Arquivo para January, 2019

The truth in times of crisis

31 Jan

The new hermeneutic consciousness, the chance to establish dialogue between concepts, make man more vulnerable to a crisis of thought, is more orthodox and predisposition to an intolerance, a truth of the Monarchy of Fear how to define Martha Nussbaum in his new book , favorite us in dictatorships and extremes.
But what is this new consciousness? defines Hans Georg-Gadamer thus: “Hermeneutic consciousness, which must be awakened and kept awake, recognize that in the age of the philosophy of science, the claim of superiority has something chimerical and unreal about it.” (Gadamer, 1975)
And he inclines: “But the will of man who is farther than ever, more than the former sensation, a point of becoming a utopian or eschatological sensation, a hermeneutic consciousness of finding with this will something true of the recording: which is still and never more real. ” (Gadamer, 1975)
That is, an a-lethe, not forgetting. The focus of subjectivity in the face of objectivity is a true dark window: “The focus of subjectivity is a brilliant upheaval.” (Gadamer, 1975).
Self-consciousness is Individual case is only a closed movement of historical life, remembering that self-consciousness is the great Hegelian construct in relation to the historical rule. What happens to history is that we put them in more than the crisis of idealistic and scientific thought, or the neo-positivist methods are there, phronesis.
For Gadamer, Phronesis, the tailary practice, emerging between ethos and the logos, directed for higher and one third year to excluded between the I and us.
Gadamer says: “Understanding is not something that tries to intercept what one wants to say when one asks oneself about what is happening?”  (Gadamer, 1975), in of the common horizons and reorganizes the discourse.
This is very difficult today, but not impossible, if there is a minimum of trust between two discourses, but positive science, dogmatism, fundamentalism and other isms do not admit this, are entrenched in their “self-consciousness” arrogating practical (it is empirical in general) or collective (closed circles).

Gadamer, H.G. (1975) Truth and Method. Continuum. EUA: 1975 (pdf)


Truth and dialogue

30 Jan

Dialogic bankruptcy and the growth of political polarization in our time, which has its own democracy as its victim, comes from the absence of hermeneutical thought that is essentially dialogic and paradigmatic (in the sense of finding the fusion of horizons) and a dead end for orthodox discourses.
Phenomenology brings from the beginning the question of making a void to hear the Other, what the Greeks call epoché, or the suspension of judgments about things, which may seem like the Cartesian cogito, but it is not, Husserl clarified this in Cartesian meditations, that we have already done some posts here.
Epoché is the so-called reduction phenomenology, is to look at something changing the glasses (figuratively of course) to see the essence of things, something difficult these days, where the acceleration of judgments and preconceptions do not allow a meditation, contemplation or true dialogical relationship, what was called in the previous verstehen post.
Since dialogue depends on a hermeneutic circle that involves the relation to our preconceptions, as positive here is important, it means that we must silence our pre-judgments about the things that will be said and never opt for: not that !!!
The central problem of the rational-idealist philosophy of modernity is that it separated subject from object and this was to the day-to-day of religious culture the highest academic philosophy, “things” are “impure” and I do not understand the world of life (Husserl’s Lebenswelt), worldview (what Heidegger called Weltanschauung) mean to return “things” as they are.
Knowledge itself is nothing else than this relation interpret-thing: “Knowledge, that is, the act of giving the world an intelligible character, occurs, therefore, in the encounter between consciousness and things,” Husserl said, explaining the that is to go the “thing”.
Our conflicts involve not only human relations, but also their relationship to things: money, health, work, food, nature itself (including our own), communication (which was not born in the digital world), in short, almost everything involves the relation to the thing and our awareness of it.
Dialogue, considering preconceptions, with the possibility of merging horizons (which is not necessarily the consensus), is essential today.


Does the truth have a method?

29 Jan

Gadamer’s goal in his Truth and Method (Gadamer, 1975) was to recreate the concept of understanding (Verstehen), which meant to understand knowledge as what it has as an attribute of the world experience of the human being, compatible with Heidegger’s world view and made from two presuppositions, part of Husserl’s concept of Lebenswelt (world of life), and the critique of idealistic separation that divided the cognoscent subject, since he is already an object in the world; of what is the object of knowledge.
In her definition of phenomenology as hermeneutics through the resumption of the sense of being in Dasein, which became known under the name of hermeneutics of facticity.
The natural sciences, I understand them as mathematics, physical and chemical, I restrict zoological and biological, can be explained as enlightenment (term of Modernty Enlightenment) or understanding, because of its logical nature, the German term is erklären, while sociology and history go through the understanding (verstehen) introduced in philosophy by the German philosopher historian Johann Gustav Droysen (1808-1884), and adopted by Hans-Georg Gadamer.
But this term is an enlarged view of understanding since it includes the Other, because it is also contained in the senses of empathy and dialogue, and is therefore an extension of the concept of Heidegger de Weltanschauung, composed of Welt (‘world’) and Anschauung (vision, contemplation, point of view or conviction), of Cosmosview or Worldview.
The method then proposed by Gadamer is the explication of the hermeneutic circle already proposed in Heidegger, but now with the overcoming of the idealist historicity of Dilthey and the incorporation of the Other (verstehen) in the world of understanding.

We can say that admitting the world view of the Other is possible a hermeneutic circle that leads us to truth, the problem of contemporary idealism is that the Other will follow the concept of Authority, the logical-deductive references that incorporate certain dogmas or dogmatic circles without including the other.
But it is necessary to distinguish that between two discourses without hermeneutical facticity there is conflict.

Gadamer, H.G. (1975) Truth and Method. Continuum. EUA: 1975 (pdf)


Nonsense notion and half truths

28 Jan

The fact that everything can be mere “opinion” is that it creates and develops the no-notion (nonsense em portuguese), popular term to speak of the doxa, which was mere opinion without an organized knowledge that bases and makes serious opinion on subjects, what is called episteme in classical antiquity.
The fact that the truth almost always remains hidden is that we are in search of re-enlightenment, although we use it also, if we look at the term means to veil again, and not disguise, to take away the veil, classical antiquity also had a name for this: a-letheia (lethe, “oblivion”), a as denial means: do not forget.
Revelation is closer than Aristotle called the endoxa (ἔνδοξα), unlike Plato who considered the doxa mere opinion, Aristotle revalues it understanding that many of the beliefs and popular opinions can come from consensus of old wisdoms, as it says in the popular means, our parents “knew things”.
One can find in the Threads translated from the Greek by Jacques Brunschwig (1967), a direct definition of Aristotle: “Endoxa, on the other hand, are those [opinions] which are based on what everyone thinks, the majority or the wise, that is, the totality of the sages, or most of them, or the most renowned and illustrious among them.” (Aristotle, 1967, 100b20-22).
The fact that a set of opinions have seen the so-called “urban legends,” for which I am referring to the popular term “no-notion,” is that certain truths spoken in a very incisive and persuasive manner become public half-truths, and thus need an unveiling, but the root of it is in thought and not in the media, which serve only as propaganda vehicles, which newspapers, radios and TVs already do a long time.
In the 1920s Karl Kraus, a playwright who wrote against bad journalism, at the service of half-truths and in favor of well-defined interests, shows that the fact is ancient, but what is the origin? I see two very clear.
First an episteme, the knowledges constructed even in academies and books with very little historicity, are used aphorisms (Karl Kraus has a book with this name, but said that they were half-truths), the own organization of the knowledge with vices of logicism and unilateral view of issues, due to the low transdisciplinarity of discourses.
But there is a public reason, besides the epistemic that is deeper, we like to omit opinion about everything and think little, to delve into a certain theme has become “out of fashion”, that is, mental laziness leads us to this (new media are after the phenomenon of superficiality), there is no way to be profound without doubting one’s own thinking, to be listening to the other, without opening oneself to new knowledge that happens every day.
I already know what you are going to do, I already know what you think or do not worth studying, reading and deepening, led to a culture without notion, little depth, immediacy and this has nothing liquid, is a solid ignorance, sometimes militant and reluctant to open or dis-veal, is in the re-veal.

Aristóteles. (1967) Topiques. Tome I: Livres I-IV. Texte établiet traduit par Jacques Brunschwig. Paris, Les Belles Lettres.


Little story of truth

25 Jan

“The truth is not with men, but among men!” This seminal phrase of the philosopher Socrates already brings in itself two parts of the truth, not to be confused with half truths, the first is that being in “men” means an argument onto-logical and not just logical, and the second that being “in” can not be with only one man, it takes dia-loges and so two sides.
So Socrates proceeded to ask, but the very question is to ask itself not only logical, that is, the question may already be part of an answer, while what is the question to have the right truth.

After Socrates, Plato and Aristotle stand out on the truth, Plato will make difference between the Doxa (Greek: δόξα) which is the common belief or popular opinion and although it is difference of the Episteme (ἐπιστήμη) as knowledge, led to a classic opposition of error to the truth, that Western philosophy became of great interest.
Episteme from which epistemology comes is the whole of knowledge methodologically, but also is not only logical, its pretension is to create fields of relations, continuities and discontinuities between discursive practices.
Aristotle will add the concept of “endoxa”, beliefs that can be supported by sages or by the tradition to recognize the beliefs of the city, it is tested and therefore more stable than the conventional “doxa”.
At the end of the middle ages nominalists and realists were debated about the existence of universals and individuals, being truth as reality having only particulars or having the possibility of finding universals, for example, if every man is an animal, then a particular man  he is an animal.
It will be the idea that there are universals that will build the modern enlightenment, but its basis of truth is rational and existence, I can doubt everything, but not that I exist, that is, for the very action of doubting is necessary for me to exist.
But rationalism leads to doubts of external existence, the classical division of body and mind, Imannuel Kant asserts that the perceptions of the senses are posterior to experience, whereas a universal a priori is necessary, using the argument of the realists, he calls it analytical judgment the first are synthetics, made from the junction of information.
The summit of idealism is Hegel, who establishes several ideal concepts: state, spirit and ethics, but the crisis of modernity will return to old dilemmas: language, discourse and what is thing or Being, there are then three turnarounds: linguistic, ontological and “sacred”. Karl Klaus (1874-1936) already complained about the truth in the news media, it is true that the cultural industry moved masses, and the network media now too, but the truth?
The great revenge of the sacred in Christianity occurs when Jesus reading in a synagogue opens the passage from Isaiah 61: “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me with the anointing to preach the Good News …”, and said today if realized this prophecy.
The search for lost foundations, forms of spirituality (sometimes bizarre is right), a new form of comfort for the human soul in tribulation is nothing else: absence of a true transcendence that leads to “clearing”, “revelation” and the ontological true is religion is Jesus.


Life imitates Science Fiction?

24 Jan

Yes, since for the seventh art and also for the literature of science fiction this is art.
The point is that much of the fiction does not take place, Stanley Kubrick’s classic 2001-based 2001 Odyssey, based on the book of the Arthur C. Clarke, did not predict laptops in 2001, nor social media networks, the film Social Networks itself contains a misconception already in the name , because it is just a media and big issues of networks like the 6 degrees of freedom, small worlds and weak ties are not even remembered.
Also the classic Blade Runner and its new version Blade Runner 2049 still has the question of the Turing test, how to differentiate a machine and a human by its reactions is more an existential-ontological question than fictional, what the critic hardly noticed is that the machines continue to try to deceive the android hunter and he continues to eliminate them without breaking with his own existential human crisis.
Ask the author of the book that inspired the movie “Androids dream of electric sheep? Do they dream, will they have existential experiences like the A.I., or will they leave the world of machines, to affirm their humanoid “humanity” as an Ex-Machina movie?
It is a fact that since Julio Verne, passing through the movie Metropolis, the series Lost in Space and Journeys in the stars of great success in the TV in its time, brought news as the cellular transmitters, and who knows in the near future the teleportation, since the holograms already they are there, but they are just transmission artifacts.
After years of science fiction films: Gravity (2013), Interstellar (2014) and Ex-Machina (2015), Lost on Mars (2015), The Arrival (2016), It (2017), Blade Runner 2049 (2017) ), the absence of 2018 may be what justifies the nomination of the superhero movie Black Panther to the 2019 Oscar for best picture, lacked inspiration but not imagination.
Imagination about the future continues to provide artifacts for real life, but real life follows its existential drama, in times of anger and threats of return to the past, it is worth thinking about what the future will be, even if it is only of artifacts and not of real life, this follows its drama, although a Wrinkle Time with the excellent Oprah Wrinfey was due in effects and scenario


The illustrious house of Ramires, for sale

23 Jan

This novel in the more mature and also typical of Eça de Queiroz because it reflects his narrative technique in a rather archaic language, makes a well thought-out plot that brings aspects of twelfth-century Portugal, a heroic and even violent people, and other aspects of Portugal of the nineteenth century already with modern features.
The plot uses for this a surprising technique, using a twelfth-century tale, Portugal’s heroic period, and a nineteenth-century reality in contrast.
The young Gonçalo Ramires seeks through politics and travel to Africa to arrange life, after rebuilding his finances returns to Portugal and incorporating the structure and values of his ancestors, at this point Eça de Queiroz portrays the ancestors In Seculo XII lived Tructesindo Mendes Ramires, narrated as of integral spirit rigid and audacious and will revenge his son Lourenço who saw to die in the top of his tower in an ambush of Lopo de Baião, old boyfriend of the daughter and traitor of Ramires and the king Sancho I.
The story is somewhat revived by the young Ramires who sees the sister Gracinha Ramires who sees the ex-fianc2e accede to her and this ends up marrying the innocent Barolo, reliving the problem of his ancestors.
The house of Ramires exists in real life, including the famous Tower, and is in ruins and the sale is the news in Portugal, the Tower House Lagariça, in Resende (Portugal), northern Portugal in the region of Viseu, is the sale for values close to 1 million euros. I go almost every day to the Confectionery Cister, favorite place of Eça de Queiroz, close to where I work, earring that I can not find it there … but his soul and though is appear to live there.

Queiroz, Eça. The illustrious House of Ramires. translated by Margaret Jull Costa. New York, NY: New Directions Press, 2017.  (in portuguese epub, or pdf).


Where does Europe go?

22 Jan

Three issues take over the European news: the upcoming European parliamentary elections in late May, the UK exit in March and the yellow jackets in France.
While this is the conference in Davos that does not seem to bother with these issues, the absences of France, the United Kingdom and the United States show something strange.
With regard to the European elections, Makron’s fragile situation in France and Merkel’s term come to an end, less so in Germany where a new leader seems to have emerged, the new leader of the newly elected Christian Democratic Union Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (AKK) with 99% of the votes and could become the next German chancellor in 2021.
“I learned that leadership has more to do with inner strength than with outside noise,” says AKK (pictured with Merkel) who rejects the title of “mini Merkel” that says they would not say this from a man, is more docile and more determined than Merkel, has 3 children and her husband always accompanies her.
Two European parties lead the bloc the EPP (European People’s Party which are in the Christian Democrats) which has 265 deputies and the S & D (Socialist and Progressive Democrats) with 184 deputies, but the right with liberals and reformists promises to grow, just look the scenario of the countries and the exit of the United Kingdom, that will be in March.
France and Germany lead in number of deputies, have respectively 96 and 74 deputies out of a total of 751, in addition the German leader AKK speaks French well, and this block is fundamental to fight the nationalist wave that can weaken the European Union. Brexit, leaving the UK less and less united and more fragmented because of leaving the European Union, affects the European bloc in the sense that it can create a wave and also because it has a significant number of left-center deputies due to its still very strong in a UK divided by Brexit itself.
The yellow jackets seem too organized to actually represent any social contestation, to some analysts it seems somewhat orchestrated to strengthen a new kind of nationalism that has little or nothing to do with the actual population, kept to the right proportions, somewhat reminiscent of the demonstrations of 2013 in Brazil.


The voice on the Web, back from the primary orality?

21 Jan

Writing can be days on the Web, we went from oral culture to writing and electronics, now can we be turning to oral culture or merging the three galaxies? name given by McLuhan to these three historical forms of communication.

The changes in IoT (Internet of Things) promise greater voice communication, smart clocks, smart home appliances promise more interaction and voice control, giants Google, Amazon and others are investing in this market.

Your data will be more and more available through the voice command, the last event CES (Consumer Electronics Show) of Las Vegas pointed in this direction (see the post).

Voice assistants are nothing more than artificial intelligences that respond to consumer voice commands, small tasks like asking for music, asking the time and temperature will be increasingly available in the market, the touch will be replaced gradually.

The limit is what happens in the fime “She” where the user falls in love with her voice assistant, and in the fantasy plane the AI ​​movies and the Ex Machina, where the robot lover of its creator, imprisons and condemns death and leaves his “laboratory” for common life.

The data is already clear, the website Recode says that 70% already use for music, 64% to know the time and 53% to ask fun questions.

While statistics show that most people are satisfied with voice assistants such as Alexa, Google Assistant Conect, Cortana, and Siri, most are worried when they imagine their conversations can be heard and stored.

But did the future come? new technoprofetas applaud series like Black Mirrow, Netflix has made a recent unsuccessful movie, the film Ela, AI and Ex machina that makes a pessimistic discourse, but neither they imagine what is behind the algorithms and the clouds of data.





From water to wine

18 Jan

The human artifact is not bad, but it is dangerous use.

The fact that it happened at the wedding of Canaan in Galilee, the first public miracle of Jesus, anticipating his time of public life, at the request of Mother Mary, brings at least three non-fundamentalist findings that cast their eyes, the first evident is wine.

Jesus liked wine, the fact narrated in John (John 2: 1-11), means that the Master not only liked parties and wine, but also wanted him in good quantity, to the point of responding to his mother’s request, but not without first contesting it, the second non-fundamentalist evidence, the mother said (John 2: 4): “Woman, why do you say this to me? My time has not yet come.”

There is no doubt that drinking causes not only accidents of traffic, fights and confusions as it disintegrates family, alcoholism and addiction are a disease of course, but there are those who know how to drink and establish limits to their actions after drinking.

But the most fundamental fact is that in choosing wine and later bread to leave its memory, it means that it not only uses the children of nature or the earth, but the artifacts, that is, what I need of human interference to become, if food, the wheat transformed into bread, the grape transformed into wine.

This means that the “divine” spiritual nature does not deny and instead values ​​the work and the fruit of the human hands, does not deacrate the human, but in contrast to value it makes it more dignified, and one could say more divine.

Thus every human artifact produced by a good of humanity brings with it a dignity and an appreciation which must not be disregarded, and therefore there is no separation or tenuousness between what is sacred and what is human.

The unspraced asceticism of the contemporary world is nothing more than “a life of exercises” as Peter Sloterdijk says, devoid of human meaning in the deepest sense, even of what we mean by joy and pleasure.

It was the emptying of the sense of Being that led to an idealistic spirituality and out of the meaning of life, transforming it from water to wine will mean therefore to understand that wine came naturally from the water and needed the human artifact to turn the crushed grape into wine and then it meant, therefore, to understand that the wine came naturally from the water and needed the human artifact to turn the crushed grape into wine and then to serve it as a gift from the gods.