Arquivo para September, 2017

Dualism and Life

29 Sep

The high rationally constructed concept of the idea, often well-constructed, AoDual is not as practical, nor as empirical as it seems, it is grounded in the classic division between subject and object, most popularly said, between the personal concept and its application in life which is outside of itself and its closed circle.

It is not the absence of conflict, or even a radical monism that unifies everything, that which is human can somehow separate itself from what is “natural” by the simple fact that what is natural is not what would originate from human nature or a certain culture, but its adaptation to the world that lives the culture of a certain time.

However, the conflict that can be found with dialogue and within hermeneutics, which presupposes distinct interpretations, finds a melting point, as described by the method of the hermeneutic circle in Gadamer, in his book “Truth and Method.”

The dualism of idealism must always be changing its practice and its interpretation, so it is little adherent to hermeneutics, or the unique interpretation of reality, although in its own interior both theory and practice is divided, so it seeks the non-existent connection , because idealism is only bad theory, because if applied it is a disaster.

What leads one who seeks dialogue and the “fusion of horizons” of hermeneutics, to say a yes is precisely that believes that it is possible to overcome dualism, because it is not and is not in its interior, contrary to the dual that says yes, when in practice it will be a no.

There is a beautiful biblical parable that explains well the distance between these two sources of answers: “What do you think? A man had two kids. Addressing the first, he said, ‘Son, go to work in the vineyard today!’ The son replied, ‘I do not want to.’ But then he changed his mind and went, “to show the pharisaical contradiction Jesus asks,” Who did the will of the father? “(Mt 21: 28-31), of course, is the first.

It’s like the popular Brazilian songbook, “man who says I will, will not, because who does not say,” or even say yes, but with life, the concept of E. Husserl “lebenswelt”.


Dualism and Pharisaism

28 Sep

Dualism is a philosophical and cosmological conception of the world, based on twoaoDual principles or two irremediably opposed substances, and incapable of synthesis.
When we think in a dual way, it is almost inevitable that these two worlds are divided inwardly, so our cosmological conception and worldview will be dual.
Thomas Hyde wrote a work on the doctrine of Zoroaster (Veterum Persarum et Parthorum et Medorum Religionis Historia – 1700), with two principles and two deities, while Leibniz and Spinoza were monists, but they also used this in the philosophical sense, since the theory religious presence in both deserves long discussion.
It is curious that Manichaeism and Pharisaism have remained in the Western Christian cosmogonies, since St. Augustine is converted by abandoning this doctrine, but a philosophical question may explain this is the ontological oblivion and the question of being, but also the logical pragmatism and scientific, empiricism and other contributions are there.

John Searle stated: “Descartes’ greatest catastrophe is its dualism, the idea that reality is divided into two kinds of substances, matter and spirit. Descartes was unable to see this because he thought that consciousness could only exist in a soul, and the soul was not a part of the physical world “(Brain, Mind, and Consciousness: A Conversation with Philosopher John Searle), and for this questions about the mind and brain are current issues.
The dualism in philosophy has its consistent beginning (there are dual pre-Socratics) with Plato, (4th century BC) part of the conception that at the beginning of everything there were ideas in an incorporeal and eternal deity and she who had an ideal form “falls” in and forms the universe.
Part of the Christian cosmogony incorporates this “prototype” and links itself to fundamentalism with the allegory of “casting out Adam and Eve from paradise,” the Pharisees were a part of Judaism who aspired to rigor and absolute purity, especially in matters of liturgy, but there is the other aspect that is political and we would say philosophical to unite with power in ambiguous ways.
What is observed in everyday practice, as it is characteristic of dualism is to hide behind words and speeches, sometimes even appealing to “practice” with dubious attitudes.
What makes the contemporary world suspicious of these doctrines is precisely dualism


When not to be, consciousness is

27 Sep

What is being, existence, and in a sense consciousness, we have already set forth AceitaçãoEnvarious developments from Husserl’s phenomenology, through Heidegger and Hanna Arendt to Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur and Emmanuel Lévinas, perhaps the argument is incomplete.
Heidegger said that there was another way of speaking of language than its common sense, and using Goethe stated: poetic language.
Clarice Lispector brazilian writer, wrote in her novel The Passion According to GH: “Being is beyond human. Being a man does not work, being a man has been embarrassment. The unknown awaits us, but I feel that this unknown is a totalization and it will be the true humanization for which we long. Am I talking about death? not of life. It is not a state of happiness, it is a state of contact. ”
Time is what is contact, if not relation and proximity, but where the unknown is, where my mind that will never be a software can penetrate, there is one beyond the human, as our author says, while many prefer Human, all too human , the first work of Nietzsche after having broken with the pessimism of Schopenhauer.
But curiously Clarice Lispector was close to Nietzsche and this continued close to Schopenhauer, his pessimism was not bad mood or madness as some suppose, it was only the evidence of a romantic idealism in crisis, almost of a mortal boredom.
In certain circumstances, or we leave the closed circle or we are doomed to it, we have already presented here the Philosophy of the crisis of the Brazilian Mario Ferreira dos Santos about which he said: “the eternal presence of being, in which we are immersed and that sustains us, the which allows us to communicate … “(Philosophy of the Crisis, 2017, 35) and then the crisis is not so deep, it has degree, and among them we can say that there is not a not being, but a being not being.
Acceptance and awareness within a hermeneutic circle of dialogue is an outlet.
We live not a time of crisis but a time crisis, the recent elections in Germany seem to repeat the vicious circle of growth of the far right, there AfD (Alternative for Germany) became the third largest force of the German legislative power , surpassing expectations and obtaining 13%, against the 4.7% of the previous election.
If the changes did not come, the crisis of our times could become a civilizing crisis.


Androids and cyborgs: where?

26 Sep

The fiction Blade Runner has led us to think, just as in the Odyssey 2001 season too, yes we are going to space, machines grow in complexity, but we must ask the question of Terrence Deacon: Incomplete Nature: how mind emerges from matter ?  (see our post).
The controversial Raymond Kurzweil in 2005: The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology is a book released by an update of The Age of Spiritual Machines and The Age of Intelligent Machines, but the bottom line is where did we come from? If we come only from chemical compounds that for millions of years have been forming complex organisms, until human complexity has arrived, a natural being, conscious and creating fantastic things, among them the machine, where will we arrive?
The question that precedes all those that are our “existence” is that which is our being, is transcendent in the sense of what was before man, we came only from the clay as the creationists want, we came from the mind of God as they want the religious, or it is still possible a synthesis between the two: a spirit has been “blown” in us.

In fact, what we think about the future has to do with what we think of our origin and why this question is important, then we can say that “being” precedes “existence” and we can say that the “existing being” precedes “ethics,” or in a more philosophical way “being” and “ethics” are conjugated ontologically, for both determine a being, and he is aware.

Then it will be possible to “blow” on androids and cyborgs no matter how sophisticated their decision-making mechanisms, a subject that refers to the axioms of Hilbert’s arithmetic, Kurt Gödel’s incompleteness and undecidability theorem, until we come to elaborate complex logics of these mechanisms in intelligent agents and “artificial intelligence”, but it would in fact be intelligence, in our view, for now androids and cyborgs only in fictions.
Androids have awesome superhuman parts and robotics (vision, strength, precision, etc.), While cyborgs have human parts and robot parts, but hybrids that have human and superhuman parts would depend on biogenetics and even more neuroscience advances that already exist.
We can create androids, as in the film Blade Runner 2049, but what capacity would they have for feelings and androds awareness ?


Blade Runner 2049 is better

25 Sep

A classic fiction film is undoubtedly Blade Runner, I do not consider theBladeRunner best nor the first, because we must remember Lost in Space (1965 to 1968) if we think of TV series and the Stanley Kubrick classic 2001: A Odyssey in the space of 1968, said by some: “the most incredible, beautiful and mentally stimulating science fiction film of all time.”
For those who knew the plot of the movie that is about to be released, there are some new and strange things.
But Blade Runner brought the replicants, hybrid beings whose true robotic identity is hidden, and only by the eye (more precisely by the iris could be identified) and in full war with humans, so they say, is the father of many modern science fiction in the robotic line.
In a cavernous setting in Budapest on an autumn morning in 2016, Harrison Ford – wearing a gray button-down shirt, dark jeans and a Ford-resistant grimace – is shooting a crucial rendezvous in Blade Runner 2049, now directed by Denis Villeneuve
For the first time in more than three decades, Ford is resuming its role as Rick Deckard, the fast-fingered, hard-drinking cop in 1982, of Ridley Scott’s first Blade Runner.
Why K (Ryan Gosling on the android hunter cop) does not just use the front door is not exactly clear, since the Blade Runner 2049 plot is protected with the kind of intensity usually reserved for Star Wars. (Even negotiating to get into the set demanded more and after a Voight-Kampff test).
Ana de Armas stated that her character is “strong and complex,” she “is Agent K’s mistress, her best friend, and the only person she can trust.”
After 30 years of Blade Runner there are some confirmed details: the public left Deckard injured and mistreated in 2019 Los Angeles, he disappeared, and the official LAPD of Gosling is on the hunt (possibly under the command of his boss, played by Robin Wright, although nobody involved with the movie say for sure).
Meanwhile there is a new generation of replicants – the series term for the androids that are built by a mysterious inventor named Wallace (Jared Leto), who is aided by a dedicated employee, Luv (Sylvia Hoeks).
That’s pretty much everything the 2049 team is saying, no matter how politely I ask. “I’m not even sure I’m allowed to say I’ve had a good time doing it,” laughs actor Gosling.
The launch is scheduled for October 5, 2017 (in Brazil).


Has the mind emerged from matter?

23 Sep

This question lies in the work of Berkeley’s philosopher, anthropologist andIncompleteNature cognitive scientist Terrence Deacon, in Incomplete Nature: how mind emerges from matter (2013), where Deacon considers information a phenomenon whose existence is determined respectively by an essential absence, something like Not realized that may or may not be the accomplished one.

If in the 19th century the great paradigm was to admit the existence of energy and its relation to matter, now modified by Constantine Tsallis (see our post), the 20th century brings to us its difficulties in assimilating the existential unreality of information. A complete explanation of the real nature of information is such that it would be necessary to distinguish information from merely material or energetic relations which also require a paradigm shift, so a form / background alternation that we call this in-form-action in my blog would still be More fundamentally a counterintuitive vision than that demanded by energy (Deacon, 2013, p.373)

Deacon uses for his argument, several examples from biology and mathematics to justify his idea, essentially emerging from a nothingness, is not really new in philosophy and science, still less in logic and mathematics, but unlike Descartes Where the first certainty is the I, in modern mathematics the first certainty is the 0, the empty set and now with the digital, 0 and 1, that emerges a metamamatic as Gregory Chaitin wants, which we already discussed in another post.

The cardinal number model of the mathematician Von Neumann defines all numbers literally from scratch: there is the empty set. The empty set itself has an element: the empty set itself, Alain Turing and Claude Shannon idealized the machine, but it was von Neumann who built it, if we think the Mark I and Konrad Zuze’s machine were no more than electro calculators -mechanics. A mathematician connected to the theory of Sets, Ernst Zermelo, although he makes a different reasoning, also part of the zero to reach all the cardinals. Information is part of modern man, not only in the city, but now in the so-called Information Society, that we ourselves will produce it from situations where we identify that something is missing.

This appears to be the best approach to address the nature of information She is always something that is missing. As if at all times reality was wondering: now what is missing, and providing what it can. This idea is even known to us. Being proactive, efficient, organized, is always to have a preventive and proactive attitude towards possible situations.

It’s an anticipation. It is to detect what is lacking and to provide. According to Deacon, this logic permeates all reality. In addition to the abundant infosphere in which we stand, emerging information is a constant demand, whether through living beings or not.

Deacon claims the idea of ​​mathematician and communication theorist Claude Shannon, who associated maximum entropy with minimal information and vice versa, bringing information to the origin of the order / disorder dichotomy, so dear to theories of complex systems, the mathematics of chaos and to the irreversible thermodynamics of the dissipative structures of Ilya Prigogini, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977, from where the ideas of Chaos and Complexity emerges.

Constantino Tsallis, Terrence W. Deacon and Gregory Chaitin has talks in EBICC Conference in São Paulo, Brazil.

DEACON, T. W. Incomplete Nature: the mind emerged from matter. 2013.


The Fair is a third

22 Sep

We mentioned in the previous post that justice depends on a third party,aThird but who would this be?

For Levinas, this is the ethical root of obedience to law: “self-forgetfulness moves justice” (Levinas, 1978: 199).

It is not in his case to adapt the right to a Universal Reason as Hegel wanted, even assuming the conflict within the system, what the modern Enlightenment defined as the war of all against all, but because in the case of Levinas the State Just can be born only if you have the concern “of one against all” (idem

Thus the only universality admitted by Levinas is the rationality of impersonal reason or law, which is responsibility, forgotten in the political struggle today. In it is present a self, one that has an eagerness for its destiny, integrity and “salvation”: not directly, in its selfish and capricious individualism, but in relation to the other, itself, which is also another for others, man in its totality (Ibidem, 201). It should be noted that in relation to “salvation” and “daily life” it is not a “betrayal of our metaphysical destiny”.

Another point of view that may seem to be “anarchic” is not this one coming from me, from one to the other, whether it be the source that goes beyond ethics, obedience to law, if it is seen as indispensable for the third, appeals to the next face-to-face, but seeing in this third mankind.

Not only the present, but also the future of humanity, whose responsibility is to offer a less unjust society, no matter where it is possible to live peace and everyone has basic rights guaranteed.

Our positive law is quantitative and qualitative, so it is difficult to understand justice as that proposed in spiritual texts such as the Biblical, the payment of the last hour worker, the thief saved on the cross, the so-called Matthew tax collector.

It is precisely Matthew who recounts the word of the administrator of the vineyard who hires workers at the last hour of the day and pays him the same silver coin that he pays to those who have worked all day, and one of these in complaining receives the answer: Matthew 13-14 : “Then the master said to one of them, ‘My friend, I was not unjust to you. Do not we combine a silver coin? Take what’s yours and come home! I want to give this one who was last hired the same as I gave you. “, Which may seem unfair, but it is not.

The third that is the Just between two or more, those who come together and put life together, are others who can admire.


For an ethics without oppression

21 Sep

We replace the theocentrism of the state by the theocentric state, authority AEticaEoutrountil recently could not be questioned, now the king is naked, or the politicians are naked.

As a substitute for “command and control of the state” and to produce free and responsible citizens, this is the problem of the philosopher Lévinas in his essay “Libertá et commandement” (Original Spanish: Revue de metaphysique et de morale, LVIII, 1953, p. (1993), pp. 264-272, Italian translation Libertá  e comando (Freedom and Command), In: E. Levinas, A. Peperzak, Ethics Prima e Philosophy (Ethics as First Philosophy), organized by F. Ciaramelli, Milan: Guerini and Associates, p. 15-19.

Levinas takes back from Plato the idea in which we can be free only if what is commanded presents itself as ethical evidence for who must fulfill the order, or as Kant wanted in his law of reason: it is the latter that is obeyed, and not to the exteriority of the command, we would say in current terms the warning of the Authority.

Although autonomous means among other things not to follow the irrational command, and there can be a risk even of death, if that is the price of freedom.9 Socrates’ death is beautiful, though unjust, it may be even more beautiful precisely because it is unjust : she attests the possibility of rejecting it, says Lévinas in the essay.

The tyrant can kill, but cannot subject the will, while remaining free the inner reserve, the opposition of thought, for there is a private dimension of discordant consciousness, and this means that there is no denying the interiority.

“But things are not as simple as that,” Lévinas says, because the fact that there is an interior space, the “achievement” of autonomy, a concept dear to Kant and many idealists, is not to be well examined, since, in addition to the intimidation that can torture, we now have television advertising on radio, network media and also on pressure groups, ranging from economic lobbies to editorial groups of newspapers, TVs and websites.

Man, whose liberty is by nature “non-heroic,” for man is made of “fear and love,” and both may at times not act with indignation, thinking that silence is more prudent.

What is mined or obstructed in authoritarian groups is the very capacity for divergence, reserved for free spirits, not recognized in the dark times of inner slavery, says the Bible the righteous lives of their faith, but one can add their values and of his conviction, but how to allow an ethic of dialogue and otherness?

The experience of totalitarianism should have left us a legacy.


What they say of the iPhone 8 and plus

20 Sep

I do not know if they have said anything before, but I was able to read theaImagemIphone8 first comments yesterday from Hi Phone 8 and the plus model, Mathew Panzarino from TechCrunch highlights the camera “with augmented reality and computer vision emerging as competitors in the next big wave of development platforms, the camera system will be an [important] input mechanism, a communication system and a declaration of intent. ”

Another important technology site is Engadget, Chris Velazco wondered how ARKit-like apps would work and enjoyed the augmented reality experience and said that rendering virtual objects on physical planes made them “stick to surfaces better than similar Tango apps “.

Another strong site in the area is The Verge, Nilay Patel’s comment was: “Just like on Samsung, the iPhone’s images are now more saturated by default, although Apple says it’s still aiming for realism instead of saturated colors and smoothing the S8 “and said later that taking pictures with an iPhone 8, a Pixel XL, an S8 and an iPhone 7” in the automatic, and the iPhone 8 produced the most consistent and rich images of the group.

The novelty in the software was due to the feature Portrait Lighting, which allows light effects with the front camera, the battery lasts about 11 hours warns another review,

Lastly, but the most important tech site David Pierce of Wired said that “the phones are very good and impressive, and yet they are not the best Apple devices. The iPhone X represents the vision of the future of Apple, as well as Samsung, Essential, Huawei and many others. ”

It is expected much more and more from cameras and graphics treatment Apps, performance and memory seem to be important, but are getting in the background, TechCrunch site for example notes that “the A11 chip from Apple has a performance that is compatible with the Core i5 of MacBook Pro. ”

With the importance of graphics and image processing OLED screens of higher definition will be importante.


Philosophy and ascesis today

19 Sep

The civilizational crisis that led to two wars were direct consequences ofACulturePhisicsEn thoughts, philosophy, and social structures that even starting from seemingly reasonable principles, such as the concepts of nation, state and moral, led to barbarities and atrocities that is the result of a naive awareness of the role philosophy, thought and knowledge.

Nietszche characterized this, especially referring to German culture as “herd” culture, Peter Sloterdijk more current speaks of immunology, the fact that we want to eliminate all viruses and diseases, but also leads to an idea that starting from the true civilizational crisis, we must defend ourselves from the Other, from other cultures and worldviews.

Nietszche asserts that this has its origins in Greek culture, which would never have abandoned the idea: “in their instinct of popular law, the Greeks denounced, and even at the height of their civilization and humanity, they never failed to utter words such as: belongs to the conqueror, with wife and child, with goods and blood. It is the violence that gives the first right, and there is no right that is not in its foundation arrogance, usurpation, act of violence “, in” “The Greek state” (Brazilian edition of 1996).

What man after modernity wants, this is Sloterdijk’s thesis is no longer a spiritual, but physical ascesis from exercises and immunology (perfect nutrition, athletic rigor, etc.), what Nietzsche at the end of Genealogy wrote about values that would be able to guide the lives of men in the twilight of the gods: “vitality, understood somatically and spiritually, is the medium that contains a gap between the more and the less. It has within itself the vertical movement that guides the ascents, it does not need additionally external and metaphysical attractors. That God should be dead in this context does not matter. With or without God each one arrives only as far as his (physical) form allows, “which is written in You have to change your life, (Du musst Dein Leben ändern. Über Antropotechnik, Frankfurt, Suhrkamp, 2009, still without translation to Portuguese).

The fact that we call football coaches, coaches of masters is not mere chance, soon also personal training, nutritionists and various other types of immunologists will also be masters of our lives, they direct our being.

The rebirth of being, the noosphere of spirit and mind, are forms of return to true life, the Lebenswelt and Lebensphilosophie, logic and philosophy of LIFE