Arquivo para June, 2017

(Português) Escatologia em tempos de crise

16 Jun

Sorry, this entry is only available in Brazilian Portuguese.


Substance of the universe: the Sacred Corpus

15 Jun

Contrary to what is supposed, substance is that which is permanent in things thatAlfaOmega change, and therefore the foundation of every accident, and everything is changing in the universe then what is the primordial substance, what is the genesis of the whole universe?

Interpretations can be divided into three streams: there are those who recognize only one substance (monist) stand out Spinoza and Leibniz, those who recognize two substances (dualists) that is the foundation of modern idealism, or the most common are the pluralists, The “pure” currents that come from Platonism and Aristotelianism.
All that exists is to be monistic and pluralistic, then the being is constituted of a plurality of elements that ground it as substances, but for these they can be hierarchized ontologically, for monists there is only a hierarchy that is the initial monad in the interpretation of Spinoza and Leibniz is God, in the conception of modern science, a corpuscle of electromagnetic concentration where the Big Bang occurred.
There are those who contest the Big Bang, Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom said, “The probability of us living within a simulation is close to 100%,” something like the Matrix, but to deny the substantiality of the universe is to deny apodic evidence That is accepted without demonstration).
The philosopher Franz Brentano has regained a category of scholasticism called intentionality, to define what is consciousness as that which is directed to something, his student Edmund Husserl used it to define consciousness as something intentional.
If we think so, but important that the universe exists, and it has its substantiality (its corpus), is that something or someone had intentionality of this first object, that is, created it in a “conscious” way and call it what it wants, He is a Being because he exists.
If we admit its materiality, even light can be observed in its influence on a gravitational body (see our post on NASA’s observation), even the existences of man can be demonstrated in its evolution now we know of over 300 thousand years, we must Admit substantiality, and consider the idea of ​​the initial monad as plausible, then there is a “body” formed of this original, conscious Being.
Teilhard Chardin, a paleontologist and Jesuit priest, considered the entire universe the Body of Christ, more than a mystical body, a substantial cosmic body, if anything is made of this universe, it is stored in its source and initial primary consciousness;
The apodic evidence we need to admit of a Divine Corpus, alpha and omega, beginning and end, may need little to be admitted, but in the absence of this, there remains what we call faith, never blind, nor contrary to reason,


MIT explain blockchain

14 Jun

The famous American Institute MIT explained on its website, objectively a BlockChain2set of technologies for digital money, objectively and clearly, here is a summary of the questions answered, the first of course is what the term means.

At a high level, blockchain technology allows a network of computers to agree at regular intervals on the true state of a distributed ledger,” says MIT Sloan Assistant Professor Christian Catalini, an expert in blockchain technologies and cryptocurrency. “Such ledgers can contain different types of shared data, such as transaction records, attributes of transactions, credentials, or other pieces of information. The ledger is often secured through a clever mix of cryptography and game theory, and does not require trusted nodes like traditional networks. This is what allows bitcoin to transfer value across the globe without resorting to traditional intermediaries such as banks.”

The prof. Christian Catalani of the Institute added: “The technology is particularly useful when you combine a distributed ledger together with a cryptotoken,”

The second obvious question is relation between BitCoin and BlockChain, in a recent paper, Catalini explains why business leaders should be excited about blockchain, it can save them money and could upend how business is conducted.

Every business and organization engages in many types of transactions every day. Each of those transactions requires verification. In many cases, that verification is easy. You know your customers, your clients, your colleagues, and your business partners. Having worked with them and their products, data, or information, you have a pretty good idea of their value and trustworthiness.

“But every so often, there’s a problem, and when a problem arises, we often have to perform some sort of audit,” Catalini says. “It could be actual auditors coming into a firm. But in many other cases, you’re running some sort of process to make sure the person claiming to have those credentials did have those credentials, or the firm selling you the goods did have the certification. When we do that, it’s a costly, labor-intensive process for society. The marketplace slows down and you have to incur additional costs to match demand and supply.”

“The reason distributed ledgers become so useful in these cases is because if you recorded those attributes you now need to verify securely on a blockchain, you can always go back and refer back to them at no cost.”

The paper and the paper are longer and clearer of course, but the purpose here was to reduce the technical issues a bit and explain the BlockChain tools.


Observed the General Relativity in space

13 Jun

In a rare phenomenon observed in telescopes, scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, observed the position of a distant star to rotate slightly, while its light tilted around a white dwarf in the line of sight of observers on Earth, phenomena Caused by the General Theory of Relativity, and it is published in Nature.
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, he observed the light folding due to the gravity of a nearby white dwarf star, led by Kailash Sahu, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, who saw its light tilting around a white dwarf, Amount of distortion it was possible for the researchers to directly calculate the mass of the white dwarf which is 67% that of the Sun.
Sahu’s team studied a white dwarf known as Stein 2051 B in the constellation Camelopardalis, it is 17 light-years from Earth, being the 6th. White dwarf closest to the earth

In eight observations between October 2013 and October 2015, the background star seemed to shift back and forth slightly, it is equivalent to a person in London watching an ant crawl across a coin in Moscow, but it was enough to confirm that the gravity of Stein 2051 B was bending the light of the background star.

In 1919, British astronomer Arthur Eddington and his team watched light bending around the Sun during a total solar eclipse, confirming Einstein’s theory. Researchers have since seen light from distant galaxies bending around the gravity of intervening galaxies, but the new work is the first time anyone has observed a single object — the white dwarf — seemingly cause a background star to shift.

Sahu’s team has already started another project to look for this phenomenon using Proxima Centauri, which at 1.3 parsecs (4 light-years) away is the nearest star to Earth. It is passing a background star now, and the team has obtained a couple of observations with Hubble, Sahu says.



Lost or new homo sapiens?

12 Jun

In a paper published in Nature on June 7, a new skeleton of a humanid, the fact of beingHommoSapiens a homo sapiens is controversial, suggests that a race of humanoids lived in North Africa, where it is Morocco, for more than 315 thousand years ago.
This changes the earlier conception dating from about claimed the emergence about 100 thousand years ago, measurements were made by laser equipment at various institutes in Europe, including Germany, where the study at the Max Planck Institute originated.
Jean-Jacques Hublin, author of the Nature paper and managing director of the Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, explained: “Until now, the common knowledge was that our species probably arose, rather quickly, somewhere in the ‘Garden of Eden’. Probably in sub-Saharan Africa, “but now he added:” I would say that the Garden of Eden in Africa is probably Africa – and it is a large, large garden, “indicating a more extensive area for the emergence of man.
Hublin visited the Jebel Irhoud archaeological site for the first time in the 1990s, but had no time or money to dig up until 2004, having joined the Max Planck Society Society, rented a tractor to remove about 200 cubic meters of rock Which blocked access to the deeper part of the site.
Initially, one led by archaeological scientist Daniel Richter and archaeologist Shannon McPherron, also at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, dated the site and all human remains found between 280,000 and 350,000 years using two different methods, but then other countries also made measurements Using methods with laser use and the approximate date is 315 thousand years.
Hublin says his team tried and failed to get DNA from the bones of Jebel Irhoud.
This genomic analysis could have clearly established if the remains live in the lineage that leads to modern humans, but everything indicates that it may be a link more than humanoids clearly identified with the human race, and may be the missing link between us and the early primates.


Crisis, ontology and kenosis

09 Jun

Having developed the idea of ​​the crisis in a deeper perspective, and using the method ofEsvaziarSe deca-dialectical of Mario Ferreira dos Santos, it is possible to search for a way for: “abstraction of one of the opposites, whose positivity is now denied or reduced to another.” (SANTOS, 2017, p.75)
It is also necessary, as the philosopher points out in his method: “we are saved from skepticism and dogmatism, which are two positions of crisis on the gnosiological possibility of man.” (page 79)
We want to go beyond thinking to point out the overcoming of the crisis, not that the thinking in essence of Mario Ferreira is not enough in essence, but an update is necessary, to overcome what he calls crisis thinking, to structure a philosophy of crisis: “And, consequently, of having a critical view of the crisis of finite existence.” (Idem)
The essential difference is that Mário Ferreira goes to a path of synthesis which he calls Concrete Philosophy, which points in the book in several sections as a complementary reading to understand his thinking, what is proposed here is a radical ontological revival.
Thus he proposes, in addition to the ontology, Kenosis, according to Valodomer Koubetch, “Kenose: Kenosis, kenotic, kenoo, to empty, to extenuate, to reduce to nothing; State of humiliation, “and this is necessary because we must admit that we do not have the answer ready, we do not have the discourse or if we prefer the single narrative for crisis thinking, and we rely on the help given by the Brazilian philosopher to speak in the Philosophy of Crisis , Identifying it in essence.
One can then enumerate output as a trinitarian ontology, if there is a tension between opposing poles of discourses described in deca dialectical, one can think of a logic of the Other, the non-self, or radically of the kenotic emptiness where it can emerge in the double emptiness , a third state.
The comparison with the trinity is inevitable, since in the theological discourse the reality of Jesus Christ, Son / Word of God, who, being God, the Second Person of the Trinity, annihilated, humbled and assumed the human condition, made his kenosis, Opening a new reality.
The discourse of dialogue, dialogism and polyphony can be exhausted, but all are not enough if there is no possibility in the opposing tensions of opening a Kenosis, if done by two speeches or two convicted persons, a third non- You as a trinitarian ontology, an overcoming of dualism, not without tension or without contradiction, but new.

SANTOS, Mario Ferreira. Filosofia da Crise, 1ª. ed. São Paulo: É Realizações, 2017


Dualism e ontologie

08 Jun

If everything in the world is relational, if, as the philosopher Mário Ferreira dosDecadialética Santos says, “we do not say everything of one thing, not much, when we only classify it into a concept, for we know that in the thing there is much more that Is not of the concept that indicates it “(page 56)

Therefore to see ontologically means to see the relation between the various aspects of being and the relation between beings, what Mário Ferreira will call the deca-dialectical, ten fields of analysis of the dialectic, among which we find the idealistic opposition between subject x object, “and In the subject the field of reason and intuition ” (page 64)

The philosopher’s unique way is to break the dualism from within, that is, not to refute it, but to include it then establishes “a factual-noetic scheme of the thing: which is a representation, with an image, a sensible scheme Thing is; or rather, of what the thing symbolizes in sensible schemes. The abstract-noetic scheme, constructed by reason, is the concept “(page 64).
Always considering contradictions, “the third and fourth fields of rational ignorance and knowledge, which operate in the abstraction of abstract schemas, which, at the same time, imply those that are despised, inhibited, that is, that of updating and rational virtualization And that of intuitive updating and virtualization. “(Idem)

He makes a fundamental statement for the present (he died in 1968): “The object, not being fully grasped by us, can be considered as actuality and virtuality” (page 65)

So actuality and virtuality are fields of tension of the object, says the philosopher.

Of these fields “a being can only update what is in its form. Other possibilities may only be closer if they undergo a substantial mutation, as we shall see below. “

It is precisely in this field that the three new fields emerge: seventh, eighth, and ninth fields, where they analyze the intense and extensive aspects that arise from the tension of the object.
The quantitative is always extensive to the object, while the qualitative is intensive, and using an analogy, states that the quality is vertical, while the extensivity is horizontal, exemplifies with the green color quality, “green is greener or less green, taking As a perfect green measure, although without current possession by us, but only virtual. “(Idem)

Mechanism, he explains, is precisely the reduction of intensities to extension, in this case Mario Ferreira deduces: “there is no solution of the open crisis between these antinomies, because the reduction is abstract means of escaping it, and not understanding it dialectically,” In this case deca-dialectically.

 ‘The tenth field, of great importance in examining the facts, is that of the variant and the invariant’ (page 67), which is the awareness we must have of historicity, although Mario Ferreira does not refer to Gadamer, probably did not even know his Work for the year that he died, makes his analysis based on Einstein’s relativity.



Crisis, thins and nothingness

07 Jun

The crisis, the things and the nothing now separate with the things, and asks the Nadaessential question: between the things exists the nothingness?

Should not someone who had been unaware of it make the false ask not to ask about Being rather than about things and nothingness? Yes our philosopher will clarify this, but modernity poses the question of the relation between things and in it arises the dualism of separation between things.

Mário Ferreira explains that “Scholastics like Thomas Aquinas who follow the Aristotelian line affirm that time and space are entities of reason (entia rationis), but founded on things grounded in re [thing], for there are things between distances And to succeed, which allow us to generalize the schemas of experience, until we form the abstract concepts of time and space, which modern rationalism has totally separated from facts, emptying them from them, which are given in them “(page 32)

He clarified that space and time will be fundamental concepts for modern thought: “but emptied of all factual content, are conceptual entities whose content implies the stripping away of everything that happens factually …” (idem). In order to analyze these schemes Mario Ferreira uses psychogenesis, because he will say that the fact that the schemas are constructed, by experience, a posteriori will refer in the Kantian schema according to its psychogenesis, the existence of a priori positivity, “which is undeniably a positivity of the Kantian thought. “(Idem) Then he will ask the essential question about nothingness: “if things take place in space and they separate, as the limit reveals it, space is interposed between them. But what space? ” Here it separates according to the model of Democritus in there is an emptiness between the things and the one of Lorentz, a full space. Also at the beginning of modernity Leibniz proposed the monadology.

We are, therefore, between two affirmations (page 33), one affirming the presence of nothingness, of an absolute absent, and another affirming the presence of being, in which there are no interstices or frontiers, because it fills everything, and this psychogenesis creates ” A scheme of relationship of things, without being given a real presence, per se. “(Idem).

So this is tension, not dualism, between nothingness and being, or if we prefer the separation between things and the relation between them, the former is rationalist and “it is a worsening of the crisis.”

Discovering the relation between the finite that “finitude can only be given where there is something, because it allows to measure. Nothing is immeasurable, nothingness would be an abyss without end. “(Page 34)

In a footnote, he clarifies: The impossibility of an absolute nothingness, between islands of being, is demonstrated by us apoditically (by evidence), in Concrete Philosophy.

The important point of this argument is that through it one can affirm “the eternal presence of being, in which we are immersed and that sustains us, which allows us to communicate …” (page 35) and then the crisis is not so Deep, it has degrees, says our brazilian philosopher.

SANTOS, Mario Ferreira dos. Filosofia da crise, São Paulo: É realizações, 2017.


Crisis, the limites and the know

06 Jun

We are reading Mário Ferreira dos Santos, and at the end of the first chapter IsleOceanof the “Philosophy of Crisis”, points out that we are aware of the limit that exists with the Other and the nodes, to point 5 points of this separation before plunging into what is nothingness Between things (and beings).
On this separation, he affirms that “things also suffer from their limits, but quiet, intrinsically silent, even before themselves, because in them, there is no one who peers at himself. “(Page 20)
We are aware of the crisis, things also suffer separation, and the crisis worsens “if we accept this separation as irremediable, an insurmountable abyss, drawn between us and others,” the fourth limit is that of individuality, that of others Philosophers, and from this originates the fifth limit: “from the self before the limit of individuality.” (Page 29)
“And there is in us something that always puts beyond all our knowledge, something that we know, always distant, always more and more distant, that marks a presence always separates from everything that we delimit, since knowing is always delimiting? “(Page 29) ends the long reflection on separation and crisis with a central cognitive question.
It is something like the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) affirmed: “knowledge is an island surrounded by an ocean of mystery. I prefer the ocean to the island, “to indicate that the crisis is most often a go beyond, and penetrate the ocean of mystery
The chapter on the concept of the crisis ends with two observations: “between the limits of all our knowledge, is there not always something in us that knows, that conquers them, because it does not allow them to be apprehended? And that always separates, distant, always the same? “(Page 30), and that even in crisis,” there is also a point of a victory that we live in us. “(idem)
He ends the chapter with hope:
“Therefore, there is no reason not to despair. But we must find the promised way. “(Idem).

SANTOS, Mario Ferreira dos. Filosofia da crise, São Paulo: É realizações, 2017.


Philosophy of the crisis

05 Jun

There are several meanings for the crisis, from the Greek crisis, it means separation, ValleyMontainabyss and, also judgment and decision, the Brazilian philosopher Mario Ferreira dos Santos (1907-1968) warns us.
We will borrow from him a few thoughts, for many thoughts that he thinks are current, Mario Ferreira lived only up to 68, were already present in his reasonings, and therefore neither the crisis nor what he thinks about it is so new.
In his book, reissued this year by the São Paulo publisher É Realizações, our philosopher conceptualizes early in the book: “whoever has a vision of the world stuck only in the quaternary, as the old philosophers called it, can not fail to recognize that All existence is a separate, as well as all ontic combinations of finite existence are always selective. “(Page 11)
This is how Mario sees the crises in separations, and if we dig them deeper we reach the abysses, and he will say about the separations: “if all combinations are possible, not all are probable, let alone actualize themselves. “(Idem)
He therefore concludes: “There is thus a separation, a crisis, an abyss,” but this existence also has an intellective function, and then puts it intellection precisely in this capacity formed by the inter-roots, which means To capture between, being therefore one of the capacities of our spirit, among many others the ability to select, what unites.
He uses what Thomas Aquinas proposed, which states that we have an ability to grasp inside (page 12), in a selective capture “because he will prefer it to that.” (Idem)
It will say how “we can not live without the crisis, and we can not live with it” (page 12), and makes an analogy with “the mountain tops that are possible to unite, without denying the valleys that we do not forget, are also positive , And there is no point in forgetting them. “(Page 13)
It questions about the crisis “but because the abysses grow, because they are distancing themselves more and more the peaks of the mountains? “(Page 14), and reflects on the separation” are not we the gravediggers of the crisis? “(Idem)
He says about fanaticism: “and when he does not believe and seek to believe, he fanaticalises himself” (page 15), and he will say about the immediacy of his time (60s) “disappointed with his beliefs and his utopias, Accepts the proposal of those who were disappointed before him. He agrees with the immediate, because mediation did not arise: therefore live the means that are close to him, and no longer the ends. “(Idem), see the analogy with the media and life today, but in the 60’s!!!
And recommends for the crisis; “Do not deepen the abyss with your ideas, your attitudes, your religions, your beliefs, your arts” (page 17)
It gives a recipe for all crises: “distrust the abyss, when he speaks within you. Try to hear the sharp howl of the winds that blow on the tops. “(Idem)

SANTOS, Mario Ferreira dos. Filosofia da crise, São Paulo: É realizações, 2017.