Arquivo para April, 2016

Painted faces to the demonstrations of June 13 in Brazil

16 Apr


The pathetic and melancholy government of General Figueiredo (1979-1985)DiretasJá marked the end of military rule, with a huge economic crisis and the political reopening of the country process, from government of General Figueiredo was marked with the amnesty law and the return of many politicians, intelectuals and artists in the country.

The opposition tried through an amendment called reestablishing direct presidential election for president in the streets in 1984 virtually every democratic country forces came out in defense of the elections was the campaign called “Direct Elections Now”, but was indirectly elected Tancredo Neves does not get to take possession and spoke on April 21 (say was “postponed” death to get this date) and who assumes is José Sarney and Fernando Collor election elect, he was little known.

The Collor government (1990-1992) although elected by a large majority soon reveals the next election day its true face and confiscate the savings of thousands of Brazilians, a fact that still remains forgotten, because it meant a break in the trust of the majority of people in the public use of money.

The confiscation of money, reducing Collor’s support in the National Congress and the manifestations of streets known as the “painted face” because he painted up her face with green-yellow bands, leading to impeachment and takes his deputy Franco that government until the end of 1994.

We had the end of Franco’s term, a kind of government too, something the vice Temer of the PMDB seems to imitate, but not exactly the same thing happens today when most politicians are discredited, including the opposition.

Then came two governments Fernando Henrique Cardoso with the achievement of stability of the currency, but with strong opposition from the Workers Party, creates a form of government with use of office and backroom deals, called “collision of government.”

Finally in 2002 the fight is elected and re-elected in 2006, using a law that his successor created to two terms in 2010 can make his successor Dilma Roussef, 2008 was a year of relative international crisis, the government dodged it strengthening internal market and use of commodities (soy, frozen orange juice, minerals, oil, etc.), but the model is exhausted.

In June 2013, even without strong ideological polarization that happens today, the people went out to the streets in guidelines for a little light parties, very clear to the people and some political analysis done well, the agenda was: the reduction of transport (flashpoint of demonstrations), combating corruption (and made even partially), transparency in policy decisions, the return of inflation (already at that time, spending on the world Cup and many others.
Incorrectly does not bind to the instability of days in Brazil this period, there is many corruptions here.


Brazilians’70 the military dictatorship

15 Apr

Students main points of resistance to the military coup, wasMarcha100Mil the headquarters of UNE (National Union of Students) invaded and burnt down and went underground in the Northeast people linked to the Peasant Leagues were persecuted as well as most of the trade unions and federations of workers.

Was organized the Brazilian National Information Service (SNI) in order to “collect and analyze information relevant to national security, counter-information and information about internal subversion issues” as textual quote from historian Boris Fausto.

The AI-1 (first Institutional Act) established the election of a new president of Brazil, for voting by the National Congress, was elected General Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco, who was in favor of a “restricted democracy”, was released a Plan of Government action by ministers Roberto Campos and Octavio Bulhões Planning of Finance.

The AI-2 extinguished the parties and created the Arena (National Renewal Alliance) controlled by the military and the MDB (Brazilian Democratic Movement) where he took refuge almost all opposition, because a part of it left for clandestinity and armed struggle.

Outside Carlos Lacerda, traditional enemy of Jango and Juscelino allied forming a Frente Amplio in the country some bishops of the Catholic Church as the priest Helder Camara raised their voice against the lack of democracy and affirmation of the rights of workers.

In 1968 protests gained momentum, with the death of a student, getting to make a march called 100 thousand, but repression was violent with death, torture and December 13, 1968, Costa e Silva succeeded Castelo Branco, decrees I-5 closes the National Congress and starts a cassation cycle mandates of the toughest opposition.

In August 1969, Costa e Silva suffers a stroke and the replacement would be Pedro Aleixo, a civilian deputy, is by General Emilio Garrastazu Medici, with the Vice Minister of the Navy, Augusto Redemaker were years of “national territory banishment” , executions and torture in organs of the Navy and DOI-CODI, while the country grew by 11.2% fees and 10% of GDP came to be called “Brazilian miracle”, won a World Cup in 1970.

But the hidden aspect of the miracle was the workers’ crunch, the minimum wage fell by almost 60% and health indicators, education and housing were very low.

In 1973, General Ernesto Geisel, who had been president of Petrobras, began what he called “opening slow and gradual policy”, an amendment to the constitution allowed his choice by delegates of the Legislative Assemblies of the States, repression and torture were wearing the military governments and the death of journalist Vladimir Herzog and student Alexandre Vannuchi Leme trigger struggles for democratization.


60´s Janio Quadros brazilian election

14 Apr

The Quadros election for president and Goulart for vice, which were independentVarreVassoura elections and not by plates, meant for various political analysis, a break from the process initiated in 1945 with Getulio despite great instability was democratic because there was an evolution culture and democratic practice in Brazil.


The Quadros election (PTN but as support UDN) in 1960 meant certain change of course of Brazilian policy with respect to the period beginning in 1945, because he lost almost always present orchestration Vargas PTB and PSD, the victory of UDN (National Democratic Union) with a slogan of fighting corruption famous “slogan” sweep, sweep, broom, sweep sweeps the robbery, but corruption of course continued until today.


Quadros solves resign on August 25 and constitutionally should take João Goulart, popularly known as Jango, but being on a visit in China, the mayor Ranieri Mazzilli (the defeated PSD) took office temporarily, but form a cabinet in an attitude little respect Jango should take.


In a polarized negotiation process, similar to today, Congress finds a solution to a government parliamentary system of government, which lasted for two years (1961-1962), reducing the constitutional powers of Jango on September 7, symbolic date, almost always preserved these maneuvers (now would be April 21).


Jango lacked legislative support in Congress to pass easily their political projects, economic and social and did, for example, a three-year plan to the economist Celso Furtado, was approved the 13th. Salary for workers.


With a plebiscite Jango back to regain his powers (vote of 80% to maintain the presidential system), although it remains without great support in the Brazilian National Congress.


There is a large rally in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil’s Central Station, with about 300,000 people, to time an extraordinary number in response to right made a march “of the family to God for freedom”, estimated between 500 and 800 000 people.


On March 31, 1964 there is the military coup, Jango went into exile in Uruguay


50´s Democracy and development

13 Apr

It was in short full democracy, the country has developed, JuscelinoJuscelinoEn Kubischek was elected in 1955 with a plan of goals with the catchphrase “do 50 years in 5” and did.

Café Filho who had replaced Vargas stepped away from the government and assumed the chair of the House of Representatives Carlos Luz, who was accused of plotting a coup, something like that again with today.

There were rumors that Carlos Luz was plotting a coup for political and military belonging to the UDN that was against the possession of Juscelino Kubitschek and this made the war minister, General Henrique Teixeira Lott, mobilized troops occupying public buildings, radio stations and newspapers.

Were installed at Ford, Volkswagen, Willys and GM (General Motors) with automakers in affiliates mainly developed the ABC (Santo André, São Bernardo and São Caetano), the construction of Brasilia with a bold and modern flat (Brasilia has the shape of a plane and this Wings), the country has opened up to international capital, and attracted many investments to the country.

The popular sentiment was strong for the country, and even won the first World Cup, frustrated dream in the year 50 when the first World Cup held in Brazil, which lost to Uruguay in the final.

The urban population grew and especially ABC region, attracting workers from all over Brazil, which increased the rural exodus (out of the field man to the cities) and the migration of northeastern and northern to the big cities of the East.

There was a downside because disorderly rural migration made the field, important for the country even today, stays the margin and also migration brought violence and poverty major cities.


Some elements to understand Brazil 1930s

12 Apr

In Brazil strike is called revolution and revolution is called blow actuallyGetulioEn little or nothing is done fact mention the laws, because of the revolt of 30 (as wish it was called) São Paulo’s urban population (not just the bourgeoisie) They come out in defense of fighting corruption, coronelismo (continues today) and fraud, is no accident.

Although São Paulo has a quite coffee inside envisions the need of a strong industrial policy, despite the emergence of Vargas National Steel Company (CSN) and later of Petrobras (1953), there is something like today?.

But labor claims were treated as “police case”, and all the populist policy was not only a blow to alleviate the struggle of the nascent industrial working class, from 1921 to 1930 there was already an official movement “lieutenants”, but the fight indeed policy will emerge with the Prestes column (communist movement), which began in 1925 and ended in 1927 unbeaten.

Getúlio Vargas ruled Brazil from 1930 to 1945, deposed had not revoked rights and was senator by two States (new similarities to some) and returned to power from 1951 to 1954, this time democratically historical ignorance or lack of leadership? new similarities.

Everyone knows the famous phrase (in Brazil) before suicide “get out of life to enter history”, but precedes it: “Hatred, the infamies, slander not swept my spirit. I have given you my life. Now I offer you my death, “is a Messianic phrase of a dictator.


Brazilian democratic and coup

11 Apr

After a first period called Republic “sword” (two generals Deodoro da NewStateFonseca and Floriano Peixoto), the proclaimed and unconquered Republic of Brazil, after had several elected presidents: Prudente de Morais, Campos Sales, Rodrigues Alves, Afonso Pena, Nilo Peçanha, Hermes da Fonseca, Wenceslau Brás , Epitácio Pessoa, Artur Bernardes, followed in the late 20 as the government of Washington Luis, after Julio Prestes who took not owe the 1930 coup.

The oligarchic republicanism and the “coffee with milk” policy that took turns in the political power of the coffee-growing oligarchy entered into crisis, as the crisis Stock Exchange with the drop of 29 accelerated this process, Washington Luis overthrown near the end of his government.

The successful candidate from the state oligarchy was Julio Prestes, but the mining oligarchy wanted it to be Antonio Carlos de Andrada, who gives up and supports the candidacy of Getulio Vargas, with the vice-president of Paraiba Joao Pessoa forming the Liberal Alliance, was the end the “coffee with milk” policy expression used today to indicate a game of marked cards.

But Julio Prestes wins the elections, and candidates defeated resort to denunciation of electoral fraud, the process intensifies having as conspirators gauchos Aranha and João Neves da Fontoura, the mining Virgílio de Melo Franco and lieutenants leaders Tavora and Joao Alberto .

João Pessoa is murdered, and an armed uprising is started under the Goes Monteiro command, October 3, 1930 and the next day, were the Northeast forces that followed accession to revolt and Washington Luis is deposed on 24 October 1930, by the generals Tasso Fragoso and Menna Barreto and the admiral Isaiah Noronha, then the government is transferred to Getulio.

Washington Luis was oligarchic and legalistic, built many roads, is famous for his phrase: “Do not hold no reason not to hold unprocessed” but eventually deposed giving was Vargas that goes up to 1954, as democracy was a delay.


We can control flows of money “dirty”

08 Apr

Cases like Swiss leaks, Brazilian scandals and many countries, Panama PapersDirtyMoney now may help the idea of ​​controlling the flow of this money “dirty” stealing wealth of peoples and contribute to the concentration of money in the hands of a few.
According to experts interviewed by the BBC, p Panama Papers should help the idea of ​​controlling the flow of money and grow the instruments to implement technical and legal technologies and technologies to be used both for good and for evil, but could now benefit control of this money.
Offshore accounts, it is import

ant to remember by themselves are not illegal, the problem is that they are used to escape the tax authorities and tax collection, so it is a form of theft from foreign nations, especially hide money and dirty fight on national political campaigns.
According to the director of criminology at the University of Basel and director of the Basel Institute of Governance Mark Pieth: “The case (of Panama Papers) will help control the flow of illicit money.”
A task force was formed by the huge volume of documents (more than 2 Tera 11 million sheets of paper), will be a total of 107 of the world media outlets have mobilized to review the data.
Professor Pieth will be assisting these professionals in the investigative core that has already established a connection, for example, between Russian leader Vladimir Putin and his friend musician Sergei Roldugin, supposed orange for political, something denied by Putin.
It is a new face to the world and a tremor to corrupt and political foul play based on the use of financial power to defraud and win elections.



Tolerance, differences and peace

07 Apr

GuerrasCoréiaWhen discussing tolerance and associate with religious fundamentalism, rarely associate with the ideological and political fundamentalism, the reason is simple that in the history of treaties on tolerance, religious discussion was with the John Locke about this (see post).

Interestingly it was precisely when this pact took hold, with Catherine of Tolerance Edict of Medici, who tried to fend off the fanaticism of Lutherans and Catholics that had caused many wars and crises, the Tolerance Edict is 1562 after the peace of Amboise 1563, was preceded by a series of religious, trade and territorial war, war calls the 30 years (1618-1648).

The wars of today are based more on cultural differences, with a religious background, but cease to be commercial and also territorial, but fundamentalism is another, most often with ideological and / or religious roots, but remember that the Afghanistan was dominated by Russia and was where the US fought a war in 1968 before the Vietnam war, and even before the Korean war between 1950 and 1953.

These wars now explode into conflict as the Ukraine-Russia, internal problems in most of the Latin American countries, and just a lack of understanding of the historical reasons compromising peace and attempts to dilute the deep existing social differences here.

Even the radical Islamic state can not be understood to be the important cultural differences between the Arab world and the West, there is another fundamentalism in progress.

In addition to the ideologies, fizzing in Latin America, there is an ignorance of the cultural, ethnic and even religious differences that can create deep and raise new fundamentalism in Europe is difficult to get the Arabs.


Investigative journalism and networks

06 Apr

The Investigative Journalism is independent journalism, which has led toJornalismInvestigative serious issues of corruption, problems of violence in the world and many other types of oppression.

Cases like Swiss Leaks and now Panama Letters are related to investigative journalism, but the mainstream media and much of other newspapers also do not really understand what this means, in January 2013, an event of the veteran investigative journalist David Kaplan helped defining what this type of journalism is not:
– Leaked news, “get a leaked document by a powerful official and write it on that day is not investigative journalism “, said Kaplan, director of the Global Network of Investigative Journalism and author of Global Investigative Journalism: Strategies for Support.

Not editorial story: “Some journalists think that all good stories are investigative reporting,” Kaplan said.
It is critical report: “Investigative journalism may have critical elements, but just because you’re writing something that is hard and critical does not mean you’ve done the excavation involving investigative journalism
Not reporting on crime and corruption, “Just because you’re covering crime and corruption in editorship does not mean that you are using the tools of investigative journalism.”

In Brazil, last year the Investigative Journalist Evany José Metzker, 67, was found dead beheaded in a rural area of Padre Paraíso, in the Jequitinhonha Valley in Minas Gerais, he researched many cases of violence, including the police, and that period was investigating a prostitution gang of teenagers who acted in Catuji. Minas Gerais State.



Panama Papers: global corruption

05 Apr

Revelations 11 million documents involving international figures, no less thanPanamáPapers 140 politicians from 50 countries, associated with offshore companies (name that is increasingly associated with money laundering in companies you stand havens), scandalize the world.

Many tax havens, 21 in all where these companies are located, many linked to the British Crown, which is why there are already pressures in the country, including involving the crown and the Prime Minister to Iceland, famous for his reforms, had the Prime Minister involved, but under popular pressure this quickly resigned.

Iceland is an icon in this process because the turnaround in the country after the 2008 crisis was an example, politicians and bankers accused were arrested, and when the country seemed to turn the page, a company called Wintris, owned by Gunnlaugsson and wife to 2009 appeared in tax havens, popular pressure was immediate and he resigned.

The Panama Papers also cast doubt on two of the main Icelandic ministers: Bjarni Benediktsson, Minister of Finance and Economy and Olof Nordal, Interior Minister appeared also the new president of Argentina Macri and the President of Angola and a network that could not exist without the approval of Macri.

The Investigative Journalism through the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists , the same Swiss Leaks points the company Mega Star Enterprises, headquartered in Panama and created by Mossack Fonseca as one of the research sources, but there are others.

To follow a familiar catchphrase in Brazil, we would say: you have to move the world to clean, close tax havens and international process openings, some perhaps in the court of The Hague.