Exegesis, hermeneutics and ingenuity

21 Jun

The exegetes believe that they have found the truth and thus expect to have the last word on a given subject; if someone challenges them they say that it is by arrogance and not by falsehood, Hermeneutics are those who believe that a new interpretation is always possible, since all truth is contextualized and the naive believes only in what “feels.”
Exegesis is a deep interpretation of a biblical, legal or literary text, although it may have elements of depth as all knowledge, it has implicit and intuitive practices like any other form of knowledge.
Hermeneutics, however, is a branch of philosophy that develops a theory of interpretation, but can also be seen as the “art of interpretation” and also refers to practice and intuition, in this it merges with other knowledge, with the difference it admits interpretation and is not supposed to be the last word in a dialogue, as the hermeneutic circle predicts.
The idea that the senses are the foundation of truth is a very old one, but it is naive because all truth must be contextualized, then it must also be analyzed and interpreted in the light of one’s personal experience, and finally confronted with history, not romantic of the analytical or pragmatic of history, but mainly of what is advance, of what is irreversible and special of what is contextual.
Contextual understanding by culture, the social and traditional structure of a people at a given moment in history, also involves political aspects, and there may be disruption factors that can either be caused by a major social change or by a technological or structural change of a particular process Social.
Exegetes, too, accept the hermeneutic circle, which starts from preconceptions, can interact with hermeneutics, but they know that simple interaction can take them from absolute truth and this does not mean falling into relativism but in dialogue.


Make holograms real, fast and accurate

20 Jun

We have already mentioned the development of holograms in space without the need for devices that recreate the artifacts, now it is possible to do them in an ultra-fast and very precise way. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore American Laboratory in California have developed a technique that can create complex objects in seconds, we can say using Shannon’s sampling theorem for imaging, now being three-dimensional.

This technique creates the objects in layers simultaneously, the details were published in the journal Science Advances in December 2017, there are two really important innovations there, the possibility of creating real images in ultra-fast mode using a photosensitive resin recreating 3D printing with a powerful laser which hardens this resin making it a plastic.

This can also be done with metals using electron beam and a metal powder instead of the resin, so does not need the numerous supports required for 3D printers. LLNL engineer Maxim Shusteff, who leads the study, told New Atlas: “The fact that you can make totally 3D parts, everything in one step really overcomes a problem in additive manufacturing”, now holograms can return to material parts.

Another option would be live tissue bio-printing: “We made a good first attempt,” Shusteff said, “but we have not yet taken it to the limit of its performance, so the space is open to us and others to demonstrate what this approach is able to do. “living tissue bioprinting. “We made a good first try,” said Shusteff,

If 3D printing was already heralded as a revolution, this new technique promises to further accelerate this process


Real and virtual objects

19 Jun

It was the mixed reality that clarified what real and virtual objects are, the very authors Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino who have placed lights not only on the taxonomy of virtual and immersive environments, but mainly on the question of the real and the virtual.
They addressed the distinction between real and virtual in three aspects, which can be seen in the figure that is a modified version of Figure 2 of Milgram and Fumio.
The first aspect is the difference between real and virtual objects, which are to the left of the figure, real objects have real objective existence, while virtual exist in essence or effect, but not formally, but it is from them that the in-formation , which they are in essence.
For a real object to be visualized, it can be directly observed or can be sampled (before imagined Shannon) and resynthesized by some artifact.
The second distinction is drawn by the authors of a Naimark paper, which is the question of the quality of the images reflected in an aspect called reflected reality, great efforts were made for this which is the direct visualization in air or glass of a real object, or the so-called “unmediated reality,” now made a reality at Brigham Young University.
The authors’ point of view, and also ours, is that it is not only because the image “looks real” it may be representing the real and its formation, and therefore the terminology used must be careful in explaining this difference.
Clarification of “representation,” the third distinction is between real and virtual images, for this we return to the field of optics and “operationally define a real image as any image that has some luminosity in the place where it appears to be located”, this includes and the image projected on the artifact (the authors say on the screen, but the concept can be extended).
Thus the virtual image can be defined as the inverse mode of the image that does not have luminosity in the place where it appears, and, therefore, this can include examples of holograms and mirror images as suggested by the author, however, escapes the fact that human vision itself mirrors and inverts the images, so what is real if we need the eyes?
Also the question of luminosity is interesting, the shadows and the projections that can be thought from the cave paintings to the myth of the cave of Plato, there already was the virtual one.

Naimark, M. Elements of realspace imaging. Apple Multimedia Lab Technical Report, 1991


Mixed and Virtual Reality

18 Jun

In an article entitled “A Taxonomy of Mixed-Reality Visuals”, Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino, published in the ACM Information System Magazine, coined the term “Mixed Reality” and applied it for the first time.
The article of these researchers is fundamental because they did not dodge the question what virtual reality is, and responded simply and directly by separating the virtual concept from the real, saying that “these two terms constitute the now ubiquitous basis of the term Virtual Reality” .
In this universe the intention is not so complex, but the “basic intention is that a ‘virtual’ world be synthesized by computer to give the participant the impression that this world is not really artificial, but is ‘real’, and that the participant is “really” present within this world, “say the authors in this article.
This is what made them create the term mixed reality, when talking to different researchers, realized that “dealing with questions as to whether specific objects or scenes being displayed are real or virtual, whether images of scanned data should be considered real or virtual. if a real object should look “realistic”, while a virtual one does not need it. ”
The idea of ​​Mixed Reality lies between Virtual Reality (RV) and Augmented Reality (RA), but the important thing about this idea is access to everyday life, helmets and virtual reality devices provoke a feeling of evil -established in many people, and mixed reality allows the easy and simple use of these concepts.
Summarizing mixed reality is a way of merging the real world with the virtual to produce new environments and forms of visualization in which physical and digital objects coexist and can interact in the real world in real time.
In 2015, Microsoft had an impact on the market by launching its HoloLens product, but what looked like a great strategy quickly fell into disrepute because the cost was too high, now companies like Acer. Samsung, Asus, Lenovo, and Dell are making their headsets, and Microsoft’s “Reality Viewer” environment gives these products popularity.
Milgram, P. and Kishino, F. IEICE Transactions on Information Systems, A taxonomy of Mixed REality Visual Displays, Vol E77-D, No.12 December 1994


Small things make a difference?

15 Jun

The answer is yes, though we often imagine that a small act of concord, honesty, or hope can mean a naive act, not the same when we think of the physical sense, but everyday thinking remains the mechanic.

Quantum physics and complexity theory have demonstrated this (the name chaos is also misinterpreted because it is the fact that not everything is linear), but it seems more “organized”, more “logical” binary logic of the yes and no, and in this case also has nothing to do with the digital world, only with idealistic thinking.

Also the biblical wisdom and the teachings of Jesus reflected this, in the words of the evangelist Mark, “The Kingdom of God is like a grain of mustard seed, when it is sown on the earth, it is the least of all the seeds of the earth.

When it is sown, it grows larger than all the greenery, and extends branches so large that the birds of the sky can shelter themselves in its shade “(Mark 4: 31-32), who has seen a grain of mustard and saw your tree know this. It is easier and more tempting to follow the current.

But if with small daily gestures we make a difference it gradually changes the culture around us and can spread to other people, just as a vicious circle is difficult to break, a virtuous circle transforms the habits and the environment in which we are inserted.

This is valid for nature, for example for ecological concern and not infrequently we already see many people worrying about the selection of waste, with trees and animals, this will make a difference over the years, it is a new culture that create.

The question of honesty is a reflection of the world of corruption, if we take away small acts of daily corruption we may over the years make corruption something truly heinous, said one activist: “it will be remembered as terrible as slavery.”

It is necessary to apply and be resilient in small acts of daily attitudes of truth and justice.


Chaos and small things

14 Jun

Although chaos suggests something totally disorganized, such as physical and mathematical theory it means highly sensitive and dependent dynamic systems of their initial conditions, and most systems as they are complex, depend on these conditions (see previous post).
As the system evolves and if we can think of this system over many years, the system that could move “linearly” undergoes profound changes, and this time when the system undergoing changes becomes unpredictable, it is called Lyapunov’s stability period (the above fractal), for example, this calculated period for the sun is approximately 50 million years, it can be calculated for any dynamic system.
At this point complexity theory are united, dynamic systems are complex if seen for long periods, sensitivity of the initial conditions, they can determine the changes in these periods of Lyapunov and Chaos theory, all systems are in constant organization and this can cause great instabilities , depending on the weather.
So small things are unstable over the years and depending on the initial conditions, they are small things like a butterfly wing.
What we can do over the years then is to apply these concepts to human culture, to civilizing processes and to daily conversations and dialogues, thinking about human systems.
Thinking about nature, the planet and indirectly in society, it is necessary not to change the treatment of soil, water, plants and animals, so that in the future a little distant, now not so much, guarantee the stability of the planet, planting of food and an indispensable harmony of nature, in flowers, fruits and beauty.
The theory of chaos is therefore not a theory of the mess, it is precisely the opposition to it, if Francis Bacon and others spoke in the field of Nature, not least his maxim that said “you can not dominate nature without following it “Which means to obey its laws”,








Can a butterfly wing strike cause a tornado?

13 Jun

The so-called butterfly effect, arose from an article by E. Lorenz in 1975 in an atmospheric forecasting journal and for this reason was a long time concealed as a “phenomenon”.
The first question is this, there is even this article, because it is so little mentioned even more in Brazil since the name of the country appears in the title: “Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly’s Wings in Brazil Set off the Tornado in Texas? “, yes the article does exist.
The other two questions posed by Lorenz himself are: if a single butterfly could generate a tornado, the earlier or subsequent wing beats could also cause the millions of other butterflies as well, and if they could cause they could also avoid them.
What Lorenz proposed in general terms + and that minuscule perturbations do not increase or decrease the frequency of events like tornados, the question he puts in his article is that the immediate influence of a single butterfly can make the presence of a tornado evolve in two different situations, being able in some very early instance to decide its presence or not.
This small event can be fundamental, linked to others, able to modify the regime of the winds and the temperature in a vast region, would spend hours and the meeting of the masses of air can provoke a heavy rain in areas that before was determined sun.
Hence Poincare enunciated in 1908 as “sensitivity of the initial conditions,” but it must be said that the formulation of Lorenz’s chaotic systems distanced itself much from what is called nonlinear systems in mathematics, from the idea that linear is the most common, while unstable or chaotic are unconventional.
Most systems are unstable, and this is fundamental, Heisenberg of whom we spoke in our previous post, said: “quantum physics has defeated the causality and certainty that stable and predictable systems offer us, its phrase is famous:” Physics quantum provided the definitive refutation of the principle of causality. ”
Small actions, in human systems, can also cause huge differences and lead human systems to stability or not


The whole and the part

12 Jun

An essential question of small things is not to imagine them totally unconnected, this is a complex problem for modern man, because his vision was shaped by idealism to see things in pieces, in isolated parts, without forming a whole.

It is thus for philosophy, for the sciences, for the arts, and even for religion, which sees God as the essence of the “whole,” but almost always segregates it from human realities. A great master and thinker on the subject, his book “The part and the whole”, has just this name was Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976).

The book can be considered his intellectual autobiography, where it makes dialogues with Einstein, Bohr, Planck, Dirac, Fermi, Pauli, Sommerfeld, Rutherford among the most prominent names of the physics of his time, as well as philosophical dialogues with other colleagues.

According to the author in the preface: “Modern atomic physics has shed new light on philosophical, ethical, and political problems. Perhaps this book can contribute to the understanding of the fundamentals of this discussion by the greatest number of people. ”

It is difficult to summarize the ideas of this book, segment it would contradict the proposal itself, but the winner of the Nobel Prize in physics at age 31 (in 1932 therefore) for the formulation of the principle of Uncertainty, said about his book: “I intended to convey, those who are far from atomic physics, an impression of the movements of thought (Denkbewegungen) that accompanied the history of the emergence of this science. ”

The part, however small it is essential to the whole, from the modern atomic and quantum physics, and segments it is to realize the atomic fission, a rupture with nature and man.


Butterflie´s effect and the little things

11 Jun

It seems that to change the world to change everything we must do great things, great projects and in fact not really, small things can make a lot of difference, and the first thing we can change is ourselves, according to Plato’s phrase: “if wants to move the world, the first step will be to move oneself. ”
The butterfly effect, researched and defended by Edward Norton Lorenz, who even created the figure to the side, has double meaning first that he discovered that a butterfly’s wing beat could influence the climate, according to which the graph that created this effect physics heat convection model has the shape of the wings of a butterfly.
Lorenz was simulating global climate models on a computer, and executed another model that by removing some houses after the comma the processing time would be shorter and the result quit faster, in practice it slightly changed the process conditions, and the results were quite divergent.
This means in practice that small actions and interventions in phenomena can along a course influence them deeply, which gives us hope because so little that we do correct, honest and ethical inspiration can in the future dramatically change things, Of course, other people will need to do small things.
A personal experience was to lose a loved one by suicide, made me think a lot wondering what could have happened to that person, after much suffering a psychologist explained to me that not only social and emotional but also genetic, physical and emotional factors could determine the action of that person.
Thinking in the positive sense we can make small gestures, a child asked me to play ball with her, I was hurrying, I stopped and I played for five minutes with her, there the neighbor of a building that saw me with a bag in hand, told me can go now I play with the kid (kids in Portugal).
Also thinking about Brazil, the enormous suffering with all negative social and political events, we must try to see small actions that can be done, to make people aware and to listen when someone is very convinced of their point of view.
I see that Portugal left the crisis winning and recovering the optimism as a people, they did not lose hope, although the crisis has reached many people and still there are reflexes, but it is noticeable the improvement.


Can a Divided House Survive

08 Jun

The word is bible, but true for many countries across the earth and for the planet as a whole, it takes a minimum of unity to progress and ensure progress for all.
Unity is compromised and risk of wars, in addition to the intermittent wars in Africa, the Middle East and tensions in several European countries, may at some point break like the Guatemalan volcano and the consequences would be unpredictable.
The tension with Will will happen again, and also North Korea still has remnants of threat, as well as social tensions throughout Latin America.
How to react to all this? it is necessary to seek points of unity and dialogue, the war has no winners all lose, and of course, the powerful and the war industry to profit.
The Biblical word for Mark 3: 23-25 ​​says, “Then Jesus called them and spoke to them in parables,” How can Satan cast out Satan? and a kingdom divides against itself, it can not stand. If a family divides itself against itself, it can not stand, “and beyond the idea of ​​the kingdom of God, which is evident, there is also a word to man: oneness.
Unity is a divine word, of course it is always about a certain tension: inequalities, injustices, exclusions, prejudices are all inherent forms of divisions, but even in these cases dialogue is possible and fundamental, the idea that violence alone destroys violence is warlike
Looking at the upcoming elections in Brazil, it is necessary to seek points of convergence, more than a dozen candidates is an absurdity in cost and confusion for the simple people, we must debate idea and programs under pain of accepting an adventurer or dictator.
Dialogue can be harsh and even harsh, but it is necessary to bend over so as not to break up and build partisan fronts around programs and proposals, and hope too.