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Arquivo para April 22nd, 2019

Beyond the senses

22 Apr

By separating subjects (or what is subjective) from objects, Kant’s and Hegelian idealism creates a transcendence of their own to interconnect them and thus separates it from the ontological, from the being.
The way of the Enlightenment was settled, but there was a necessary complement for the discourse not to become very “religious”, Locke describes the human mind as a tabula rasa (A blank picture), where, through experience, the ideas, thus completing this.
The knowledge of physics, especially of astronomy, the use of mathematics helped to construct a “logical” world, but based solely on it, there were no longer the ontological, that is, proper to the being.
Subjectivity will appear in another way, George Berkeley’s radical empiricism, for example, only creates a current of subjective idealism, although it is distant in time, much of what is called “practice” today is this kind of subjectivity, still separate from the object.
What was for the empiricists a phenomenon, for Hume for example, was the simple reason that one phenomenon is always followed by another, causes them to relate to each other by a formula known as cause-effect, which generated in the days of today the empiro-criticism, a way to construct narratives from disconnected facts, or not always with the vision of the set of facts and then to understand the cause in fact.
Phenomenology more recently takes a different stance, the problem of “apparition” or “meeting things in themselves” (Husserl, 2008, p.17) and which will create an important contemporary current in opposition to positivism and neopositivism .
Thus, rather than restricting experimental analysis, phenomenology opens up to regions veiled by this method, seeking a comprehensive and non-explanatory analysis of phenomena.
Husserl’s phenomenology proposes a comprehensive analysis of consciousness, since all the experiences (Erlebnis) of the world occur in and by consciousness.
This is where the celebrated Husserlian definition of consciousness arises: “all consciousness is consciousness of something,” and this definition of consciousness is linked to the notion of intentionality which Husserl inherited from Franz Brentano but modified it.
Finally there are realities both physical and existence beyond our senses.
HUSSERL, E. The crisis of European humanity and philosophy (in portuguese). Porto Alegre; EDIPUCRS, 2008.
David Deutsch’s TED is just to understand that differents explanations about methods: