Arquivo para January, 2014

Ontology: between tradition and innovation

31 Jan

In the final three chapters of the book Introduction toNovoAntigoFoto the ontology of Malfada F. Blanc we are reading it develops three complementary dimensions phenomenology of being: hermeneutics , the poietic and metaphysics.

I highlight a special topic , which is the one dedicated to human poietic , pages 94-113 , which in its final topic discusses the make of the story: between tradition and innovation.

In this passage the author notes a “certain negative view of modern mass society ” , with some influence of Max Weber, that “prevented him from exploring the existential and metaphysical virtues of intersubjectivity” (pp. 113 ) .

Retrieves this context readings of Martin Buber : ” an attitude of ownership and not a dynamic of participation and giving, that being-there in other reaps – common in world history – likely to be , without ever truly leave they transcend and mean.” (pp. 114 )

Will emphasize Bruaire Claude , ” if the truth of the person is ek- sist from and a continuous gift of being , not being ground itself, then their freedom can only consist of a power nod or refuse the motion of the donation , founding and spiritually through “(pp. 114 ) citing this author .

And retrieves the concepts of Nédoncelle, which states ” if love is a mutual promotion of consciousness reciprocity of gift … it is not effective but without the dimensions of moral, social and historical “(pp. 115 )

So just out of the scope of philosophical discourse, affirm “its dialogic realization does not occur outside the company but it and through it”, showing the dynamism of selfhood, pointing to the reading of Xavier Zubiri on the dynamic structure of reality.

So stresses that man walks progresses and making history, becoming the risk shared person and community (pp. 116 )


Ontological pragmatic

30 Jan

View all this context gnoseological reduction and logic of ontology,QuatroDimensões the author turns in the third chapter to the presentation of a pragmatic concept ontology.

Proposed for this account four main levels: the phenomenological , hermeneutic , the poetic and metaphysical.

The first level means access to be as a phenomenon that will highlight your appears and this will differentiate you from the ontic aspect, as she explains it is the fundamental dimension of matrix ontologic (pp. 33).

The hermeneutic level refers to as the appear of being, ie , define the scope and character of its truth , “the structures of thinking and discursive articulation of being” (pp. 33 ) .

Follows the poietic level, so named because of its constructive character, “should draw up detailed structures of being”, referring to the ontic plane, which was initially abstracted , for methodological reasons.” (pp. 33)

And at last develops the metaphysical dimension, “returning to the phenomenological plane appears, takes it and transcends it in further, opening the ontology to a space of perhaps theological questioning.” (pp. 34)

The important thing in this method is that ” being requires a specific type of intellectual view , where , missing all the conditions of uniqueness , thinking experiences the immediate presentation of the ‘ thing itself ‘ (die Sache selbst ) . ” (pp. 35 )


Logical Empiricism and critique of metaphysics

29 Jan

This whole picture of contemporary ontology, if not addressing to a “new form of positivism , in countries of Anglo-Saxon language, linguistic and logical reduction and operated by him of the problems of ontological and metaphysical nature.” (the book Introduction to Ontology , Mafalda F. Blanc, pp. 31)

The ” logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle , Schlick and Carnap represented by , among others, and the school of analytic philosophy from Oxford , that are eminent figures an Austin and Searle ” (p. 31 ) .

All schools in our view , and also the author based on the thought of Wittgenstein have in common and one of his ideas is that ” the reduction of philosophy to a study of language ” (p. 31 )

The influence of Vienna, output “Tractatus Logic – Philosophicus  of  Wittgenstein (1921 ) , ” whereas the problem of knowledge should not be placed from the point of view of consciousness but a rigorously constructed language, reduces philosophy to a logical analysis of the discourse of science” (pp. 32 ) .

I mean the influence because Wittgenstein had dialogues with the circle not being its direct integral , but his speech has a strong influence especially in buildings Carnap , where  “syntax , ie , a theory of formal coherence and for the second one semantics or theory of reference , whereas its truth lies in the empirical confirmation.” (p.p 32 )

Think there “a correspondence between the logical form of language and the world , even those thinkers consider the possible effect the epistemological philosophy contour of reality , ie , to say the way it is , but not what it is and only if can show as pure fact .” (pp. 32 )

The second Wittgenstein , whose main work is ” Philosophical Investigations ” , defends the ” pluralism of languages ​​, based on use, determine the meaning and logical connection of terms. ” (pp. 32 )

This will mean ” the primacy of pragmatic regarding the semantics and syntax , adscrevendo for philosophy the study of natural languages ​​, from the point of view of their use and purpose with which it aims to achieve a community of speakers ” (pp. 32 ) .

Whole question as the terms indicate : syntax, semantics and pragmatics ; are very sensitive issues of technology , but as the author says ” the philosophical problems arising from an incorrect use of language ” (pp. 32 ) and this has to do with context and not with the correspondence to empirical data .


Ontological resumption

28 Jan

The intentionality, a subcategory of medieval philosophySerTime defined within the statute of consciousness, was recovered by Franz Brentano to qualify it as being directed to something , or about something , for it is also important for psychology, which was used by Edmund Husserl, to say that consciousness is always intentional, directed to an object, real or imaginary.

These objects will be in the ontology of Husserl , among noemas between noesis and because they re-establish the relationship between subjects and objects .

Husserl called noema any representation of the object , and the apprehension of the object by the subject (consciousness) process, called Noesis.

For this reading of the phenomena “the essences obtained by imaginative variation from the noetic – noemáticas correlations of experiences and evidence seized with an intuition form the basis of regional ontologies or materials corresponding realms of being, nature, man, culture …” (Mafalda F. Blanc , Introduction to Ontology , pp . 26 ) .

Husserl will not only opposition to Kant , but also to ” extend the realm of the a priori formal plan of the object in general, obtained by abstraction of all material content” somehow incorporates the Kantian project of a critique of reason, ” establishing and determining the value of the concepts and laws of logic , ethics and axiology in the light of past structures of object categories.” (BLANC , pp. 26).

Husserl can enable it with the ontology , ” to conceive the most important of the senses of being in Aristotle – categorical – no longer as a logical form of judgment, but given as a gift, intuitive and fulfilling to see a properly immanent ” (p. 27)

Thus Husserl shows as real as having ” individuality , temporality and sheer determination , as opposed to the universality and timelessness of the ideal , discerning five irreducible strata : … the inorganic and the organic, psychic , and personal sphere of objective spirit (language, cultural tradition)” (pp. 26) .

The project will be even more orthodox Heidegger phenomenology as it will ” develop this conception of time as possible and be array itself , reversing the classical perspective of philosophy , he thought the time as the phenomenal manifestation of being ” (pp. 29) .


The idealism and metaphysics of reason

27 Jan

Kant had divided into a metaphysical or speculative metaphysicsSerSaber of nature and a metaphysical or moral practice (pp. 22 of the book Introduction to Ontology of the Mafalda F. Blanc) .

The first is essential to understanding the science today, as it has established concepts of pure reason that concern the theoretical knowledge of things, but as befits the ratio divided it ” an analytical understanding , enrolled in formal object plane in general and a philosophy of pure reason, that the content of the data objects in a sensible intuition.” (pp. 23 )

Was complete the Kantian building that closes the “human spirit” by conditioning it, “the question of transcendental conditions of objects of experience “and making” thing and itself ” (Ding ‘s sich) distinct phenomena , and render metaphysics (pp. 23).

The German attempt to retake the Idealism metaphysics, but from an idealistic position, ie begins by eliminating the concept of “noumenon” and walked to the “practicality , the character of plea establisher of being itself ” (pp. 23 ) .

Thus , the ethical and subjective idealism of Fichte, “the duty to be a moral order is the dominant principle of all life awareness , the engine of his creative dynamism , resulting unconscious product as nature itself” (p. 24 ), and much of contemporary philosophy of nature when nature speaks, is speaking of idealism .

Schelling will refuse this “idealistic reduction of nature” (p. 24 ) and put in the “field of the interplay between object and subject, nature and spirit” (p. 24 ) but creates a new hermeneutic establishing that the true in – itself , “the totality of reason and be unfolding in the phenomenal development of the world to ascend to his self , updating the essence as consciousness or being-for -itself ” (p. 24 ) and guard Hegel great similarities with these conceptions of consciousness .

Returning to the important point for knowledge , ” the dominant , dynamic element and forming process is the concept , which is the unit ideal and subjective , the universal” and thus “the concept effected its essence, has become the concrete universality fully determined and the Idea was held as absolute and true individuality (Einzelheit)” (pp. 24 ) .

That’s what led us, and takes much of the knowledge , the  “speculative exaggeration”.


Forgetfulness of being and modernity

24 Jan

We have seen that Thomas Aquinas discerned, butSerModernidade also hierarchy upon the question of being,

We know that every philosophy and Western life had influence of classical philosophy, and it comes from Aristotle and Plato, essentially, but a break would happen at the end of the Middle Ages, “subordinating the ‘uncommon’ knowledge that ‘subsistens ipsum’  last weekend of metaphysics, because absolutely first cause not only the order of efficiency and purpose, but also and above all in radical order of existence.” (pp. 20)

Thus, according to Plaintiff Rory F. Blanc we’re reading the Introduction to ontology, “favored the existing concrete entity as the object of metaphysics, highlighting the unique and even priority of existence as an act towards the formal plan of the essence,” while another philosopher also scholastic Duns Scotus, “preferred, such as Avicenna, the nominal meaning of being more universal than others participial, standing in the abstract metaphysics of possibility while studying the essence “(p. 20)

The author explains that this philosophy was transmitted by Francisco Suarez in his “Disputaciones Metaphysicae” 1957, which organizes the medieval scholasticism.

This is important to understand the possible logically conceived as non-contradiction, would enable the modern philosophy, especially concernada with the problem of knowledge and science, important changes in the concept of ontology, which would prepare the largely gnoseological education same, made by Kant in the eighteenth century “(pp. 21), in my view the most important statement of the author.

These changes were even terminology because “had called  first philosophy or metaphysics for assignments Philosophia entis as Maignan, Ontosophia with Clauber” while Christian Wolff, disciple of Leibniz, in his study Philosofia press sive Ontology, “reflects a emergence of a new conception of first philosophy. ” (pp. 21)

Also these conceptions was present in Baumgarten and Crusius: “ara “For the first, metaphysics studies the necessary truths of reason, for the second it is … ” (pp. 21), the author opens own quotes to quote it: “scientia primorum in human principiorum cognitione “.

So “getting through Baumgarten, the Wolfian systematic, Kant, by denying the intellectual intuition, to see would be forced to remodel that deep, gnoseological accomplished the reduction of ontology before only sketched.” (pp. 22).

It was thus that Kant has to be the “in itself” (an sich) of unseen things, restricting the ontology “subjective and phenomenal scope of human knowledge” and establishing the principles of pure reason and “ended up in the anthropological context of finite meet , preventing metaphysics “(pp. 23) and preparing the field for German Idealism.


Tampering in this blog

23 Jan

Dear Readers: I inform you of that some changes wereAlteração no siteobserved in the content and design in this blog, which are not the responsibility of the author, I apologize if anything improper or offensive is found, but we are providing to review all content. In particular the right columns of the blog categories and files were changed, also some posts are gone or with changed content.

While you’re traveling, as far as possible I am working to put the entire site and its contents back in order, thank you for understanding.


The question of being in classical philosophy

23 Jan

Whatever the scope of social life, there is a nuisance, HomemClassicogenerally seen as economic, security, well-being, but it is certain that something is not right in civilization.

How did this process in Western culture, in particular, but which influenced the whole world? It is essential that we respond to meet again our “being” and its path.

We know that every philosophy and Western life had influence of classical philosophy, and it comes from Aristotle and Plato , essentially , but a break would happen at the end of the Middle Ages .

As indicated in our author  we’re reading Introduction to ontology Mafalda F. Blanc) ” will the object of first philosophy suffer a notable restriction , first to the study of the substance , then the study of pure form , as it exists in the first engine made ​​” with this product it would be a ” first mover ” that put everything in motion , then the entity ” will constitute itself as a science of the substance and, second, as theology ” (pp. 18 ) .

Thus Aristotle first philosophy should clarify “the essence of the substance, its causes … should focus on the question of the reasons or causes of sensitive substances, namely, the analysis of its forms and essential, responsible for updating the virtues of the matter.” (pp. 18 )

Thus ” identifying the study of being and intelligibility to the substance of this plan to the way … “(pp. 19 ) he would eventually give “first philosophy to the profile of an onto – theo-logy, which would henceforth the meta-physical ontology subsequent to the Kantian critique.” (pp. 19 )

Near the end of the Middle Ages, the monk Thomas Aquinas , to separate the object from the metaphysical ” beings as beings ” that calls ” ens comune ” ” to many analogados (God and creatures) ” (pp. 19), then the separation of the study of “being common ” knowledge of  “Ipsum this subsistens … last end of metaphysics , because absolutely first cause not only the order of efficiency and purpose, but also and above all in radical order of existence.” (pp. 20 )

Unlike the philosophical fallacy, the author Mafalda F. Blanc says ” is this notion of creative cause , the legacy of Judeo-Christianity, which lacked Aristotle to give a joint and metaphysics as onto- theo-logy systematic structure ” (pp. 20).

But just ahead, at the beginning of modernity, this table would break, we will see.


Differences Between Being and Exist

22 Jan

The author we are reading (Mafalda E. Blanc in his bookSerEnte Introduction to Ontology) explains that the verb “to be” (ƐĨναι , this , être , Sein) in the Indo-European languages ​​, “derives from a more genuine existential sense and was only in it is possible because the overlapped supplemented by a nominal or adjective attribute”, and this means that “a judgment predicative assertion like ‘ no / P exists in S’ “(pp 14).

This seems reductive , but ” from the viewpoint of semantic verb ‘to be’ contains , beneath the apparent abstraction of its infinitive form , a wealth of content and concrete , still present in the verbal inflections of the Indo -European languages ​​, meaning live (according to root ‘ es ‘ , present in the forms ‘ einai ‘, ‘ this ‘ being ‘ sein’ ), grow (according to root ‘ bhu’ present in ‘b’, ‘bin’ , ‘fuein’, ‘I’) and stay ( depending on the root ‘ wes ‘ , present in Germanic forms ‘ war’ , ‘gewesen’ and ‘wesen´) “(pp. 14 of the author but quoting Heidegger himself).

In daily life we noticed the existence of beings, “sensitive and withdrawn by the imagination ” (pp. 14) but you can abstract and find the essential elements of being ” the species and gender,” to achieve the most abstract to the core , in its mere formality , in the words of the author of “formal abstraction be featuring this intellection by the intimate act of existing ( essendi actus ) , and that puts sutém like concrete being the subject of certain essential – as faithfully denotes the existential judgment” (pp. 15).

I admit that as a totality itself, says the author , give the name of transcendental ( p. 15), but as a species ” unity only retains the details common to several species determinations , excluding differences that you add the outside in be the case , there is no difference that can borrow externally , because that would be or have or be anything “(pp. 15 ) .

Being thus includes all the differences , as the author says , ” wants of individuals and their determinations ,” then although abstract , is present in all humanity , regardless of culture , means ” thus is not a full gender common and more abstract note of an extrinsic time diversity that transcends … ” (pp. 15).

So the different determinations , given by language, habits and forms of sociability , finally culture should still stay while being in essence , and this means that what we see in planetary humanity is capable of finding common denominators, even considering what Edgar says Morin ( which I have read) , citing M. Murayama that every culture has something ” dysfunctional (default functionality) of functionaless (running in a bad sense) of sub-functional (making a performance at the lowest level) and toxicfunctional (creating losses in its operation)” (pp. 116 of the book Earth-homeland ) we can still find something essential this “being” while Being.

The homeland-world requires a “man-world”, a full and be more serene able to share the planet with other beings.


The homeland-world and being-in-world

21 Jan

Is credited to the objects, and also the technology, the ideaNovoMundo would be that the externality that actually preclude man from doing this ethical , moral and so find your being , but this opposition between the inner and outer being is not true if not understand what is being said as Mafalda de Faria Blanc, ” leaving themselves and hide the body of the postpone things around and urgency of action” (p. 11 of the book Introduction to Ontology, Piaget Institute , Portugal  2011) .

Citing the philosopher Gabriel Marcel, the author says “immersed in the density of the ‘ontological mystery’ … man lives often oblivious of it, preferring to grips with the enigma of existence , the hideout next to it immediately presents itself, then seeking an illusory comfort against the constitutive uncertainty of living” (pp. 11) and therefore this does not refer technology or any specific object of the contemporary world, but everything.

So what bothers contemporary man ? reply to the author that there are some “unavoidable” situations that the ” immediate means of feeling “or other sudden experience” opens and discover and there it is” (pp. 11 , emphasis added) and astonishment in doubt, admiration or distress “revealing to us already being in the middle of the other ones” (p. 11).

I mean in the words of Heidegger , the great master of contemporary ontology , there is a forgetfulness of self from one, understood this two way, as the author explains: “In the first case, means directly and formally the essence , ie , the entity (ousia) , principle of activity and intelligibility of the thing , as regards the ‘nature’ or ‘quiddity’, which is the definition object”  (pp. 13), i.e the thing or be like “enti”-ity .

Means that we launched the “action”, which ” is part of the essence , and its expressive dynamism possibilitação to seek to explain the emergence of existence” (pp. 13).

All very complicated? think about how often questioned the very existence , and many times within the very essence of your being able to find peace and happiness, not in situations of leisure, pleasure and other immediate things , but ” within your being ,” we exchanged feelings for immediate serenity, which incidentally comes from the word “be”.

The homeland-world requires a “man-world”, a full and be more serene able to share the planet with other beings.