses of superior quality to the comedy thus thought Aristotle and later Nietzsche, and has like object, actions of elevated character (ethical model); Like medium, ornate language; As mode the dialogue and the scenic spectacle; And includes catharsis.


Buber’s I-tu dimension

12 Jul

Martin Buber’s ideas contribute to the integration of a philosophical conception IandYouof the human being with an attitude towards it.

In his work, Buber deals with the man in the world, of his multiple possibilities of existence, depending on how he stands.

The principle words I-you and I-these signify ways of being of man, ways of responding to reality, which always calls for a positioning.

The self that opens to a you is not like the self that relates to a thing, that is, the established form of relationship grounds the way of being. Therefore, the relationship produces different possibilities of the person being in the world.

I-you and I-that are part of the human movement, being inseparable, constantly alternating with each relationship (Buber, 1923/2001). In the I-you attitude, the person enters into a relationship, lets himself be impacted, let himself be crossed by the living presence of the other, be it a person, a situation, a work, or any entity. At that moment there is an intensive dimension, not measurable or reducible to temporality, spatiality and objective questions. The world of you has no coherence in space and time: it is a field of forces, of presence, of vitality. It can not be apprehended or imprisoned in representations: it always escapes. It is not reduced to perception: it is intense, alive, pulsating. It always reappears differently, in continuous transformation. The I-this attitude, in turn, leads to experiential objectively situations.

The world of this or of objectivity commands the real, making it habitable and recognizable.

For Buber (1923/2001), the melancholy of human destiny is that the tu becomes, irremediably, this, which is necessary for the understanding of the lived process.
One can not always maintain the I-you attitude, since man is incapable of permanently dwelling in the encounter, existence is ruled by the alternation between I-you, I-it and its unfolding.

In the Buberian perspective, experience implies a reflexive detachment, situating itself within the scope of this, while the relation is within the scope of the you. The relationship is experience, not experience. By finding someone in the self-mode, the consequent loss of space, time, and the destabilization of the self enable contemplation, new sensations, and crossings.

The self-relation, on the contrary, places the person in the world of objects, ordering and being extremely necessary for the elaboration and production of meanings, so long as it does not become the predominant form of relation to the world


Phenomenology, the Other and dialogue

11 Jul

The phenomenological psychology also uses several conceptions coming from the philosophicalArendt tradition, and to imagine that it is purely philosophical that derives from the ontological turn or only a psychological language, both are not truths, therefore can be so much can be linked in the psychological theory and the practice, like being Present in various fields, for example in communication.
If it is desired to achieve greater rigor and coherence in the ontological Being, it is necessary to resort to the conception of man of this proposal, making it explicit. (Heidegger’s Weltanschauung), which implies a “dasein” as written by Heidegger: “this being which is in each case we And which has, among other characteristics, the possibility of Being “(Heidegger in Being and Time).
All that exists is to be, but man is ontologically different from other beings, being received in his humanity in a world of concrete relationships without separating his natural being from his spiritual sphere, he must develop attitudes and actions to sustain his own life, It can be said that it is a dasein that has several rays of possibilities, so how to find its own ray, this is where the psychology and its deeper Being is placed.
As much as he seeks stability and security in various ways throughout history, man is always faced with existential issues that destabilize him and set him in motion, Hanna Arendt’s book The Human Condition can help a great deal.
Singularity and plurality coexist side by side in the difficult task of inhabiting the world and transforming it (Arendt, 2002), this seems very current and paradigmatic in this global time.
While Being that delimits an ontology, which is shown in its entirety, the singularity shows a human structure that is understood as biopsychosocial and spiritual.
The biological dimension is expressed in corporeity, to which man is permanently attached while he lives, so he can not separate it from its “substantiality.”
This substantiality is the singular form among the others of the same species, being at the same time limit and opening to the world through perception (Arendt, 2002).
From the perspective of Martin Buber (1923/2001), it is not through the transcendence of the mundane reality that one arrives at the spiritual level, but precisely by being immersed in it, from the relation with the Other.
Arendt, H. The life of the spirit: thinking, wanting, judging (Brazilian edition), 2002.


The animation in the east

10 Jul

Even though internet video and online movie sales are increasing, such as Netflix,Naruto movies are still very strong even in countries where technology is cutting edge, such as Japanese cinema, with the box office of “Your Name” (Kimi no na wa), which reached 180 million viewers in 2016.
Besides the drawings of Mangá,
Digimon Adventure, Naruto, Pokémon, Sailor Moon, Cowboy Bebop, and other characters are also not far from the famous (among the young) , Dragon Ball Z, Dragon Ball GT, The Knights of the Zodiac, Sakura, Hamtaro, Digimon, Beyblade and Inuyasha.
The drawings are very colorful, rich in detail, with elegant but original clothes, and although the stories are unreal (not to be confused with virtual ones), heroes take care of cities and value the imagination with special powers that attract children and adolescents in a World without utopias and fantasies, it is not possible to imagine the reason for such success.
The film, Kimi no na wa (His name), has grossed about $ 76 million in China since its December 2 debut,

Toho distributor Kimi No Na Wa said box office sales in China topped 9 billion yen, or about 76 million dollars, since its December 2 debut. 1 million dollars in conservative Thailand.
Directed by Makoto Shinkai, tells a love story of two young high school students, who exchange their bodies and start to live an adventure rich in fantasy and feelings, was launched in late 2016 in 91 countries, including France and Korea Of the South, but still no date for Brazil


Effortless ethics and morals

07 Jul

Establish them as rules, impositions and every idealistic effort to establish it as EthicsSimplea “rule of state,” which is part of daily life and therefore we judge correct, do not match what we would really like our day- To-day flood of personal and collective scandals.
Because often simple people manage to lead their lives more correctly than people who are sophisticated and elaborate: judges, prosecutors, politicians, and even people with high university degrees? The reason is that they forgot the most common and simple elaboration of these values:
Thus ethical values ​​are those that are elaborated within a certain social structure, unfortunately ours is complex and without clear principles, should lead our way of social action to a consensus, where the set of individual morals could help the social attitude of each person.
On the other hand, morality refers to those values ​​that are acquired in the family, and then in society throughout life, makes us discern between right and wrong.
Both refer to right and wrong, one according to established social rules or not, which is what gives us an “ethic” and another that from values ​​that should be given in family, are later guides to our consciences In certain attitudes that we must adopt before the Other.
The fact that it will ultimately be the State and not the family, the social group and the relationship with the Other that must establish these boundaries between right and wrong, which would then be the molds for a current collective culture, made The “self-consciousness” proclaimed by Hegel and by lawyers to enter into a confused process.
In a culture in crisis, with ever deeper suspicions in the actions of the State, and with the falsification of an education to an increasingly hesitant “moral minimum,” the crisis of the cultural crisis that we live has grown, and we have difficulty with the notions simpler.
It is worth reading the Bible that “you revealed to the little ones and the hidden ones of the wise men and doctors” (Mt 11:25), of course it is not a general rule, but that old and “archaic” wisdom of our parents and grandparents seems to solve questions in which Sages and doctors are wrapped up so that they can no longer find their way out


Ethical crisis: Minima Moralia

06 Jul

The alleged construction of a State of Modernity, as Hegel himself wishes, EthicsMoralthe morality of the State is nothing more than immoral, unthinkable even for the most revolutionary humanism that can exist, what we elaborate when abandoning personal morality was the origin of a Ethical and moral disaster unprecedented in the history of morality, the deepest of the cultural crisis we are experiencing is a moral crisis.
It may seem a conservative discourse, but those who re-read Hegel from Adorno will see what lies behind an alleged idea of ​​a set of “impartial” institutions, warned Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno (1903-1969), in glimpsing the arbitrariness of In the light of his readings of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, the Weimar Republic elaborates MInima Moralia among several other works, which will bring together his experiences of exile, where the experiences of people in Germany before Nazism are observed in particular. Rooselvet.
It is neither a work based on a controversy or easy commercial mythology, as would be the contraposition between two great civilizing nations of the West, neither an easy way to present a solution to the cultural and social crisis that we live, but it goes to its core.
It points to its path as that which philosophers “once called life, and then reduced itself to the sphere of the intimate, and then to the pure, simple consumption, which is but an appendage of the process of production, without autonomy and Substance. Anyone who wants to learn the truth about immediate life must examine its ‘alienated’ form, the objective powers that determine individual existence even in hidden places. “(ADORNO, 1951)
It reveals throughout his work that the self-consciousness advocated by Hegel and institutionalized in the Modern State is the art of showing, under the false appearance of the conformist order, the mechanisms of control, the “rules,” or “methods,” or “ideological structures “Which are systematically eliminating the sphere of” autonomous individual consciousness, “so” naively “affirmed by traditional idealist philosophy.
He will say about self-consciousness, in Hegel, “was the truth of self-certainty; In the words of the Phenomenology: “the native realm of truth” … Today, self-conscious means only the reflection of self as perplexity, as perception of impotence: to know that nothing is. “(ADORNO, 1951)
We no longer know what morality is, and we are no longer capable of elaborating a “Minima Moralia,” the theft of public goods is almost a rule, in Adorno’s words even the self-consciousness is diffuse: “In many men it is It’s already a shame to say so. “(Idem)

ADORNO, T. Minima Moralia, Stanford, 1951 (pdf)