Arquivo para August 21st, 2017

Unknown Stories of Computing

21 Aug

Charles Babbage built two machines called Analytical Engine and Diferential EngineMEMEX, these machines, their systematizations and thoughts would not have arrived until we were not working patiently Ada de Lovelace (1815-1852), daughter of Lord Byron who compiled and organized the work of this Pioneer, making it understandable to mathematicians of the time.

Later David Hilbert (1862-1943) listed 23 mathematical problems at the time without solutions, one of which was to organize an algebraic system in order to solve the problem computability problem by algorithms, Kurt Gödel thinking about this problem creates a paradox about Completeness of systems, stating that it can not prove having proof by an assertion within the system, then consistency problems weaken such systems.

Thus it was necessary that logic, besides being constructed with good properties, had consistency (no contradictions), completeness (any proposition would be either truth or false exclusively) and the systems were decidable (existence of a method allowing to establish if any formula whether the formula was true or false).

This latter property was called by Hilbert as the “entcheidungsproblem”, or problem of “decision”.

Alan Turing and Claude Shannon working on coding machines (for US government messages) and decoding (a machine called Enigma was captured from Hitler’s army), as both projects were secret, found in meals and work breaks as indicated The book by James Gleick and talk about the problem proposed by Hilbert and not solved by Gödel, a secret document proves this passage of Turing, who was English, by Bell Laboratories, where he worked on deciphering the Enigma machine code.

Shannon at that time worked as a monitor at MIT in Vannevar Bush’s laboratory, who had proposed a “read” machine called MEMEX (it appeared in TIME magazine) was not a computer itself, but a machine to cross information from books.

Vannevar Bush suggested to Claude Shannon Boole’s Algebra..

Later using the model of the mathematician Alonzo Church that finalized the design of Alain Turing, and the call Turing Machine is actually based on Turing / Church model.
Norbert Wiener’s model were electronic models of feedback machines, although he founded Cybernetics, the idea was to create models for movements and turn them into problem-solving models, they were contemporary with Vannevar Bush of MIT