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“Flat” painting, word and thought

21 Nov
The new is built in dialogue with tradition, not the one that is closed andADamaDeRosa impermeable, but the one that allows this dialogue for the greatness of its construction, which is the case of “flat” painting and on which one can build the future of as Jacques Rancière claims.

Rancière clarifies: “the surface claimed as media (médium) of pure painting is actually another medium (Rancière, 2003), so it can be understood that the media is nothing other than a medium, or what some areas of knowledge call it support, but media or mediums are more current words and refer to “new media”.
His criticism of Greenberg is because his formalism “wants to match intermediate (medium) and material, Kandinsky’s spiritualism, which makes him a spiritual milieu, are two ways of interpreting this disfigurement. Painting is flat as words change their function of relation to it. “(RANCIÉRE, 2003, page 88)
Rancière will give her a representative order, which she says is a “model or norm”, is something new, because if the word lacks subjectivity the painting seems to lack objectivity, even if this classical separation is idealistic, it exists and is almost a norm in modernity.
He develops his reasoning: “as poems, as profane or sacred history, they drew up the arrangement which the composition of the painting should translate.” (RANCIÉRE, idem)
Here the word is linked: “Jonathan Richardson recommended to the painter to write the story of the picture first, to see if it was worth painting” (idem), then there is the connection.
He explains that the aesthetic criticism that emerges from the romantic era is not normative, does not admit to saying what the picture should be, says only what the painter did, is the absolute idea realized.
But the misconception is “to articulate in a different way the relation of the sayable as the visible, the relation of the picture to that which it is not. It is to rephrase in another way the how of the ut pictura poesis, how art is visible, by which its practice coincides with looking and depends on a thought. “(RANCIÉRE, 203, ibid.)
And I would say almost conclude: “art has not disappeared. It has changed place and function “(idem), that is, one can not deny its relation to the thought and the eye, in which everyone agrees, but they do not agree that the”depends on the thought” and this depends on models and norms, ultimately ideals and ideologies .

You can see in the pictures of Kandinsky (Lady in Moscow and Black Spot I) where they reflect the idea of the philosopher Steiner on the “parallel action” or the double vision, where we see a material drama in the middle of the street, a black spot that seems to travel in our field of vision, and also an aura about a woman who suggests a way of thinking done in pink, the pictures are both from 1912 and were made consecutively.

RANCIÈRE, J. The destination of the images. Trad. . Rio de Janeiro: Counterpoint, 2003.

 

Neiither point, neither flat nor polite

20 Nov
Contemporary art expressed in the digital world, extrapolates the human sensesaMatisseKandinsky being synesthesia, multisensory and multidimensional; not only as the plane because it is not its starting point but mainly in the way of establishing connections between bodies going beyond spoken and painted, to the projected and multi sensitized.
The starting point is then the fractal, where there are no 0 (dot), 1, 2 or 3 (three-dimensional) dimensions, and the critique of the plane starts there but goes from on-off devices, through the senses until arriving at augmented reality and projected reality: the holographic and the virtual.
The analysis made by Jacques Rancière in The Destiny of Images, which starts from the idea that word and painting are inverted where: “the power of words is no longer the model that representation must have as a norm” (Rancière, 2003, p. )
Taking up the classic analyzes of Hegel “pioneering in this work of redescription that, in front of the works of Gerard Dou, Teniers and Adrian Brouwer, as of the works of Rubens and Rembrandt, throughout all the romantic period, elaborated a visibility of a painting” flat ” (emphasis added), of an ‘autono- mous’ painting … the real pictures despised by Hegel, is not what we see at first. “(Rancière, 2003, p.87), which provides the” rupture of the representation ‘that linked the reproduction of a repetitive model of life “and would add” idealist “(RANCIÉRE, 2003, idem).
But there will be the opposite movement and “Greenberg opposes the naivety of Kandinsky’s antirepresentative program to the idea that it is not the abandonment of figuration but the conquest of the surface that is important” (Rancière, 2003, ibid.).
What the French Henri Matisse (1869-1954) and the Russian Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) explored are more than colors, shapes and new surfaces (like the fractals) there is something of the “spiritual” blend in Composition VII and the Caracol of Matisse (in the figures).
Of course this is not a digital art directly, but an epiphany of rupture with form.
RANCIÈRE, J. O destino das imagens. Trad.  . Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, 2003.
 

Governance, talents and religion

17 Nov
The concept of governance is, therefore, one that ex tends to a larger groupaoEmpowerment than a state bureaucracy or technocracy, it is not just about investing, looking at interests and doing “development”, but mainly yielding much or little that if have.
There has been a long time when development does not necessarily mean an improvement in the living conditions and income distribution of the majority of the population, but this must now be thought of on a world scale, since there is no more crisis or isolated development, but it is I need to say a basic lesson in economics: you do not distribute what you do not have, and at the same time increase the slice of the cake that is distributed.
Already in the previous posts has been the question of welfare, a caveat made to regions of vulnerability and that are not few on the planet, however it is necessary to produce so that it can be distributed and not the opposite if distributed so it is produced, just see the regions poor on the planet where the economy does not walk.
Although the reasoning that some have more and therefore others has less has a foundation of economic policy, one can not think that it is possible to distribute what one does not have, it would be the same as selling illusions like gambling and the populisms of diverse types, I’ll say again, there’s the issue of vulnerability and this is serious.
The equation that should be made, this shows the countries with good income distribution is how to put the economy and what is produced in the right places, and as we have already indicated, there is also no “good practices manual” or “good management” “You have to manage what you have in order to make it productive.
A biblical parable explains this well (Mt 25: 20-27), when a boss distributes talent among his employees by giving 1 to 1, 2 to another, and 5 to a third, when he comes back he faces the following situation: “The servant who had received five talents and delivered five more, saying, ‘Lord, you gave me five talents. Here are five more, I will make a profit. ‘ The master said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant! Since you have been faithful in administering so little, I will entrust you with much more. Come join in my joy.’ 

And he that had received two talents came, and said, Lord, thou hast delivered unto me two talents. Here are two more I will make. ‘ The master said to him, ‘Well done, good and faithful servant! Since you have been faithful in administering so little, I will entrust you with much more. Come join in my joy! ‘
Finally he came to the one who had received a talent, and said, ‘Lord, I know that you are a stern man, for you reap where you have not planted and reap where you have not sown. So I was scared and hid your talent on the ground. Here you have what belongs to you. ‘
The master replied, ‘Evil and lazy servant! Did you know that I harvest where I did not plant and reap where I did not sow? So, “you should have deposited my money in the bank, so that when I returned I would receive with interest what belongs to me.”
It seems a perverse logic, even financial, but it is not, in order not to bury talents, it is necessary to make “surrender” what one has, to apply it to be an economy of multiplication of the loaves and of overcoming misery, of course we all know , there are people who interpret this parable for the enrichment of a few, is not what is said.

 

Empowerment, Autonomy and State

16 Nov
Several United Nations studies and development questions point to a newapoverty paradigm of” good practices “or” good management “of the state.
Magdalena Sepúlveda Carmona (2013) clearly points out the relationship between empowerment and poverty “lack of power is a universal and basic characteristic of poverty. Poverty is not solely a lack of income, but rather is characterized by a vicious cycle of powerlessness, stigmatization, discrimination, exclusion and material deprivation, which all mutually reinforce each other.”
Empowerment is something of a development “fuzzword” (Cornwall, 2007), a broad concept that allows multiple interpretations and definitions, often reflecting the theoretical or ideological predisposition of their exponents. Ibrahim and Alkire (2007) have listed 32 different, but overlapping definitions of the word.2 This paper will use a definition based on Eyben (2011):
“Empowerment happens when individuals and organized groups are able to imagine their world differently and to realize that vision by changing the relations of power that have kept them in poverty, restricted their voice and deprived them of their autonomy.”
An empowering approach is both an end in itself, and a means to eradicating poverty and exclusion in their broader (multidimensional) sense.
Effective experiences of empowerment tend to involve a “magic triangle”: active civil society environment, committed public officials or political leaders, and enforcement mechanisms that guarantee that initiatives “have teeth”. That means that civil society organization is an asset, and its weakness or absence a problem. Governments need to nurture independent, active civil society organizations and protect the space in which they can operate.
The good news is that history appears to be firmly on the side of empowerment, as the global broadening and deepening of human rights since the creation of the United Nations system unambiguously demonstrates.
CARMONA, M. S. 2013. Report to the UN Human Rights Council of the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights. United Nations General Assembly.
CORNWALL, A. 2007. Buzzwords and Fuzzwords: Deconstructing Development Discourse. Development in Practice, 17, 471-484.
EYBEN, R. 2011. Supporting Pathways of Women’s Empowerment: A Brief Guide for International Development Organisations. Pathways Policy Paper. Brighton: Pathways of Women’s Empowerment RPC.
IBRAHIM, S. & ALKIRE, S. 2007. Agency and Empowerment: A proposal for internationally comparable indicators. OPHI Working Paper Series.
 

Empowerment and the State

15 Nov

Today is the day of the Republic in Brazil, what perspectives can we have acivil societyin terms of a modern state?

One of the rare authors to deal with the empowerment of society is David John Framer who thinks of the distribution of government power in favor of citizenship, it is not a concession of the ruler or a blessing that is given to society, it is the force to recognize the incapacity from the state to society to promote solutions in environments of high complexity, which is characteristic of modern society.

The opening to the democratization of the administrative functions is not an absolute novelty of the Brazilian law, the most notorious experience of gave from the Constitution of 88 with Councils in several administrative systems related to the development of social services, but I draw the attention to the Constitution of Iceland made by crowdsourcing and promoted a cleanup in the country, in the fall of 2008.

In order to identify the theoretical matrix that these governance initiatives have begun to emerge, it is fundamental to rectify the vices identified in the almost 30 years of this constitution, either by the blockages that have been made within these new models, such as “block the agenda” and prevent advances when the particular party is in power, or by incomprehension of the society of the proposed model.

These are initiatives that must start from society, not only the participation consent or a certain ideological nuance, but the whole of society must feel the governance, the deference to what is the understanding of democracy, which Bobbio (2000) , 386) in what he calls “power in public,” society must be the promoter of a collective mode of decision, which could be called an opening within the democratic openness or democratic maturation of Brazilian society.

It is not a minimal state, with less power, incapable of changing administrative and judicial processes that take society to a more fair and transparent point

FRAMER, D. J. The languagem of public administration, Bureaucracy, modernity and posmodernity. USA: The Universidade of Alabama Press, 1995.
BOBBIO, Norberto. Teoria geral da poli­tica. A filosofia poli­tica e as lições dos clássicos. Trad. Daniela Beccaccia Versiana, 9ª. Imp. RJ: Elsevier, 2000.

 

 

Administrative problems in Brazil

14 Nov

The already-stated incompetence of the State to fulfill its duties inaoEstadoBrasil the field of guaranteeing fundamental rights, with alternations of model proposals for good administration in situations of fair legal regimes, seems to be a new idea, but it is not.
The problem of our new millennium is the speed of rescuing solutions, which are not allowed to the ideas of the benefits gained over time, both for the correct application of ideas and for the fair evaluation of what was done.
The state does not admit a manual of “good practices” because it changes with time and according to the social context, and in this aspect can not deny the influence of new media that drive social networks for good and evil, for this reason the Electoral Tribunal and also the systems of governance must admit new “practices”.
The Era Vargas, for example, proposed to consolidate a new configuration of the State apparatus, to create new institutions as the manifestation of the bases of the formation of the Brazilian society, is Lustosa da Costa (2008, page 843)
It is García de Enterría’s (1998) indication of the importance of the post-Revolution period of 1930, in order to consolidate a new configuration to the State apparatus, by creating new institutions as a manifestation of the foundations of modern society formation, where legal regulation would be a instrument of containment of power and the establishment of an active, strong and universal governmental power capable of carrying out the project of restructuring society.
Indeed, the drive to industrial capitalism, coupled with the prestige of rationalism, resulted in an environment that demanded of the new bureaucracy “… an essential economic function: the coordination of large enterprises producing goods and services, whether state or private. “As Bresser Pereira (2001) affirms, but that would only materialize with the American support in the period of” allied “war effort with the Companhia Siderurgia Nacional, created in support of the Americans in World War II.
Developmentalism, however, would come at the beginning of the administration of Juscelino Kubitschek finds the proposal of administrative reform, still originating from the Vargas period, which later created in this government the Committee of Studies and Administrative Projects (CEPA), which was “parallel.”
The name “parallel” was given by Lima Junior (1998) for the project “50 years in 5”, where the municipalities, society of mixed economies and other structures in conflict with Congress.
The administrative actions of his Juscelino “50-year-in-5” project, make in 5 years that is need 50 (in Brail in 60´s years).

GARCÍA DE ENTERRÍA, Eduardo.  Revolución Francesa Y administración contemporânea. 4ª ed., Madrid: Civitas, 1998.

LIMA JUNIOR, Olavo Brasil de.  As reformas administrativas no Brasil: modelos, sucessos, fracassos.  in  Revista do Serviço Público, Ano 49, Número 2, abr-jun 1998, p. 5-32.

LUSTOSA DA COSTA, Frederico.  Brasil: 200 anos de Estado; 200 anos de administração pública; 200 anos de reformas. Revista de Administração Pública,  Rio de Janeiro 42(5):829-74, set/out. 2008,Disp em: < http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rap/v42n5/a03v42n5.pdf> Acesso: nov 2017

 

 

Paradise Papers” and Global Corruption

13 Nov

After SwissLeaks (see our post) and Panama papers (another post),asBermudas new tax havens are now emerging in islets around the world, denounced as “Paradise papers”. The complaint, which involves the network of investigative journalists from more than 80 countries, denounces tax fraud based on the leakage of 13.5 million financial documents from an international law firm based in the Bermuda Islands, Appleby, which were first obtained by the German newspaper Suddeutsche Zeitung. Among the world’s personalities are the British Crown, the singer Maddona and the world champion of formula 1 Louis Hamilton, but they appear the minister Henrique Meirelles of the Farm and the minister Blairo Maggi of the agriculture, besides the businessman Paulo Leman. Owner of Ambev, the Heinz brand and the Burger King chain of restaurants. According to the report people linked to Trump as trade secretary Wilbur Ross, and linked to Russia’s Putin as his son-in-law, plus more than 100 multinational corporations, such as Apple, Nike and Uber, run away from taxes by skilful accounting maneuvers. Having money in paradises does not mean acts of corruption, but finding tax havens with low taxation, and using offshore companies (to the letter off the back, that is to say without much oversight) may be a sign of currency evasion and also corruption. The information details financial transactions of more than 120,000 people since 1950 and 2016, according to the BBC London is not a leak, but a flood. To paraphrase a journalist, “the world must be clean”, a new planetary citizenship should emerge that no longer supports this, and according to Big Data’s analysis in Brazil, the word corruption was the most cited this year here, perhaps it is the ” year of corruption. “

 

Truth and Worship

10 Nov

The parable of the prudent virgins speaks of the attention that we must AVerdadeMétodohave the truth and we must watch over it, and the zeal is the eternal vigilance, in the case of hermeneutics is not distance from the reformulation and interpretation of our preconceptions, which does not mean abandoning the principles.
The kingdom of heaven is like the story of the ten young women who took their oil lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were unseemly, and the other five were foreknowledge of the Kingdom of God, also it is Kingdom of Truth.

Heaven is like the story of the ten young women who took their oil lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom, five of whom were unprepared, and the other five were thoughtful and they did not know when the bridegroom was about to arrive, so when he comes, they want to borrow from the wise.
The Hermeneutic Circle is a good tip for prudence, dialogue (in the circle the Text) for understanding part of a pre-figuration (or preconceptions), must by a positive distance (if you do not listen and open- if it is negative) to suspend judgments and the explanation of the Other (the speaker or author of the Text) to promote new insights and new possibilities of relationship, and then the appropriation of text and discourse in a new configuration.
The possibility of a great transformation in the relationship between the Same and the Other promotes a new transformation leading to a new understanding.
Wisdom is not the fruit of an inflated ego, bubbles of “wisdom” or pills of wisdom, is the fruit of real human relations and only lead to LIFE, GOOD CULTURE and GOOD POLITICS, in short the new society.

 

Understanding and Hermeneutics

09 Nov

Certainly wisdom is the opposite of ignorance, but wisdom is possible thatahermeneuticDilthey springs from tradition and wise living, but even these should have present interlocutors who have plunged into the thoughts and reflections of others, and who have read the tradition and the problems somewhere of humanity.
The idea that only a book exists in all wisdom is even refuted by the Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas with his famous maxim; “Distrust the man of a single book,” Marx also read the “capitalist” economy of Adam Smith and Richard to write his famous “Capital,” but it must be said that few read the Bible, Capital, or any other book of basic reference to the thought of “tradition” that they claim to have.
Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Hans-Geog Gadamer, Emmanuel Lévinas, Paul Ricoeur, Edgar Morin and many others attest that there is a crisis in thought, at least in Western thought, as there is little reading and deepening in the thinking of the Arab and Eastern world , the African is almost incognito.
Another idea is to reduce culture to ideologies, and their exercise is in most cases to subject cultures to their scheme of thought, Paul Ricoeur wrote “ideology is this contempt that makes us take the image for the real, the reflex by the original “(Ricoeur, 2013, page 84) and this is perhaps the greatest Confucianism of our time.
Wisdom involves understanding, and hermeneutics is the science of understanding because it involves interpretation, overcoming preconceptions, understanding and dialogue, and revising concepts, the so-called hermeneutic circle, whose elucidation is made by Gadamer.
Although Gadamer sees him as stuck in romantic historicism, Dilthey has identified three classes of understanding: the first that he calls “larger judgments and formations of thought,” related to science that includes both natural and human sciences, are examples a textbook of biology or mathematics, but can also include concepts such as gravity and others present in common sense; the second is the lived experience and these are the ones who take the actions but should pass through the former, calls this a vital nexus.
It expresses the second as “elucidating how a situation, a purpose, a milieu and a vital nexus intersect in an action, it allows no inclusive determination of the external life from which it arose.”
The third and most essential are the expressions of lived experience, as Dilthey puts it: “An expression of lived experience may contain more nexus of psychic life than any introspection can perceive,” thus partly because of the aspect of understanding that has not yet if it is perceived, to penetrate it leads to a hermeneutic circle returning to greater judgments and formations, although Dilthey did not formulate thus, would be the hermeneutic circle.
DILTHEY, W. Obras escolhidas – vol. 3 A fundação do mundo histórico nas ciências humanas, 2002.
RICOEUR, P. Hermenêutica and Ideologias, 3ª. Edition, São Paulo: Vozes, 2013.

 

Information and Knowledge

08 Nov

When information is in our mind it becomes knowledge, but this does not always meanaComplexity understanding, repeating maxims (sayings, beautiful sentences, etc.) does not mean that we have knowledge, because information has not passed through the stage of understanding.
This is not a modern pathology, or simply that the TV, the Internet or some virus has invaded our minds and harmed our ability to know, although some people may have difficulties, someone with Alzeihmer or a dispersive child, but I have the impression that the so-called “attention deficit” has gone too far, and it is a social factor that makes it difficult to understand, in Germany and in France, there is always a social worker on duty, not a doctor or pharmacist to give medicines to children.
One of the serious problems of our time, says Edgar Morin, is that we are accustomed to believe that thought and practice are separate compartments of life, or more seriously to already structured thinking, the world of theory and practice.
So for ideologues means that whoever thinks the world does not make the world and vice versa.
But if we look throughout history there was a time when sages, eventually called scientists or artists, circulated through various fields of culture. Mathematics, physics, architecture, painting, sculpture were the raw material of thought and action, Morin also recalled in a lecture in 2015 in Brazil, in the Millennium Program.
The industrial revolution overturned the idea of ​​Renaissance knowledge, and since the 19th century, specialization has been gaining strength and we have forgotten to reconnect knowledge, a call from Morin for education.
Asked how to teach and what is knowledge, Edgar Morin replied: “I propose, in teaching, the introduction of fundamental themes that do not yet exist. That is, I propose to introduce the subject of knowledge, for we give knowledge without ever knowing what knowledge is. But since all knowledge is a translation followed by a reconstruction, there is always the risk of error, the risk of hallucinations, always. ”
How many in the areas of science, technology and what is most lamentable in the area of ​​pathologies, has never seen so many pathologies, classifying people according to pathologies is only the most serious pathological form, you see only the gray world, there is no light and nor hope.
Asked about the tools that have emerged in recent decades, including the digital world, Morin replied: “First of all, it is true that information is not knowledge. Knowledge is the organization of information.”

So we are immersed in information and how they succeed each other day by day, in a way, we can not be aware of it. On the other hand, knowledge, as I said, is scattered. You have to unite them, but you lack that complex thinking. ”
Simplicity is the most disorganized form of information.