Arquivo para May, 2017

There is spirit of truth

17 May

The problem of an idealistic spiritualism, which can be confused with the dualismoPensarJunto of body and soul, is in fact a unique and exclusive construction of modernity, in classical antiquity where idea (the eidos) and substance are in relation, idealism separates subject Of the object, that is, the true, is not “substance”, but rather: “subject”, “thought” and spirit.
Hermeneutic truth, that of historical consciousness, we have already stated that it is not Dilthey’s romanticism but the hermeneutic of Heidegger’s facticity and “of life” as you call that of Gadamer, goes beyond the realistic concept that this idealist “in itself” of Hegel Will become not merely an interpretation, but a relation within the hermeneutic circle where fusion of horizons and new relations is always possible.

The fact that we speak of spirit, for example, in law is commonly used the “spirit of the law,” in this case as the sense to which it points, but as our object is hermeneutics and within it the truth, we refer to what can be Called both to consciousness and truth.

The notions of spirit and soul also often overlap, in the sense that they do not nullify the meaning of hermeneutics, but rather complement it, for example, in the etymological origin of the Latin spiritus, in the sense of “blowing” or “breath” , and here is a dialogue.

We have already done some posts talking about ontological truth, that is, it exists as a Being and not only in the logical sense as it was explored by positivism and by a false scientific spirit, and in this case spirit means a set of which validate (they are truth criteria) to some hypothesis, hitherto explored only by reason and experience.

Then this spirit of truth is opposed to the spirit of deception, not in Manichaean logic, good versus evil, but the absence of good where evil prevails, lying narratives incapable of true dialogue, though often intending to have this Name, are nothing more than proselytism, repetition of argument and interpretation in a dogmatic way, even if not religious and certainly very present in fundamentalist discurses.
The dialogue that starts from the historical facts, from what is the personal and collective experience of many, as Paul Ricoeur says “I was there”, even if subject to misinterpretations can not but have in the experience of the facts, the spirit of truth And of lived experience and not just reported or interpreted.
Because part of the ontological phenomenology, of the thing in itself and not of speculation or ideologism, every human experience experienced can not be overlooked, on pain of letting the spirit of truth die, they are not a set of logical facts, but of facts that, while being illogical Like war, reveal the spirit of truth behind the facts, but human history has an origin and an eschatology.
This origin and eschatology that Teilhard Chardin explores to affirm the existence of a sphere of the Spirit, a Noosphere.


The Spirit of Truth in Idealism

16 May

Modern idealism initiated with Fichte (1762-1814) and Schelling (1775-1854),IdealismTruth as a certain opposition to Kant’s philosophy that is also idealistic, will have its apex with Hegel (1770-1831), who claims to exist an “absolute spirit” and Which is the one with which man relates more deeply, can be known and can be unfolded in three relevant levels: art, religion and philosophy.
It seems strong and even true, but there are severe critics who say that the death of art happens to Hegel, Marx somehow tries to proclaim the end of philosophy by stating that “philosophers must now transform the world,” and lastly, religion of Hegel is nothing but the purest philosophy of God, unable to reach the world and the concrete man.
Of course, the guilt is not exclusive to Hegel, but philosophy, art and religion are decidedly in crisis, and almost all philosophers and theologians, reading the “last testament of Benedict XVI”, affirm that since 1956 a process of “de-globalization” of Religion, that is, the loss of its universality.
On the subject of art, I recall Heidegger’s text on the question of technique, but whose most profound critique is that of art, when it asserts itself by questioning the truth, freedom, and event of being and being, that “art is historical In the essential sense [… since] it lets the truth sprout. Art, while a preservation that sows, lets the truth of the being sprout in the work, “but he sees that today he needs an unveiling.
Idealist philosophy expresses the “absolute spirit” in Hegel thus: “The spirit is spirit only, insofar as it is to the spirit; And in absolute religion it is the absolute spirit which manifests itself, no longer its abstract moments, but itself. ” (HEGEL, 2012).
It is a closure of the spirit in itself in a pure spiritualism, without one for which it is the opening to the other, this is the contemporary religion that when it manifests itself in relation to the external object does not see it within itself in its subjectivity, Hegel expresses Philosophy is determined to be a knowledge of the necessity of the content of absolute representation, as well as of the necessity of the two forms: on the one hand, the immediate intuition and its poetry, and the representation, which presupposes revelation Objective and external; On the other hand, first, to enter into subjective self, after the subjective outward movement and the identification of faith with the presupposition. “(HEGEL, 2012).
Contemporary philosophy, from Heidegger with Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur and Emmanuel Lévinas, opens it with the hermeneutics present in the Question of consciousness of the story of Gadamer, in the Other of Paul Ricoeur and in Totality and Infinity of Emmanuel Lévinas.

HEGEL, G.W.F. Phenomenology of Spirit, translated by Terry Pinkard, 2012.

Nectarios G. Limnatis, German Idealism and the Problem of Knowledge: Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel, Springer, 2008.


The world hacker attack

15 May

It is already the biggest worldwide attack, the numbers counted until WindowsUpdateSunday (14/05) already surpassed 200,000 infected computers in 150 countries, but like any digital virus there is no deadline for it to end unless the systems are permanently protected, because of this the update is so necessary.
The virus type ransonware, a malware that installs itself on your computer, encrypts all data and blocks them by requiring payment (in this case in bitcoins, digital currency) and does not allow you to access your own programs and data.
It was called by the Wanna Cry hackers themselves, considered a high-level malware distributed as Deep Web, and the information says that it was an adaptation of a US NCSA portlet (intelligence department) and this would be precisely to encrypt and capture data of citizens and businesses.
For those who have ease in using the Windows environment, going in settings you will find the Update and Security screen (Windows update) and must wait for the update that may take a while, but will also update Windows Defender, which in the current version already has the vaccine against this virus.
If the program does not fully upgrade, it is because your Windows is not original, so it means you will still not be safe.
However, researchers are not going to disclose the strategies, but they can basically be three: trace the historical origin of the attack, track where the current attacks are coming from, and unconventional mechanisms.

To verify the use of bitcoins, since they are pseudonyms (pseudo-currencies) that must be transformed into existing products or currencies to be rescued the values ​​of the hijacking of data made by the hackers.
It is increasingly important to keep data backups on cloud backups or an external hard drive.


Corruption and the demand for change

12 May

The demand for change is also a demand for a change of mentality, and withoutCorrupção any doubt, the great changes that are necessary in our society are the participation of public money in essential sectors: health, education and security, not forgetting the profound inequality that Brazil Has but not at any price and what price?
For an authentic change the mentality of what is government, what is state, and whom these people serve, in the Brazilian case, needs a profound change of mentality, and it is enough to read the literature of the country to know that the root of this mentality is Cultural and structural.
Also in biblical times, the religious mentality needed to be changed, and Peter’s message after the death and resurrection of Jesus is very clear: “In many other words Peter testified to them and exhorted them, saying,” Save yourselves from this Corrupt people! “(Acts 2:10), clear within our context is a little different.
But not the corrupting act, for it is not only the economic aspect, but the thing that is eroding and destroying a society, and it is not possible to change the mentality, without tampering with the people who represent this corrupting model and who holds the power to it.
Not how to change without changing values, positions and especially what is the foundation of a public function: service to the community as a whole and not to self-interests,
A new society demands new men, in whom the change of mentality has already happened, people who have principles that do not negotiate, and this is a utopia in the sense that Paul Ricoeur defends, for those who understand the good ideology, it is ideology.


Imaginary, Utopia and ideology

11 May

Although we have done a translation of ours, we preserve the original text,Utopia2 because the concepts here, such as good life, have no relation to bon vivant and the original is important.
Imaginary has already had in mind the same confusion that exists today for the virtual, Ricoeur’s clarification in his work undoes this confusion: “the arbitrary evocation of things absent, but existing elsewhere” (Ricoeur, 1986, p. Such as “portraits, pictures, drawings, diagrams, etc. … whose function is to play the role of the things they represent “(Idem).
But he does not fail to realize that there is the use of the image in the unreal sense, in this sense imaginary and imaginary has practical functions, it designates “fictions that do not evoke things absent, but things that do not exist … applies to the field of illusions” (idem ) That leads one who gives himself to them to believe that the aim is a real object.
It makes here an important relation to the idealistic concepts of subject and object: “fictions that do not evoke absent things, but things that do not exist … application to the field of illusions” (idem) that leads to the one who gives himself to believe that the object Is real, this is ideology in the ideal sense, even if they are not the object of liberal concepts, they are still Hegelian.
This kind of consciousness leads “on the side of the subject, to the axis of the fascinated consciousness and the critical consciousness (idem), and here Ricoeur supposes that the imaginary, the symbolic, the mythical and the fictional can have a truth value, Allow us to describe the human condition, making us perceive new existential possibilities, and this seems very current.
What Ricoeur proposes is to discern the positive functions of both ideology and utopia: it is “an interpretation of real life (being) the expression of all the potentialities of a group that are repressed by the existing order” (Ricoeur, 1986, p. 387-388).
Ricoeur, however, makes an essential difference between the two, the theme of power, and insofar as it “wants to be an accomplished eschatology,” must have the function, this is the problem, of “keeping open the field of the possible” (1986 , Pp. 389-390), and here ethics enters.
He also writes a small ethic in discerning action a new culture of peace “and its challenge is the globalization of nonviolence”, “the external face of the virtue of prudence” (1986: 402).
Herein lies the function of the ethics of utopia, since it can bring about a “living together”, which the author makes clear by creating a summarized rule of thumb as “living the good life, with and for others, in just institutions” ( 1990, pp. 199-236).
Of course this refers to the concept of good that is the good life, not adopt here the jocular sense of bon vivant is not this, but the good of classical philosophy, thus the city of the future and not the government of the future, because there live Citizens who make their micropolitics, the one that goes towards the ideal city for the “education of all for freedom, for discussion” (1986, 400), although of course this requires an ethical state, but it is not he Of opinions.
The ethical state defined by Ricoeur defines it as “its virtue is prudence
RICOEUR, P. Du texte à l’action. Paris Seuil, 1986.
RICOEUR, P. Soi-même comme un autre. Paris: Seuil, 1990.


Utopia and a new time

10 May

In order to understand the importance of Ideology and Utopia and the Utopia2.beginning of the discussion from Karl Mannheim (1893-1947), it should be remembered that this one besides addressing the subjects was student of Alfred Weber and work colleague of Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer , besides him (Mannheim) taught at London School Economics, and he being the first to write on Ideology and Utopia.

This shows the profile of someone who wrote before the age or information society, made a systematization of a sociology of knowledge, an important source for an initial conception of what Edgar Morin will later define as “complexity”.

Mannheim, who did not live the modern information society, already analyzed the generational changes that each generation means: “The entrance of new people obstructs the constantly accumulated goods, but also unconsciously produces new selection and revision in the field of what is available; It teaches us to forget what is no longer useful and to desire what has not yet been conquered “(Mannheim 1972: 532).

The concept of utopia in Mannheim comprises a form of group mentality, nowadays potentialized by the media, which analogously to ideology, also surpasses what is termed by reality and points to a possible future, that is, virtual.

Taking the concept of reality as that which is socio-historically constructed by a dominant group, it must be understood as a dialogue with the tradition of Gadamer, the utopian possibility is, according to Mannheim (1972, 216) “only those orientations which, reality, tend to be transformed into conduct, to shake, partially or totally, the order of things that prevails in the moment “, that is, a new horizon is needed, according to the text capable of” transforming into conduct “, that is , change the mentality and the action. Utopia is a term coined by Thomas Morus.

The text of Ricoeur is much more complex and rich, the reading of Mannheim is not obligatory, but for those who want a systematic study, and bet on a possible utopia, in this case it is a must read, previous to the Ideology and Utopia, book of Ricoeur.

References: MANNHEIM, Karl. Ideology and Utopia. Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge, 1936 (pages in Brazilian edition 1972).


Between ideology and Utopia

09 May

The courageous work of Paul Ricoeur “Ideologia e Utopia”, published in 1986 andUtopia available in the Portuguese version in 1991, today there are also Brazilian editions such as Autêntica.Editora.

The work that Ricoeur taught at the University of Chicago in 1975, and analyzes the subjects from Mannheim to Althusser, Weber, Habermas and Goertz.
The work that Ricoeur taught at the Univesity of Chicago in 1975, na analyzes the subjects from Mannheim to Althusser, Weber, Habermas and Goertz.

However, it was first to approach ideology and the one within a conceptual framework, so I added the “between” because we actually navigate freely today between these two models of a new society, and the demand for change exists, barely ?
The juxtaposition that Ricoeur supposes, and the intersection I use (the “in between”) is to undo the contrast between the two, even though they resist differences, as in the introduction: “juxtaposition … defines and demarcates both, Those of markedly earlier conceptual formulations, in which ideology has been contrasted with both reality and science, and utopia seen as a mere dream, a desirable fantasy … ” (Introduction, page 16).
Although the relation between Ideology and Utopia is unquestionable, as for the fact that they point to a “future”, with these concepts it happens, what with many others that have already been called of spinning by F. Dumond in les Ideologies, and confusing in Critique of Pure Communication by Lucien Sfez.
Ricoeur in re-reading Mannheim, Saint-Simon, and Fourier, utopia, does not suggest reduced pure pathology disconnected from reality, but promotes a necessary critical and fecundation of reality, utopia as poetry to make criticism more human.
It was Marx who wrote “From Utopian Socialism to the Scientific,” without questioning what science was in his time and checking his misconceptions, which made the utopian unreal.
Clarifies Ricoeur in the Introduction; “Typically, ideology has been a topic for sociology or political science, the utopia for history and literature.” (Ibid., page 16)
What Ricoeur does in making a conjunction between utopia and ideology is what he calls the social and cultural imagination, and it is at this point that the critical moment in hermeneutics enters, proposing an alternative to the failed model that opposed science to ideology, a Science itself is questionable today without a positivist and mathematical model.

RICOEUR, P. ideologia e Utopia. Trad. Teresa Louro Perez. Lisboa, edições 70, 1991.


MacronLeaks and elections in France

08 May

Even with Macron’s victory in the second round of the French elections,MacronLeaks and the defeat of ultra-right Marine Le Pen, did not let to be noticed a case that was the most serious Hacker attack ever known to try to influence an an election.

Post-truth times after the urgency on Saturday morning of the National Committee for Control of the Presidential Campaign in France that begged the press not to disclose the information on Macron, the fact in the digital universe that there is no control as to how Control of false information, the only possibility is to publicly deny it.

Following an emergency meeting this morning (6) to examine the case, the committee extended the notice to all the population and users of social networks warning that the disclosure of these documents (the “MacronLeaks”, as it has been called in France) May involve “criminalliability” of its perpetrators.

Still no effort of despair, because people who do this kind of action does not have an ethical conscience on the fact, the body asked that “the actors present in Internet sites and social networks, first means, but also all Citizens, to have responsibility and not to transmit such content, in order not to alter the transparency of the election, not to break the law and not to expose itself to a criminal offense. “

In addition, he warned that they were “mixed with false information”, so retransmission of these facts is “susceptible to receive a criminal qualification of many types and to carry the responsibility of its authors.”

En Marche, founded by Macron after breaking with the left-wing Holland government, reported on Friday night that it was the victim of a “mass and coordinated hacking attack” that led to the leak “in the internal social information networks Of diverse natures “, we are waiting for the final result of the elections for analysis.

But an irreversible fact is that some form of control over false information in election campaigns will be necessary from now on because the network effect can make them uncontrollable facts of lying versions about the candidates reversing opinion and forces in a campaign.

European newspapers speak of “relief”, “thank you to France” and the strengthening of the European Union, but “hidden” forces may favor authoritarian and conservative positions.



Truth, prejudice and bigotry

05 May

The present age of crisis of modernity, since postmodernity and other Truthcorrelates are not accepted by those who defend the statuos quo of current thinking, is now called post-truth or even post-factual, so facts depend no more of its “materiality” as the lawyer says, but of pure interpretation.
St. Augustine (1997: 297) stated that “the love of truth is such that those who love something differently want what they love to be the truth. Because they do not admit to being deceived, they hate to be convinced of their error. Thus they hate the truth because they love what they suppose to be the truth, “so in the saying of today no one wants to be contested, questioned or even corrected not to remain in error, is the root of post-truth.
Nothing is more post-truth than prejudice and fanaticism, and looking at contemporary philosophy, it is precisely the Other that we may not fall into these supposed truths, nothing more appropriate for the Brazilian and international conjunctures, see France and the USA.
Plato, Aristotle, and Thomas Aquinas, though each with particularities, had in common the conception that truth is the adaptation of thought / discourse to reality, even though Plato is mistakenly viewed as outside this context, I present the argument Simplistic philosophy came from Aristotelian philosophy, then there is something common there.
Thomas Aquinas affirms that there is something immutable in the divine intellect: “The truth of the divine intellect is unchanging; While it is changeable from ours, not because it is subject to mutation, but because our intellect moves from truth to falsity “(Ain 1973, 175), without the theological argument, we can say in a similar way: there is Something divine in fact.
In the Bible, in chapter 10 of John, he attributed to Jesus the words: “Verily, verily, I say unto you, who shall not enter into the fold of the sheep by the gate, but go up into another place, a thief and a robber” That this argument to speak the truth is ontological, it is to be, before being purely logical, therefore it must be discussed between beings and not only between argument, it must be in dialogue and not in a monologue, even if group.
That is, it is not enough to be in “community” one must be alert to the Other, the different, in this way we are far from the prejudices and fanaticisms, so common today.

AUGUSTINHO, Aurelio. Confessions. São Paulo: Paulus, 1997
AQUINO, Tomás de. A statement against the Gentiles. São Paulo: April culture, 1973


Last Testament: In His Own Words

04 May

Pope Benedict XVI’s most recent book is on the pews, unappreciated evenTheLastTestament within the church and scarcely read and understood by the narrow circle of “exegetes” and Vaticanists, he breaks the silence for truth, which he loves as much as Gospel.
It was announced on the
Bloomsbury Publishing website, which people who enjoy reading should see, far better than ideological gospel or unprepared homilies, the site says that the publication has 224 pages, and will be widely read by the people the church swears to love, but Is far
Bentinho, as I call him, will speak of things that no one imagines he would speak, but as a lover of Truth, I imagine that one day I would speak, of course to write. he turned 90 years in Easter.
The case that became known as “Vatileaks”, which the butler called Gorgeous George, because gorgeous means beautiful, a mysterious secretary who leaked the letters people of Bento, who claimed corruption and scandals within the Vatican.
He speaks of his supposed formation in the Nazi party, his attempts to solve the “subject of the church” (sexual abuse, pedophilia, gays, etc.) and how he actually sees all this, I will read.
Benedict tried to undo pressure groups inside the Vatican, and although he was surprised by Francisco, personally I think he prepared for the path of a successor with a new proposal, more open and really linked to the “people.”
According to comments, he speaks with joy of the successor, and speaks of both the man and the pope, but confesses that he did not imagine him as a successor, God always surprises.