RSS
 

Arquivo para May, 2019

Ascesis and the community

31 May

Some assumptions of the community to become a co-immunity are related where the idea of judgment, understanding of the distinction (seen differently, see post), have to be some form of self-immunization like ascesis.
The lack of effectiveness of advanced forms of co-immunity is due to the fact that many communities are based on the principle of judgment, or even combating difference, do not clearly understand the distinction, be it cultural, religious, or otherwise.
Thus, we can look like a community, but we must understand that an important effect is the respect for the life-giving action and open to all who are “outside” to avoid dogmatism and exclusion.
The return to nationalist concepts and cultural prejudices are nothing more than a form of asceticism of a nation-community that does not understand open co-immunity and respects distinction.
The ascesis in various religions always depends on these two actions: one of self-immunity or individual ascesis, and another a co-immunity or social ascesis for which one can place the aptitudes and talents at the disposal of society in general and of others.
It is possible to verify these two vectors in diverse groups, religions and cultures, but it is necessary to verify that there are forms of control and “judgment” in group that end up to collide the individual ascesis with the collective, and the opposite is not always true, one can have an individual ascesis that even acting little in the collective sense serves as an orientation to the others of the group to avoid self-centered and non-dialogical communities.
Seeing if this is compatible with Christian religiosity and a correct view of the Holy Spirit, I have seen not only that it is correlate but that it can serve as inspiration for a true spiritual asceticism for those who are Christians.
Also at the ascension of Jesus, an eternal and visible ascension to the apostles, He makes an affirmation in this sense Lk 24,46: “I will send upon you the one my Father has promised. Therefore stay in the city until you are clothed with the power from on high, “that is, from the Spirit.

 

Community co-immunity

30 May

Sloterdijk, in developing the idea of co-immunity, criticizes old proposals of social groups where exclusion, judgment and therefore do not have the necessary democratic equality among its members.
Although he criticizes religious ideas as judgment through “heresies,” he also criticizes communism as a system where there is judgment, said that he prefers religious force in a way, so that it introduces a certain “pragmatism” of taking beliefs, with its proposal for a future where a link to co-immunity is possible.
Self-immunization is thought of as a program pursued by the sapiens, having as a component an individual asceticism, the pursuit of self-improvement through exercise.
It is curious that Sloterdijk, in saying that the process of “domestication of the human being” failed, in his reply to Heidegger’s Charter on Humanism, his classic book Rules for the Human Park, later admitted a kind of asceticism that allowed each person a self-improvement.
Although this is in his book on self-promises (a kind of religious purposes or vows) his ascesis is written in the book “The infinite mobilization” (Ed. Relógio D´Agua, 2002).
His question to Heidegger’s Dasein is “where are we if we are in the world?” And his answers are in the realm of intimacy, a true “archeology of intimacy,” in which we recognize a closeness to an author who wrote several books on this , which is Martin Bubber.
What there is is a kind of “institnto of the relation” written in the book “Me Tu” of Martin Buber, that we have when children, and disappears or weakens and thus we lose the “sociability”.
What happens when we go from the maternal womb to adulthood is what has already been called a “fantastic ontoanthropology” (quotation by Paulo Ghiraldelli), which we prefer to call onanthropic, in the sense that a set of activities and techniques of day-to- day that makes adult life move, and which does not always cooperate with a co-immunity.
The idea of “imaginary friends”, fantasy of some children, for teachers not always imaginary, for imaginary freedom, what Sloterdijk calls “interior designer”, always has the search to return to an “initial resonance” of the uterine phase.
In the trilogy of the spheres, Bubbles also means this, in German the name of amniotic sac is Fruchblase, to the letter of the fruit bubble or fruit of the bubble.
Man falls into the open, this being-there of Heidegger, then seeks new mechanisms of uterine protection and replacement of protected life, or immunization projects, in Sloterdijk’s view.

Co-immunism is therefore a word for this social immunity, which he prefers from a bi-unit, ie a two-pole resonance apparatus, and the sound term is not by chance, it is a Here and one with the same time, what could be the fetal-placental bond.
The globe that replaces the idea of the bubble of the second volume of Spheres, enters the theological and metaphysical projects, present in the history that has developed in modernity, The question is timely, the idea of co-immunity was important at the moment.

 

The issue of indistinction

29 May

The English word is difficult, it is not difference or distinction, so we use indistinction, but in the rest of the text we will use distinction even in the sense of not being the same as different.
Whoever imagines that this subject should begin with some question of races, genres or other important diversity, surprises itself with the book of Bordieu “The distinction: social critic of the judgment” that goes to the foundation of the culture with the esthetic and ethical question.
This is wise because nothing is more in check when we speak of difference as both issues, and so introduces the distinguished by what he has most essential.
Arguing on contemporary aesthetics, he says that in order to reconstruct his logic: “popular aesthetics appears as the negative reverse of Kantian aesthetics and that the popular ethos implicitly opposes a thesis that contradicts the analytic of Belo in each of its propositions. “(BORDIEU, 2008, page 43).
In his polemics with aesthetic “popular taste” he opposes the Kantian aesthetic, which sums up how: “Taste is always barbaric when the mixture of attractiveness and emotions comes together with satisfaction and, better yet, one can transform it into a measure of his assent “(Bordieu, 2008: 44), which refers to the Kantian text Critique of Judgment.
As the text advances, and it is done with great density and for this reason it is impossible to simplify or less write down all important passages, it goes to social space, then to lifestyles, the dynamics of the fields, another essential category of Bordieu who sees the “Areas” or “social spaces” in a less watertight and more dynamic way.
Until arriving at the production of tastes and their relationship with social stratification, and finally immerse themselves in Culture and Politics, where personal opinion and school and self-taught, topics that are highly relevant at the present time.
The high point for the subject matter of difference, already made the scores of Deleuze and Derridá, now in Bordieu go to the distinction, where he presents, from the point of view of the ruling class, three modes of distinction that brings out three items: “food, culture and expenses with presentation of self and with representation (clothing, beauty care, toiletries, service personnel)”.
In Bordieu, the logic of distinction applies to the system of inclusion and exclusion, whose relations are linked to the symbolic and economic aspects, although it seems a “stylization of life”, show that at the root of these “symbols” are the differential deviations, which he calls structures of homologies or oppositions, as a system of social significance.
BORDIEU, P. A distinção: critica social do julgamento. The distinction: social critique of judgment. Trad. Daniela Kern. São Paulo: Edusp, 2008.

 

The approach of difference without distinction

28 May

Before addressing the necessary introduction of distinction rather than difference, let us examine two thinkers who have worked on the issue of difference in contemporaneity.
The first is Jacques Derridá he who comes to be considered a “difference” philosopher (the translation taken from several different translators and interpreters to neographism différrance), comes from the text of the book Margins of philosophy initially, to present a justification for a new spelling of the question.
The main elements draws from Sausurre’s linguistics and introduces the semantic approach and philosophy of the same, and the controversial point with the discourse of contemporaneity is the idea of making an ontological approach to difference in a path that does not restrict the necessary linkage of being . In the text Derridá points out the difference as: “It has already been necessary to emphasize that difference is not, does not exist, is not a present being (on), whatever it is, and we will be led to accentuate what it is not, everything, and therefore, it has no existence or essence. “(DERRIDÁ, 191, p.37).
One can clearly see the polemic by the above phrase, but it is more complex still, the aspect that concerns Derridá’s approach is that it introduces the idea of difference by constructing a semantic and philosophical approach to it, both essential in language studies.
Another equally important author is Giles Deleuze, whose question is whether we need to represent the difference? the point in question makes four essential points of representation: identity in form the determined concept, analogy in the relation between ultimate determinable concepts, and, the opposition in the relation of determinations within the concept, and the similarity in the determined object of the own concept. In his first book, Difference and Repetition, Deleuze begins his study of the concept of difference and addresses, as we pointed out in the previous post, indifference, namely, the undifferentiated abyss or “nothing black “And also the” nothing white “.
The French philosopher says that “difference is generally distinguished from diversity or otherness,” since, according to him, Two terms differ when they are others, not by themselves, but by something” and here, it addresses the question of contrariety and contradiction, making it clear that only “a contrariness in essence or in form gives us the concept of a difference that is itself essential, “although enlightening adds little to what is distinct and needs distinction as a being, again repeats in a certain way the ontological argument of Derridá.
References:
Deleuze, G. Diferença e Repetição. Rio de Janeiro: Graal, 2006.
Derrida, J. Margens da Filosofia. Trad. Joaquim Torres Costa, António M. Magalhães; revisão técnica Constança Marcondes Cesar. -Campinas, SP : Papirus, 1991.

 

Distinction and difference: the modern community

27 May

The modern community was built on the liberal concepts of state and individuals, is nothing more than the concept of homeland and nation, in the sense of love of national symbols.
The concept evolved, philosopher Zigmund Bauman states that “belonging to a community means denying part of our individuality in the name of a structure set up to satisfy our needs for intimacy and the construction of an” identity “, which goes against the very concept of liquid that he developed, would this be a liquidity?
The confusion established is the difference between culture and nation, many people have cultures that go beyond a limited territory, there are people that do not even have territory, and the internet itself is often called “deterritorized”, but remain the distinction and difference.
If instead of using the word difference, in philosophy seen as one that gives importance to the study of the singularity and particularity of each person, and make a small change to the distinction that is the encounter between knowledge and visions of different worlds, we approach more gently to the concept of community, than to ignore identity.
Although one can find difference as the “determination of otherness” (Abagnano’s philosophy dictionary, for example), there will still remain a certain shadow of difference such as inequality, inequity and not the right to distinguish between peoples and cultures.
The philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Derridá treated the difference also in the sense of deconstruction, albeit with different nuances, in Deleuze’s concept, addressing two aspects of indifference, namely the undifferentiated abyss or “nothing black” and “nothing white “.
And therefore levels of differences are addressed. In the light of Derrida’s philosophy, especially in his works Margins of Philosophy and Gramatology, différance is for this philosopher who, together with deconstruction, constitutes the background of all the his thinking.
Byung Chull-Han, on the contrary, approaches that the critique of modernity is precisely the fact that everything is very similar, states that the current society: “it is the lack of energy of dialogical link. When the dialog disappears from the scene, a theater of affections appears. These are dialogically structured. They imply a denial of the different.” (HAN, 2015: 80).
It is therefore important to affirm the different, and to understand the distinction as part of the culture and the Being itself, however, there is a dialogue, as a French saying goes: “vivre the différance“.

Bauman, Zygmunt, 1925-2017. Community: the search for security in the present world (in Portuguese) / Zygmunt Bauman; Pliny Dentzien translation. – Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed., 2003.

Han, Byung Chull. The salvation of Belo (in portuguese). Lisboa: Relógio d’Água, 2015.

 

Immanence, transcendence and cristianism

24 May

Certainly the search for a true spirituality has one thing in common: it is a search for happiness and peace, this is particularly tragic in times of crisis and low light, it seems almost unattainable this state.
Let us return to two concepts of phenomenology: the transcendent that is inner and the transcendental that is external and allows some form of relation with the objects of the world, then any relation of immanence would be denied, seems an inevitable consequence because it reinforces the classical opposition between transcendence and immanence .
The Holy Spirit allows man some form of immanence, for example, for our intelligence and our interiority we ask for the light, and one of the names most appropriate to the Holy Spirit, in the sense that Christianity gives him is Paraclete, which means both defender and comforter, without him we would be plunged into anguish and frailty.
Thus, in admitting the transcendence of our interior, we must admit that we have somehow the possibility of the consciousness of something, an essential form of phenomenology, and it allows us an immanence of the objects, not only through the senses, but in a high way, a superior transcendence, and can be justified by the existence of a superior transcendental.
It is not a force or an energy, but a form of Being, which means to be in the full light, in the Heideggerian sense being in the “clearing”, of course there must be several requirements for it, which is ultimately a fullness of Being, fleeting and non-permanent, in the video proposal of the previous post (by Jonathan Haidt), a ladder or to use another image of the Tales of Narnia (book of Clive Staples Lewis), which are basically Christian, a passage inside a mobile takes it to the kingdom of Narnia, from which films were made as well.
It is a metaphorical way of rethinking the “fatigue” of the world, in a more spiritualized way than the phenomenology proposes, but as a method is similar.
The experiences and memories were thought by phenomenology, and if we think in the Christian sense of experiences and memories of what should be the life of love of brotherhood and love of the Other “as” himself and “as” Jesus taught us, is in the Scripture passage John 14:26: “But the Advocate, the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and remind you of all that I have said to you.”
But this God is unknown in other cultures and misunderstood by Christian currents. T

 

Immanence, Transcendence and Spirituality

23 May

Almost every form of spirituality in the contemporary world is founded on the idea that the things of the world (and their immanence) are separated from the things of the spirit (of the Holy Spirit or Mind), and thus the only possible asceticism is that of transcendence.
We have already posited that from the perspective of Husserl’s phenomenology what is transcendent: “it is the outside world” is distinct from what is transcendental that “is the inner world” of consciousness, which is in his work “The Idea of Phenomenology.”
What is called “spirituality” in much of contemporary asceticism is the exercise of coming out of the world-of-life (Lebenswelt) and going into the “spirit” world, thus going to what is transcendental, in fact this is in large part not religiosity, but philosophy.
In philosophy, what is immanent, which comes from things in themselves, is different from the transcendent that is convinded than the transcendental which is the inner world, in the case of part of the religiosity of the spirit, and in philosophy the world of consciousness or knowledge .
Kant and Spinoza differently make this distinction, they have reused the medieval immanence according to which the force of the divine being permeates all things, that is, the divine would be inseparably present in all things, and for this they were accused of pantheism.
In the papal bull of Pope Pius X, published on September 8, 1907, entitled “Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius X on the errors of modernism”, condemns Catholic modernism, considered as a “synthesis of all heresies”, combining evolutionism , relativism, criptomarxism, scientism and psychologism, thus criticizes immanence and defends the transcendent.
Heresies will then be the theories that defend the “immanence of God,” thus opening two possibilities of interpretation to what would be heretical:
– creation is part of the Creator then creation is divine and this would be pantheism.
– the creation part of the creator has an intrinsic connection with the creation and this is attached to Him, this would be Gnosticism.
A plausible and legitimate line that attenuates these heresies is that God is immanent to the world, not because this is substance of creatures is inherent in the divine substance, but because it depends on it to exist, so God is transcendent (exterior) creation, however He leaves the creation to its very existence and design, remains the idea that the “world” is evil.
Teilhard Chardin wrote that every universe is the body of Christ, this part of the divine, the defense of ecology, nature and what is called the “common house” is part of the defense of life. In this way an asceticism can be made that brings about a true spiritual elevation in the midst of earthly or mundane things, that is, in a relationship with nature, with the Universe and with the Other.
Jonathan Haidt is an American social psychologist (October 19, 1963), and professor and ethical leadership at the Stern School of Business at New York University, speaks of values that are present in various cultures, his Ted brings a balanced idea of transcendence:

 

The crisis of Science and Knowledge

22 May

The quantum physics that dismantled the building of mechanistic physics, which was the idea of ​​an increasingly mathematical knowledge, and this would be rigor and not philosophy, in the sense of thinking, is a crisis established in the beginning of the last century, studies of the Vienna Circle and Husserl’s statement of the crisis of the European sciences were the initial contours of this crisis.

On the crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as a privileged discourse of appropriation of the world being, pointed out in the original idea of ​​Edmund Husserl in “The Crisis of the European Sciences and the Transcendental Phenomenology” (2002), Heidegger points to a crisis in European culture caused by the orthodox view of science as the privileged discourse of appropriation of the being of the world.

Heidegger later wrote of it: “The decisive development of the character of modern enterprise of science, therefore, also wed another species of man. The scholar disappears. It is rendered by the researcher (researcher) who is in his research endeavors. These, and not the care of a erudition, give to their work the fresh air. The investigator no longer needs any library at home. He is constantly on the move. Discusses in colloquies Discusses in colloquiums and is informed in congresses. “(HEIDEGGER, 2002, p.108).

It was pointed out correctly by the Brazilian researcher, Cintia Struchiner, that “this is not a crisis of the sciences as such (it is quite obvious that the sciences continue to progress and produce knowledge), but it is basically a crisis of sense. The neutrality of the world of science leaves out fundamental human questions (values, culture, ethics), so that between the world of science and the life-world a process of detachment is gradually being established. Husserl’s point is that science, so constituted, has very little to offer us regarding the most fundamental issues for humanity: its values, its culture and the sense of individual and collective existence” (STRUCHINER, 2007)

The contours of this crisis lie in the vision and thought of science, but extrapolate these and emerge in a culture of obscurity, ignorance as thought, the immediacy of the being of the world, and the emptying of being-in-the-world produces only a weariness, an absence of essentiality, a superficial criticism that does not leave the technician and does not discuss technique as an essential knowledge, but does not exhaust itself, because it does not contemplate Being.

These changes continue to occur in the 21st century, a European work explains this through phenomenology itself, showing the digitization and opening of this knowledge:

 

HEIDEGGER, H. Caminhos de floresta. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2002.

HUSSERL, E. A Crise das Ciências Europeias e a Fenomenologia Transcendental, São Paulo Ed. Forense Universitária, 2012.

STRUCHINER, Cinthia Dutra. Fenomenologia: de volta ao mundo-da-vida. Rev. abordagem gestalt., Goiânia , v. 13, n. 2, p. 241-246, dez. 2007 .

 

Industrial scale qubit chip

21 May

The quantum chip (qbit or quBit) can now go on an industrial scale, a team of researchers from Denmark and the US announced last month that the technology is ready.
The problem was to scale up in such a way that computers could use chips, so far the qubits’ quantum computing was not robust enough to operate in noisy environments on a full computer.
Another problem was scale production, out of specialized laboratory and produced in conventional factories, they had to work with the semiconductors and normal circuit boards, with a combination of the semiconductors of conventional chips with aluminum and aluminum arsenide, the part industrial revolution is solved.
The team is led by Professor Antonio Fornieri, who has built a quantum memory chip and promises that quantum computers can now be produced in scale. the most resilient qubits by a combination of a semiconductor, the Indian arsenide, with a superconductor, aluminum, in a planar device, called the so-called Josephson junction, capable of treating Majorana quasi-particles.
Majorana quasiparticles are zero-mode fermions, which emerge on the surface of topological superconductors, which function as fault-tolerant and noise-free qubits.
The teacher Fornieri said: “Our prototype is a significant first step in using this kind of system to make quantum bits that are protected against disturbances.” “We still need some adjustments at the moment – we can improve design and materials, but it’s a potentially perfect structure.”.
The article was published in Nature and is authored by Fornieri and his team: Antonio Fornieri, Alexander M. Whiticar, F. Setiawan, Elias Portolés, Asbjørn CC Drachmann, Anna Keselman, Sergei Gronin, Candice Thomas, Tian Wang, Ray Kallaher, Geoffrey C. Gardner, Erez Berg, Michael J. Manfra, Ady Stern, Charles M. Marcus, Fabrizio Nichele, Evidence of Topological Superconductivity in Planar Josephson Junctions. Nature Vol .: 569, pages 89-92.
The following video explains the who Qubits working:

 

transcendent and consciousness

20 May

We generally think that transcendent is what is linked to God or some aspect of religiosity, but the term actually comes from philosophy and can be used in Theology.
In general, in philosophy and in everyday life, transcendence is opposed to the immanent, with the idea of something belonging to another nature, simply to the Other, or even that which is of a higher order, the transcendental is of this order and is not the even if transcendent.
Transcendent in philosophy is what is beyond, a way of thinking the opposite is the immanent, which is connected to thing-in-itself, but in Kant’s transcendental idealism its opposite is dogmatic idealism, for example, thought by George Berkeley.
In idealist epistemology, transcendence is applied to the phenomena of objective reality, because they are incapable of showing themselves to men exactly as they are (our subjective capacity), they do not appear as things-in-themselves, but as subjective representations constructed by human cognitive capacities.
From the intentionality of Franz Brentano, the student of some classes Franz Brentano, he investigated a new path to philosophy, overcoming the modern modern idea that conceived of consciousness as a closed receptivity in itself, opening it to immanence to consciousness, reflecting the “enigma of transcendence”.
Husserl does not immediately break with idealistic transcendentalism, one must travel the path he has made, even return to Brentano’s intentionality which still has an empirical trait that breaks down to construct immanent objectivity.
When Husserl begins to walk the path of an idealistic transcendentalism, the criticism of his closest disciples will make him choose to be isolated in a position that seems to be overcome or to establish a new turn to phenomenological research. Hence, it is often difficult to understand Husserlian thinking.
His vast work has to be traversed at every stage, there is a philosophical course, where each moment of thought has its own questions, to the period of the intention to that of Logical Investigations (Logische Untersuchungen, first edition in 1900-1901), after elaborating some concepts- which led him to state that, in order to study the structure of consciousness, he distinguished between the act of consciousness and the phenomenon to which it is directed (the object-in-itself, transcendent to consciousness).
The idea of the mind as what occurs within it, the so-called physicalism still persists and with strong influence on neuroscience, one of the exponents is the Portuguese Antonio Damásio, his TED has 2M of views: