RSS
 

Arquivo para 2019

Immanence, transcendence and cristianism

24 May

Certainly the search for a true spirituality has one thing in common: it is a search for happiness and peace, this is particularly tragic in times of crisis and low light, it seems almost unattainable this state.
Let us return to two concepts of phenomenology: the transcendent that is inner and the transcendental that is external and allows some form of relation with the objects of the world, then any relation of immanence would be denied, seems an inevitable consequence because it reinforces the classical opposition between transcendence and immanence .
The Holy Spirit allows man some form of immanence, for example, for our intelligence and our interiority we ask for the light, and one of the names most appropriate to the Holy Spirit, in the sense that Christianity gives him is Paraclete, which means both defender and comforter, without him we would be plunged into anguish and frailty.
Thus, in admitting the transcendence of our interior, we must admit that we have somehow the possibility of the consciousness of something, an essential form of phenomenology, and it allows us an immanence of the objects, not only through the senses, but in a high way, a superior transcendence, and can be justified by the existence of a superior transcendental.
It is not a force or an energy, but a form of Being, which means to be in the full light, in the Heideggerian sense being in the “clearing”, of course there must be several requirements for it, which is ultimately a fullness of Being, fleeting and non-permanent, in the video proposal of the previous post (by Jonathan Haidt), a ladder or to use another image of the Tales of Narnia (book of Clive Staples Lewis), which are basically Christian, a passage inside a mobile takes it to the kingdom of Narnia, from which films were made as well.
It is a metaphorical way of rethinking the “fatigue” of the world, in a more spiritualized way than the phenomenology proposes, but as a method is similar.
The experiences and memories were thought by phenomenology, and if we think in the Christian sense of experiences and memories of what should be the life of love of brotherhood and love of the Other “as” himself and “as” Jesus taught us, is in the Scripture passage John 14:26: “But the Advocate, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and remind you of all that I have said to you.”
But this God is unknown in other cultures and misunderstood by Christian currents. The mystic Raniero Cantalamessa, who was once a preacher of papal retreat, explains this trinitary God:

 

Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence:

 

The crisis of Science and Knowledge

22 May

The quantum physics that dismantled the building of mechanistic physics, which was the idea of ​​an increasingly mathematical knowledge, and this would be rigor and not philosophy, in the sense of thinking, is a crisis established in the beginning of the last century, studies of the Vienna Circle and Husserl’s statement of the crisis of the European sciences were the initial contours of this crisis.

On the crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as a privileged discourse of appropriation of the world being, pointed out in the original idea of ​​Edmund Husserl in “The Crisis of the European Sciences and the Transcendental Phenomenology” (2002), Heidegger points to a crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as the privileged discourse of appropriation of the being of the world.

Heidegger later wrote of it: “The decisive development of the character of modern enterprise of science, therefore, also wed another species of man. The scholar disappears. It is rendered by the researcher (researcher) who is in his research endeavors. These, and not the care of a erudition, give to their work the fresh air. The investigator no longer needs any library at home. He is constantly on the move. Discusses in colloquies Discusses in colloquiums and is informed in congresses. “(HEIDEGGER, 2002, p.108).

It was pointed out correctly by the Brazilian researcher, Cintia Struchiner, that “this is not a crisis of the sciences as such (it is quite obvious that the sciences continue to progress and produce knowledge), but it is basically a crisis of sense. The neutrality of the world of science leaves out fundamental human questions (values, culture, ethics), so that between the world of science and the life-world a process of detachment is gradually being established. Husserl’s point is that science, so constituted, has very little to offer us regarding the most fundamental issues for humanity: its values, its culture and the sense of individual and collective existence” (STRUCHINER, 2007)

The contours of this crisis lie in the vision and thought of science, but extrapolate these and emerge in a culture of obscurity, ignorance as thought, the immediacy of the being of the world, and the emptying of being-in-the-world produces only a weariness, an absence of essentiality, a superficial criticism that does not leave the technician and does not discuss technique as an essential knowledge, but does not exhaust itself, because it does not contemplate Being.

These changes continue to occur in the 21st century, a European work explains this through phenomenology itself, showing the digitization and opening of this knowledge:

 

HEIDEGGER, H. Caminhos de floresta. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2002.

HUSSERL, E. A Crise das Ciências Europeias e a Fenomenologia Transcendental, São Paulo Ed. Forense Universitária, 2012.

STRUCHINER, Cinthia Dutra. Fenomenologia: de volta ao mundo-da-vida. Rev. abordagem gestalt., Goiânia , v. 13, n. 2, p. 241-246, dez. 2007 .

 

Industrial scale qubit chip

21 May

The quantum chip (qbit or quBit) can now go on an industrial scale, a team of researchers from Denmark and the US announced last month that the technology is ready.
The problem was to scale up in such a way that computers could use chips, so far the qubits’ quantum computing was not robust enough to operate in noisy environments on a full computer.
Another problem was scale production, out of specialized laboratory and produced in conventional factories, they had to work with the semiconductors and normal circuit boards, with a combination of the semiconductors of conventional chips with aluminum and aluminum arsenide, the part industrial revolution is solved.
The team is led by Professor Antonio Fornieri, who has built a quantum memory chip and promises that quantum computers can now be produced in scale. the most resilient qubits by a combination of a semiconductor, the Indian arsenide, with a superconductor, aluminum, in a planar device, called the so-called Josephson junction, capable of treating Majorana quasi-particles.
Majorana quasiparticles are zero-mode fermions, which emerge on the surface of topological superconductors, which function as fault-tolerant and noise-free qubits.
The teacher Fornieri said: “Our prototype is a significant first step in using this kind of system to make quantum bits that are protected against disturbances.” “We still need some adjustments at the moment – we can improve design and materials, but it’s a potentially perfect structure.”.
The article was published in Nature and is authored by Fornieri and his team: Antonio Fornieri, Alexander M. Whiticar, F. Setiawan, Elias Portolés, Asbjørn CC Drachmann, Anna Keselman, Sergei Gronin, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Ray Kallaher, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Erez Berg, Michael J. Manfra, Ady Stern, Charles M. Marcus, Fabrizio Nichele, Evidence of Topological Superconductivity in Planar Josephson Junctions. Nature Vol .: 569, pages 89-92.
The following video explains the who Qubits working:

 

transcendent and consciousness

20 May

We generally think that transcendent is what is linked to God or some aspect of religiosity, but the term actually comes from philosophy and can be used in Theology.
In general, in philosophy and in everyday life, transcendence is opposed to the immanent, with the idea of something belonging to another nature, simply to the Other, or even that which is of a higher order, the transcendental is of this order and is not the even if transcendent.
Transcendent in philosophy is what is beyond, a way of thinking the opposite is the immanent, which is connected to thing-in-itself, but in Kant’s transcendental idealism its opposite is dogmatic idealism, for example, thought by George Berkeley.
In idealist epistemology, transcendence is applied to the phenomena of objective reality, because they are incapable of showing themselves to men exactly as they are (our subjective capacity), they do not appear as things-in-themselves, but as subjective representations constructed by human cognitive capacities.
From the intentionality of Franz Brentano, the student of some classes Franz Brentano, he investigated a new path to philosophy, overcoming the modern modern idea that conceived of consciousness as a closed receptivity in itself, opening it to immanence to consciousness, reflecting the “enigma of transcendence”.
Husserl does not immediately break with idealistic transcendentalism, one must travel the path he has made, even return to Brentano’s intentionality which still has an empirical trait that breaks down to construct immanent objectivity.
When Husserl begins to walk the path of an idealistic transcendentalism, the criticism of his closest disciples will make him choose to be isolated in a position that seems to be overcome or to establish a new turn to phenomenological research. Hence, it is often difficult to understand Husserlian thinking.
His vast work has to be traversed at every stage, there is a philosophical course, where each moment of thought has its own questions, to the period of the intention to that of Logical Investigations (Logische Untersuchungen, first edition in 1900-1901), after elaborating some concepts- which led him to state that, in order to study the structure of consciousness, he distinguished between the act of consciousness and the phenomenon to which it is directed (the object-in-itself, transcendent to consciousness).
The idea of the mind as what occurs within it, the so-called physicalism still persists and with strong influence on neuroscience, one of the exponents is the Portuguese Antonio Damásio, his TED has 2M of views:

 

The Being, the Other, and the Beyond the Same

17 May

The being described in Heidegger’s “dasein” is the only entity capable of understanding existence itself, because it brings within itself the sense of being, it is as a pre-ontological entity because it has in itself an understanding of this meaning even before any theorization , Heidegger calls it pre-theoretical.
It is among the beings the only one to have a sense already in itself capable of creating, desiring, building, destroying and everything happens in relation to one’s existence, is a pre-sein and an ex-sein-tence.
Heidegger describes it thus: “The presence is not only an entity that occurs among other entities. On the contrary, it is ontictically distinguished by the privilege of its being, that is, being, its own being at stake. “(Heidegger, 2013, 48)
Dasein is the only entity capable of understanding itself, and this understanding is given insofar as it is, in which it exercises its existence. He is an ontological being because it carries the sense of being in itself, and it is pre-ontological because it already has a (pre) understanding of that sense, an understanding before it can even be theorized, which Heidegger calls a pre-theoretical understanding .
Its phenomenology does not intend to reveal the “what” are the things, but the “how” they are, their own being, as they “present”, is the possibility of “being” by this I translate their dasein as “Being-there” and in it is inserted the Other.
Heidegger’s phenomenology does not intend to talk about the “what” of things, but the “how”. Heidegger does not intend to say what being is, or what Dasein is, but how they are, as they present themselves in the Presence of the Other, the relation of being outside, and Emmanuel Lévinas development in sense of “infinity”. 
This being outside ultimately means a complete opening to the Other, only the being of realization, and in this case the “how” means how we also love the Other, this is the final lesson of Jesus at the Last Supper, in telling the disciples (John 13:34): “as I have loved you, love one another,” this as it is essential, it is Jesus’ projection of the Others, his disciples, this “how” is very important.
Kael Moffat’s video explores the issue of the Other in a universal perspective, without leaving the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religious view to the side, and explains it in philosophy:

 

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

Philosophy or thought, human essence

15 May

If we investigate the origin of the term philosophy we find “friend” (philos) of wisdom (sophia), but modernity has confined it in the field of all other specialties, that is, queen of the sciences has become a specialty for some without value.
The basis of any specialty, area or field (I prefer this denomination because it is less watertight) has an organized form of thought, thus having a philosophy.
Socrates (469-399 BC) was so important that he divided classical thinking into two epochs, the pre-Socratics and the period of thought formation, Plato (428-348), which is in fact the only reference to Socrates, and the work The republic of Plato has undeniable influence to this day.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) a disciple of Plato, and together with him organized the idea of Polis, from which comes the word Politics, and the city-state, embryonic form of the modern state, from which comes the word “citizen.”
The thought “being is and not being is not,” besides logical principle A or not A, is also an ontological principle, although contemporary thought (or philosophy) also means the contradiction A and Not A as a possibility, breaking with classical thinking.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is important to understand the overcoming of Manichaeism, still present in political and religious thought until today, the abandonment of this theory (good and evil, Manicheanism) was the beginning of his conversion.
The medieval period had Boethius (480-524), which gave rise to the “quarrel of universals”, if we can think of universal and particular concepts today, was the fruit of a long medieval discussion between realists and nominalists.
Realist of this period is Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), with his thesis on the Ens (being) and the Essence, lost in the beginning of modernity, but taken up again by Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl through the question of intentionality, which we described in previous posts.
The renaissance was nothing more than the resumption of the ideas of classical antiquity, without the subsequent period of contractualists Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, we would not have the formation of the modern state.

Descartes’ rationalism and Kant’s idealism, as well as Locke’s empiricism, have built the science of modernity, although today criticized by positivism and the question of neutrality, the thinking of Heisenberg and Einstein helped to question it.

But modernity also went into crisis, the Vienna Circle in the prewar period brought to light a neologicism and the question of intelligent systems through Kurt Gödel, and a new thinking in law through Hans Kelsen .

The Frankfurt school, critical thinking, ontology and hermeneutics compose the framework of current thinking in the midst of a paradigmatic crisis in the West, where we will go. There will be no answer without thought, without philosophy.

The video below presents a thinker of the technological issue seen from a non-Manichean prism, without technophobia and constructive with ethics and social responsibility:

 

Husserl and the intentionality

14 May

We have already put some initial ideas of phenomenology, as well as the set of ideas (photo), now we analyze one of its foundations: intentionality. 

From the intentionality of his master Brentano, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) preserves the aspect of the experience of “being aware of something”, but will modify the empirical phenomenology, to make it transcendental, not in the still spiritual sense, but of living experiences cognitive (this is for example Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation of Ideas I).

To be faithful to his thought, Husserl states in Ideas of the Phenomenology: “that:” Experiences of knowledge possess, this belongs to its essence, an intentio, aim something, report in such a way or an objectivity, “but leaves the idea of ​​the empirical. Husserl retains the basic idea that intentionality is the peculiarity of the experience of being aware of something.

Husserl will maintain, throughout his course of approaching the Aristotelian-Thomist concept, an “immanent objectivity”. Husserl’s epoché, his suspension of judgment in relation to the facticity of the world, will make from the phenomenological reduction, a leap from the domain to that which is transcendent (in the sense of not being self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence absolute clarity, of self-giving), the pure phenomenon reveals itself to a sense-giving consciousness.

The sense of experience in Husserl is fundamental, must be understood by her everything that she finds in the flow of what is lived in general, intentional vivid:

[…] not only the intentional vividness, the actual and potential cogitationes taken in its full realization, but all the real moments (reellen is different of echt) that can be discovered in this stream and in its concrete parts. (Husserl.), this book first published in 1913.

In a series of lectures held at the Descartes Amphitheater at the famous Sorbonne in Paris between February 23 and 25, 1929, Husserl and his assistant Eugene Fink expanded the text of the initial lessons, which was published in French in 1931, the title is due only to references to Descartes, but may well introduce the thought of Husserl.

The fact that he never published the meditations in German generated doubts if he would not be satisfied with the text, the Husserl of maturity will publish the Crisis of the European sciences, his densest book.

Here are some ideas from his studies, in more academic view:

 

 

 

 

A forgotten connection with medieval philosophy

13 May

Concepts such as essence, being, ontology, and especially intentionality, fell into obscurity in the Renaissance until they were abandoned in modernity, until being reinvented by Franz Brentano (1838-1917) in 1874 in a work entitled Psychology from the empirical point of view, where he wants to understand the extent to which phenomena are physical or mental, in relation to objects.
In this book in the first chapter of Book II, he states: “All the data of consciousness are divided into two great classes: the class of the physical phenomenon and the class of the mental phenomenon” (Brentano, 1973), where it retrieves the idea of relation intentional relationship between mental acts and their objects, which comes from the work of Thomas Aquinas Quaestiones disputatae de veritate
Brentano characterizes this relationship from a reprint of the Aristotelian-Thomist conception of an “intentional in-existence” of an object, it is not a matter of not existing, but of existing in which it suggests a mode of immanence relationship between the intentional act and its object.
This is important because it recovers the subject and object relationship, lost by rational / idealism.
Phenomenology will use the concept of the suspension of judgment, the epoché that transforms into a place between parentheses, in this case is to suspend the facticity of the world has the judgment suspended by the phenomenological reduction, now that is transcendent (which is not self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence (the absolute clarification, of giving oneself, giving meaning).
This is fundamental in a post-truth world where facticity can hide the phenomenon in itself, and it is necessary to return to what Husserl will propose to return things themselves.
These are some applications of Dale Jacquette’s work on intentionality in Brentano:

BRENTANO, F. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.