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Repentance, start over and grace

06 Oct

Repentance is not the same as remorse, it is linked to the pastand prevents a positive start, there is no awareness of guilt and a new state of grace is not achieved.

Grace is living life to the full, with the limits that life imposes on everyone, however repentant, you can compress the past strictly to what it was: a mistake, and live well the present and the future by overcoming an anguish that is inalienable responsibility for the fault or error committed.

To repent is to live intensely and truly in the present, even if some suffering or mark remains from the past, whoever took a step after that managed to start over.

Ludwig Feuerbach, best known for Marx’s Theses against his Hegelianism, called old Hegelianism, in his maturity wrote about remorse, his reading is important for the confrontation he makes both with Schopenhauer and with Kant.

Feuerbach recognizes the originality of the subject and proposes it in a broader scope of freedom, examining remorse and regret as conditions of imputability of an act,

In opposition to Schopenhauer, Feuerbach will affirm that the character of a man is not innate, nor unchangeable, that is why the death penalty is wrong, and here too, the discussion about the right of the Modern State on human life, an always controversial topic is important.

Against Schopenhauer, Feuerbach argues that man’s character is neither innate nor unchangeable, so the death penalty is mistaken.

The foundation of freedom is the self that acts in the game of passions and is essentially the relationship with the Other, which is widely explored in modern literature by Paul Ricoeur, Lèvinas and other authors, there is a phenomenological resumption of this issue.

The suggestions in the moral and legal field are essentially in relation to this relationship with others, and the suggestions in these fields are particularly interesting, but ethical questions remain, such as that of the absolute foundation of moral obligation, which is posed in Kant in the explanation of the which is moral conscience.

This discussion expands in some authors to the field of sensitivity (SERRAO, 2007) and mysticism (TOMASONI, 2010), where the issue of grace can be included more broadly, adding the recognition of grace where there is repentance and a new beginning.

 

References:

Adriana  Veríssimo  SERRÃO (2007). Pensar  a sensibilidade.  Baumgarten  –  Kant  –  Feuerbach,  Lisboa,  Centro  de  Filosofia  da  Universidade  de  Lisboa, PT: Lisbon.

TOMASONI, Francesco (2010). Tra  misticismo  e  scienza:  l’uomo  e  la  sua  ‘sensibilità’  nell’Eklektik,  in: L’umanesimo scientifico dal Rinascimento all’Illuminismo, a cura di Lorenzo Bianchi e Gianni Paganini, IT: Napoli.  

 

 

 

 

Crime, punishment and regret

05 Oct

The novel Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky is considered one of the great novels of universal literature, it tells the story of a character who plans the death of an old loan shark, and when he comes across her sister, he ends up killing her too, he will live a drama of conscience.

The character Raskolnikov, the police arrest an innocent man who ends up confessing because of the pressure he suffered, the character will confess the crime after suffering a huge influence from Sonia, who shares with him the description of the resurrection of Lazarus, contained in the New Testament.

The book was launched in 1866, but it was published in excerpts before in a literary magazine, in eleven chapters of the Russian Messenger, it also deals with socialist themes, but in a deep and special way the question of conscience.

The idea that crimes are justified on the basis of social issues, and evidently a loan shark is not a pleasant figure, but death and war more broadly is deplorable.

The question of this individual conscience is not only of the author’s period, who lived for a few years even in Siberia during the period of the tsars,

Several stories develop in parallel, among them Raskolnikov’s novel, among them Sonia’s romance with the protagonist, daughter of a civil servant, and to whom he donated the money, individual and social conscience are widely discussed in this novel.

Repentance is an interior cure, the greatest of all that we can have in life, it heals and even “resurrects” people who die after committing serious acts and not just murder, every act of hatred and lovelessness is a thesis a small act. of “death” of the other.

Dostoevsky’s novel is of great importance for the present day, when death, theft and the various deaths seem justifiable and are not.

 

Dostoievsky, F.M. (1866) CRIME AND PUNISHMENTS, Transl. Constance Garnett. (Planet pdf)

 

 
 

There is no neutrality or presumed innocence

04 Oct

The electoral result in Brazil was a surprise to many people, among the parties in dispute there is always a triumphalism, that is even natural, but within the rules and electoral laws that include the rules for the dissemination of polls and this is the biggest surprise of the election in Brazil.

The worst result of democratic elections is always some scratch on the already fragile democracy.

The free debate of ideas and political proposals is essential in politics and in society as a whole, these limits when they are extrapolated create gaps of hate and intolerance harmful to the political process, there is no way to say that the researches were very wrong, but they were only wrong in a sense and this is beyond the assumed neutrality of research institutes.

There is not only misinformation, therefore, there is also bad information and badly worked by the bodies that should preserve the scientific, mathematical and statistical criteria, to say that there was a turnaround on the eve of the elections, it is possible in two to 4 percentage points, above the alleged margin of error, but they reached 10% and even more, this does not contribute to democracy and turmoil.

Even the STF and STE are exempt from any blame or request for an investigation, after all, all polls must be taken to the STE (Supreme Electoral Court) in order to be disclosed, that is, it may not endorse (it is not he who does the research), but authorizes the disclosure and is solidary.

In order for there to be no political-electoral exploitation, a response to society is necessary, even serious researchers and analysts have commented on the fact, I quote Pablo Ortellado from USP (see BBC interview) who gave an interview saying that they should review the “methods”, understand- if here method by methodology, I think that it is not necessary to have a criterion of scientific and political neutrality.

For the sake of democracy, for a peaceful and democratic course in the second round, it is necessary to clarify society as a whole, saying that polls do not influence is sophistry.

It is necessary to safeguard the democratic electoral process and respect the rules of the game, in Brazil it is very difficult, but fragile democracy needs this and society is expected to respond.

 

 

Russian Roulette: The Atomic Peril

03 Oct

Russian and NATO rhetoric grows as Russia retreats from the Ukraine war, the forces of this country arrived in Lymann, a city within the Oblast (extado) of Donetsk, where contested plebiscites were held there and also in Luhansk, and Announcement of annexation to Russia.

The advance towards the Donetsk Oblast actually looks like a retreat of Russian troops, we warned last week that Russia would not react peacefully in a loss of the war, the annexation announcement demonstrates this, but the call-up of reservists seems to warn of something greater .

The call volume of 300,000 reservists doesn’t seem to be just a function of the Ukraine war, the nuclear threat from both Russia and the US government’s response don’t seem like bluffs, Putin himself said it wasn’t a bluff, and Western analysts say that Russian TV even mentions in its war news, Armageddon, alluding to the battle at the end of the world.

Only nine countries in the world have nuclear weapons of mass destruction, the two main powers in the conflict the United States and Russia, together have 12,853 nuclear warheads on the planet, of course what is known, and this is 90% of the total, China for example has only 350 warheads, North Korea makes a big deal out of less at 100, warheads are explosive charges having a cylindrical nuclear capsule placed inside a rocket, missile or projectile. India is fifth member.

Nuclear power plants should also be considered in this account, which once bombed can have even more devastating effects than warheads, but it is thought that at an early stage weapons considered “tactical” would be used, but it is evident that this would happen in a domino effect.

This whole scenario is terrifying, negotiation is always possible, China has already spoken out harshly warning of this possible spillover, but the preparation and tension between NATO and Russia seem to put at risk at the highest alert level.

Peace is always the path to the civilizing process, it has social and political nuances of course, but the defense of life and civilization must prevail over insanity, we hope.

The moments are of high tension and October will be very decisive for the conflict.

 

 

Wisdom from above, civilization malaise

30 Sep

The Tiredness Society is also a society that led adults, young people and adolescents to psychiatrists and alternative methods, those with few resources led to closed groups and dubious social conscience.

It is not by chance that Freud wrote at the beginning of the last century about this “Civilization Discontents” (Freud, 1930) the author will not discuss the psychiatrist question itself, but the distance between instinctual impulses and civilization, that is, contemporary culture. which leads man to his opposite as much as nature does to his well-being.

Intolerance to errors, even scientific misunderstanding, the demand for effectiveness in all fields, the lack of empathy and love in everyday life and, in particular, of values ​​that are natural and lead to a true human asceticism, leads to emotional and society to dangerous limits.

In detecting this evil, Freud himself, the founder of psychiatry, did not take humanity to the couch, and I feel he pointed out that there are cultural evils and these must be remedied first, this is not what was done, in this sense Sloterdijk is right, it is not possible to “ human domestication.

Even if religions themselves live on this civilizational evil, the true asceticism that is to climb the mountain of wisdom with values ​​that support this asceticism on your feet is necessary to reach a true stage of civilization, it is necessary to “love in absence” it is necessary to intend the true values ​​that lead to wholeness and to the true and unique comfort, empathy and love.

When we remove this from society, it begins to move towards isolation, hatred and conflicts and “discontent” are just the consequences of the absence of this “natural” state, but a plant only evolves if cared for in its natural conditions: fertilizer , adequate water and sun.

When the disciples go to ask Jesus that they want to believe more and do a true asceticism, he remembers the mustard seed, a tiny seed that grows into a leafy tree (Lk, 1,6): “if you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you could say to this mulberry tree, pull yourself out of here and plant yourself in the sea: and it would obey you”, like love in absence, faith is believing without seeing and walking towards a true asceticism.

FREUD, S. O mal-estar na civilização (1930 [1929]). In: ______. O futuro de uma ilusão, o mal-estar na civilização e outros trabalhos (1927-1931). Direção geral da tradução: Jayme Salomão. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, 1974. p. 73-171. (Edição standard brasileira das obras psicológicas completas de Sigmund Freud, 21) 

 

Wisdom and Love

29 Sep

*The previous text is wrong, because I had some security problem with my blog.

Perhaps the greatest of paradigms and thus the most susceptible to human errors is Love, one can speak of the Greek classification: eros, philia and agape, but I want to link it here to wisdom in the sense of full happiness, not the one that produces utilitarian but spiritual fruits.

There is a book “The shadow of love, on the concept of love in Heidegger” and another that was Hannah Arendt’s thesis, they do not seem to be but are linked, because it was during the thesis period that Heidegger and Arendt had a romance and so she began to be mentored by Karl Jaspers.

The great scientific theory of our time, both for Karl Popper and for Thomas Kuhn, two great philosophers of science, is the possibility that there will always be a course correction in scientific methods and theories so that man knows more about himself and nature that surrounds it.

Heidegger’s text, which is a compilation of letters, only exists in French, so let’s return to the German concept of “Dasein” now to re-signify it and give it a connotation linked to Love:

“In the usual meaning, however, it means, for example: the chair ‘is there’; the uncle “is there”, he arrived and is present; hence: presence” (Heidegger, 1994b, p. 300).

It may seem like a simple literary maneuver, but it is not, other authors (Fernandes, 2011) also make this allusion and even compare it with “parousia” and “adventus”, which acquire a more religious connotation, here it is not necessary.

Thus, it is a presence of an absence, but love also passes through language and thinking, so “thinking is, therefore, to found, in the human, the “medium” to give oneself to the truth of being. It is, therefore, to co-found the human as presence: to be the there-in-being. In this sense, the fundamental ontology is a rush towards the passage, to pack itself for the leap, a first movement in favor of the foundation of the truth of being in the human as presence. This entails a transformation of the human from the lord of beings into the shepherd of Being”.

And this is Sloterdijk’s main contestation in Heidegger, the failure of this human domestication, or what in Heidegger is “care” and that modernity has not been able to resolve.

Heidegger’s main idea about Love is its presence in an Absence, to which we can add what we developed in previous topics: working with uncertainty and errors, that is, knowing how to live and work in the face of the natural difficulties of life.

Quantum physics, for example, has its beginnings in the enunciation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which stated that it was not possible to know exactly what the position of the particles of an atom was with exactitude, Planck who did not agree, it is his statement “I do not agree may God play dice”, went to the laboratory to prove this principle.

NASA (in the photo the crash of the spacecraft colliding with Dimorphos) has just made a scientific feat which is to hit a satellite of a small meteor, which does not pose any danger of collision with Earth, just to prove that it is possible to change course some celestial body, and with that, in case of danger to Earth, change its route.

The DART project is a test for a possible future mission to deflect an asteroid from colliding with Earth, for cosmic dimensions Dimorphos is small (160 m) and orbits another larger asteroid (780 m) called Didymos and form a binary system, the spacecraft that hit it was traveling at 22.015 km/h and the image seen from a telescope in Hawaii on Monday night (26/09) shows that the impact produced many fragments, the deviation from the route, however, is small.

Changing route is wise, when you admit the mistake, but it requires two steps: admitting the mistake and then having the humility to change route.

Reference:

HEIDEGGER, M. (1994). Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis). Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann   

Fernandes, M. (2011) A. O cuidado como amor em Heidegger. Rev. Abordagem Gestalt. Vol. 1, n. 2, Brazil, Goiânia.

 

 

 

Wisdom and Human Mistakes

28 Sep

Wisdom is not what makes man never err, but what makes it possible to correct the route, change course and continue the process of true and human asceticism as a result of errors.

The great scientific theory of our time, both for Karl Popper and for Thomas Kuhn, two great philosophers of science, is the possibility that there will always be a course correction in scientific methods and theories so that man knows more about himself and nature that surrounds it.

Quantum physics, for example, has its beginnings in the enunciation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which stated that it was not possible to know exactly what the position of the particles of an atom was with exactitude, Planck who did not agree, it is his statement “I do not agree may God play dice”, went to the laboratory to prove this principle.

NASA (in the photo the crash of the spacecraft colliding with Dimorphos) has just made a scientific feat which is to hit a satellite of a small meteor, which does not pose any danger of collision with Earth, just to prove that it is possible to change course some celestial body, and with that, in case of danger to Earth, change its route.

The DART project is a test for a possible future mission to deflect an asteroid from colliding with Earth, for cosmic dimensions Dimorphos is small (160 m) and orbits another larger asteroid (780 m) called Didymos and form a binary system, the spacecraft that hit it was traveling at 22.015 km/h and the image seen from a telescope in Hawaii on Monday night (26/09, see below) shows that the impact produced many fragments, the deviation from the route, however, is small.

Changing route is wise, when you admit the mistake, but it requires two steps: admitting the mistake and then having the humility to change route.

Image of telescope in Havaii of Project Atlas:

 

 

Wisdom and training

27 Sep

The most beautiful image that Plato made of Socrates about philosophy was not the ordering of knowledge, the epitheme that is also necessary, through which the sophists were fought, but the image that exists in his book Symposium, the one with which we have access to philosophy and knowledge of the Supreme Good and in it “the” wisdom.

The one that says that a philosopher is not moved only by a “know-how” as the utilitarian world wants, the presence of Socrates by the “testimony” of Alcibiades, with an appearance without any compatibility with the Beauty of classical Greece, and which imposed to whom he was questioned a change of attitude, not a passive receiver of ideas.

Questions and interrogation are no less important than putting oneself actively in front of oneself and the world, there is a desire to take the lead and to respond to really important questions.

As we read in Theaetetus, Socrates is defined as atopos, with “no-place”, or even “weird”, as one who creates aporias, that is, he does not solve things, he only raises questions, he does not then help the harmony of the “polis”. ” or the cosmos.

What kind of wisdom is this then, “not knowing” is very significant for Socrates, he is a scathing critique of the pretension of the known, after all their knowledge is not the result of conversation, of dialogue, it is not aware of the contradictory questions of the your knowing.

Every Socratic-Platonic-Aristotelian edifice did not resist the brute force of the Roman empire, and falls into ruin before the mighty Roman army, as war won Greek wisdom, acquiring it and making it serve its purposes, the Roman gods were no other. but those corresponding to the Greek gods, but philosophy has decayed.

This is the possible current parallel, there is an almost general feeling that regret is no longer useful or reasonable, and philosophy would be nothing more than mere speculation, says Sloterdijk “it is not a favorable time for thought”, or we go for pragmatism of action or for the deleterious.

There is little room for the birth of the new, for Paidéia with its effect of education and training, everything goes towards the immediate and the market.

Even in environments where culture is present, it seems that the ideals of wisdom are under suspicion and vulgarity is promoted even with a certain ‘status/’, the way out is to call men to conscience and common sense.

 

Plato. The Banquet of Plato. CHICAGOWAY AND WILLIAMS, 1895. (pdf).

 

Scalation of war

26 Sep

We warned last week that the risk of a Ukrainian advance would provoke Russian anger and this is indeed what is happening, the government has called up 300,000 reservists, and the UN OVD body reported that there have been protests in 38 cities and 1,400 people were detained (source RTP Portugal).

The war in eastern Ukraine begins to reverse the trend, on the eve of a plebiscite held by the Russian government, Ukrainian troops advance in the Donetsk region, strategic because it has roads and railways to reach the regions to the east, including Mariupol and Kherton.

What the next steps will be will depend on the severity of the Ukrainian advance, at first these young people and parents of families who are being called up will go to the front so the idea of ​​waiting for the winter and trying to contain the advance of Ukrainian troops seems like a first strategy, but provocations of the use of nuclear weapons continue and US media outlets report that the Biden administration had made a private call to the Russian government.

Putin has so far kept protests and opposition to the war under control, at the cost of arrests and a certain restriction of press freedoms, most regions are also ruled by pro-Kremlin authorities, but it is possible that the internal situation will worsen (protests in photo).

An aggravation that is uncomfortable for the Russian government are the border disputes between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and also Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan and Russia itself has a territorial dispute with Georgia, in addition to the various border conflicts (Finland, Moldova, etc. ), in practice, Russia would like to return to being the great Soviet federation, but the scenario is already different, and the Chinese government called this weekend for there to be no “overflow” from the war.

The Russian issue is that NATO takes advantage of these conflicts to have new allies, in addition to the post-war territorial expansion, which is the main reason alleged for the war with Ukraine.

The siege of Leningrad, today Saint Petersburg, was to prevent Russian trains from reaching the city and there was a food ration card, when a person died the first thing they did was steal the card, also if someone was transporting food. in the city was robbed, the city had about 3 million inhabitants and the only passage to Russia was Lake Ladoga.

 Winter came and the lake became frozen and possible to be used as a route, while the situation of the German army was that it faced difficulties in supply and conditions to withstand the cold.

The current situation in Ukraine is that there is all autumn for winter to accompany the Dombass regions, and avoid the Dombass ones, while the Russians want to stifle the resumption, first through a referendum that guarantees support for the Russian and then with the sending of more troops.

Further Russian defeats could exacerbate the nuclear issue and Ukraine itself could suffer from the cold if forced to shut down its Zaporijia plant.

Meanwhile the Europe of gas spend the winter, has already returned to using fuel fuel to avoid the use of gas in nuclear agreements, strategically wait for the winter to avoid the use of nuclear energy, strategically wait for the winter for their investigations .

There are possibilities for a peace agreement, but they lack a reasonable agenda, a polarization mines as possibilities.

 

 

The gap between rich and poor

23 Sep

The most varied studies, we commented on some in this week’s posts, point to a practically stable separation between rich and poor when not growing in some countries, this model can never guarantee sustainable social human development, wars and pandemics increase this gap even more.

The most serious problem that is extreme poverty, we have already analyzed and published in February this year an analysis of global poverty, and also, in another post, the social problem after covid 19.

The sustainability of human economic and social development depends not only on increasing wealth and social production, it is necessary to find a balance where both social mobility of classes and ethnic mobility provide sustainability and overcome inequalities.

The problem of sustainability is not secondary, many models distribute wealth but impoverish the country as a whole, this is because the investment aspects and safer strategies of economic models are only thought of around income distribution, the opposite where there is only an increase without distribution is less sustainable.

For this model, the biblical parable of Lazarus and the Rich man, the poor man who lived on the margins and when the rich see himself condemned, here the parable is valid both personally and socially, asks that he be allowed to warn his relatives of this risk, but says the biblical prophets already said and you didn’t listen, how many people and political actions have already denounced the serious social gap.

For those who don’t know, the biblical parable says (Lk 16:19-24): “At that time, Jesus said to the Pharisees: 19 “There was a rich man, who dressed in fine and elegant clothes and held splendid parties every day. A poor man named Lazarus, full of wounds, was on the ground, at the rich man’s door. He wanted to satisfy his hunger with the leftovers that fell from the rich man’s table. And besides, the dogs came to lick their wounds. When the poor man died, the angels took him to Abraham. The rich man also died and was buried. In the region of the dead, in the midst of torments, the rich man lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham from afar, with Lazarus by his side. Then he cried out, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me! Tell Lazarus to wet the tip of his finger to cool my tongue, because I suffer a lot in these flames”. 

The rich man also asked to warn the living relatives, and he was reminded that they had (and have) the prophets.