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Arquivo para May, 2019

The Being, the Other, and the Beyond the Same

17 May

The being described in Heidegger’s “dasein” is the only entity capable of understanding existence itself, because it brings within itself the sense of being, it is as a pre-ontological entity because it has in itself an understanding of this meaning even before any theorization , Heidegger calls it pre-theoretical.
It is among the beings the only one to have a sense already in itself capable of creating, desiring, building, destroying and everything happens in relation to one’s existence, is a pre-sein and an ex-sein-tence.
Heidegger describes it thus: “The presence is not only an entity that occurs among other entities. On the contrary, it is ontictically distinguished by the privilege of its being, that is, being, its own being at stake. “(Heidegger, 2013, 48)
Dasein is the only entity capable of understanding itself, and this understanding is given insofar as it is, in which it exercises its existence. He is an ontological being because it carries the sense of being in itself, and it is pre-ontological because it already has a (pre) understanding of that sense, an understanding before it can even be theorized, which Heidegger calls a pre-theoretical understanding .
Its phenomenology does not intend to reveal the “what” are the things, but the “how” they are, their own being, as they “present”, is the possibility of “being” by this I translate their dasein as “Being-there” and in it is inserted the Other.
Heidegger’s phenomenology does not intend to talk about the “what” of things, but the “how”. Heidegger does not intend to say what being is, or what Dasein is, but how they are, as they present themselves in the Presence of the Other, the relation of being outside, and Emmanuel Lévinas development in sense of “infinity”. 
This being outside ultimately means a complete opening to the Other, only the being of realization, and in this case the “how” means how we also love the Other, this is the final lesson of Jesus at the Last Supper, in telling the disciples (John 13:34): “as I have loved you, love one another,” this as it is essential, it is Jesus’ projection of the Others, his disciples, this “how” is very important.
Kael Moffat’s video explores the issue of the Other in a universal perspective, without leaving the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religious view to the side, and explains it in philosophy:

 

Ontology, the other and being

16 May

If we put all the philosophy of modernity and its ideal system at the level of the thought of the Being would be: I think, I am, which derives that I am a thing that thinks, and would remain an ontological question who is the other as the effect of this rational thought which would only be a product of my thinking, so the Cartesian cogito in his epoché did not suspend his ego, therefore there will exist in every idealistic system the attempt of the absolute self.
A hidden but central philosophy to understand the crisis of totalitarianism in our time was not Hegel and his attempt to systematize idealism, but Fichte (1762-1814) who also wrote works of political philosophy and was the first to write about conception of a Pan-Germanism.
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth.
In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealism and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.
For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in my own thought, about which Paul Ricoeur the ego of the idealism of Rene Descartes or Emmanuel Kant, he strives to refound the ego, the Self, but now in permanent reference to the Other; “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning” (Ricoeur, 1990, p.380).
Descartes established his “chain of truths” from a deductive thought, saying that the same is in the interiority of consciousness the certainty of existence, only known by thought, everything else comes from the exercise of this “originating” truth. In the philosophy of representation, from Cartesian philosophy like the rationalist systematization Kant completed with Idealismou and Hegel systematized with the pretension of totality and remains linked to modernity, except for the phenomenology that admits a non-hegemonic philosophy.

For hegemonic idealism the other is nothing more than something that I myself create in thought, it is myself, about which Paul Ricoeur wrote in refounding the ego as a self, but now in permanent reference beyond the Same: “The Other is not only the counterpart of the Same, but belongs to the intimate constitution of its meaning “(Ricoeur 1990, p.380).

In phenomenology, differently, consciousness is perceived in the act of perceiving the Other, it is important to say: an object, a thing and another consciousness, and in this consciousness and only in it, one turns to interiority, but the first movement is out to the world, the famous being-in-the-world that Heidegger explored.
The following video explains how Heidegger saw the sicknesses of the human soul of our time, and his philosophy of “das sein” or in English being, but I prefer to be-there, see a brief introduction of his philosophy, a video that it has 1 million of views:

 

Philosophy or thought, human essence

15 May

If we investigate the origin of the term philosophy we find “friend” (philos) of wisdom (sophia), but modernity has confined it in the field of all other specialties, that is, queen of the sciences has become a specialty for some without value.
The basis of any specialty, area or field (I prefer this denomination because it is less watertight) has an organized form of thought, thus having a philosophy.
Socrates (469-399 BC) was so important that he divided classical thinking into two epochs, the pre-Socratics and the period of thought formation, Plato (428-348), which is in fact the only reference to Socrates, and the work The republic of Plato has undeniable influence to this day.
Aristotle (384-322 BC) a disciple of Plato, and together with him organized the idea of Polis, from which comes the word Politics, and the city-state, embryonic form of the modern state, from which comes the word “citizen.”
The thought “being is and not being is not,” besides logical principle A or not A, is also an ontological principle, although contemporary thought (or philosophy) also means the contradiction A and Not A as a possibility, breaking with classical thinking.
Augustine of Hippo (354-430) is important to understand the overcoming of Manichaeism, still present in political and religious thought until today, the abandonment of this theory (good and evil, Manicheanism) was the beginning of his conversion.
The medieval period had Boethius (480-524), which gave rise to the “quarrel of universals”, if we can think of universal and particular concepts today, was the fruit of a long medieval discussion between realists and nominalists.
Realist of this period is Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), with his thesis on the Ens (being) and the Essence, lost in the beginning of modernity, but taken up again by Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl through the question of intentionality, which we described in previous posts.
The renaissance was nothing more than the resumption of the ideas of classical antiquity, without the subsequent period of contractualists Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, we would not have the formation of the modern state.

Descartes’ rationalism and Kant’s idealism, as well as Locke’s empiricism, have built the science of modernity, although today criticized by positivism and the question of neutrality, the thinking of Heisenberg and Einstein helped to question it.

But modernity also went into crisis, the Vienna Circle in the prewar period brought to light a neologicism and the question of intelligent systems through Kurt Gödel, and a new thinking in law through Hans Kelsen .

The Frankfurt school, critical thinking, ontology and hermeneutics compose the framework of current thinking in the midst of a paradigmatic crisis in the West, where we will go. There will be no answer without thought, without philosophy.

The video below presents a thinker of the technological issue seen from a non-Manichean prism, without technophobia and constructive with ethics and social responsibility:

 

Husserl and the intentionality

14 May

We have already put some initial ideas of phenomenology, as well as the set of ideas (photo), now we analyze one of its foundations: intentionality. 

From the intentionality of his master Brentano, Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) preserves the aspect of the experience of “being aware of something”, but will modify the empirical phenomenology, to make it transcendental, not in the still spiritual sense, but of living experiences cognitive (this is for example Paul Ricoeur’s interpretation of Ideas I).

To be faithful to his thought, Husserl states in Ideas of the Phenomenology: “that:” Experiences of knowledge possess, this belongs to its essence, an intentio, aim something, report in such a way or an objectivity, “but leaves the idea of ​​the empirical. Husserl retains the basic idea that intentionality is the peculiarity of the experience of being aware of something.

Husserl will maintain, throughout his course of approaching the Aristotelian-Thomist concept, an “immanent objectivity”. Husserl’s epoché, his suspension of judgment in relation to the facticity of the world, will make from the phenomenological reduction, a leap from the domain to that which is transcendent (in the sense of not being self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence absolute clarity, of self-giving), the pure phenomenon reveals itself to a sense-giving consciousness.

The sense of experience in Husserl is fundamental, must be understood by her everything that she finds in the flow of what is lived in general, intentional vivid:

[…] not only the intentional vividness, the actual and potential cogitationes taken in its full realization, but all the real moments (reellen is different of echt) that can be discovered in this stream and in its concrete parts. (Husserl.), this book first published in 1913.

In a series of lectures held at the Descartes Amphitheater at the famous Sorbonne in Paris between February 23 and 25, 1929, Husserl and his assistant Eugene Fink expanded the text of the initial lessons, which was published in French in 1931, the title is due only to references to Descartes, but may well introduce the thought of Husserl.

The fact that he never published the meditations in German generated doubts if he would not be satisfied with the text, the Husserl of maturity will publish the Crisis of the European sciences, his densest book.

Here are some ideas from his studies, in more academic view:

 

 

 

 

A forgotten connection with medieval philosophy

13 May

Concepts such as essence, being, ontology, and especially intentionality, fell into obscurity in the Renaissance until they were abandoned in modernity, until being reinvented by Franz Brentano (1838-1917) in 1874 in a work entitled Psychology from the empirical point of view, where he wants to understand the extent to which phenomena are physical or mental, in relation to objects.
In this book in the first chapter of Book II, he states: “All the data of consciousness are divided into two great classes: the class of the physical phenomenon and the class of the mental phenomenon” (Brentano, 1973), where it retrieves the idea of relation intentional relationship between mental acts and their objects, which comes from the work of Thomas Aquinas Quaestiones disputatae de veritate
Brentano characterizes this relationship from a reprint of the Aristotelian-Thomist conception of an “intentional in-existence” of an object, it is not a matter of not existing, but of existing in which it suggests a mode of immanence relationship between the intentional act and its object.
This is important because it recovers the subject and object relationship, lost by rational / idealism.
Phenomenology will use the concept of the suspension of judgment, the epoché that transforms into a place between parentheses, in this case is to suspend the facticity of the world has the judgment suspended by the phenomenological reduction, now that is transcendent (which is not self-evident) to the domain of an authentic immanence (the absolute clarification, of giving oneself, giving meaning).
This is fundamental in a post-truth world where facticity can hide the phenomenon in itself, and it is necessary to return to what Husserl will propose to return things themselves.
These are some applications of Dale Jacquette’s work on intentionality in Brentano:

BRENTANO, F. Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

 

Thought, meditation and life

10 May

If thinking is difficult in contemporary society, meditation is almost impossible, even in spaces dedicated to it, it is pure exoterism that meditates, deepens a thought or a situation, that would lead us to do the activities with greater tranquility.

The Greeks called the stage in which we withdraw our judgments and pre-occupations from our head the “epoché”, the absence of judgment on things to initiate a thought.

The philosopher Husserl took up this concept to create his phenomenology and affirmed that this was one of the principles of the current crisis of science, beyond its logicist and positivist structure, it was necessary to return the thing itself, and affirmed that consciousness is “consciousness of something” .

Byung-Chul Han in the Society of Fatigue warns us that active life needs a complement that is the meditation life, without which we immerse ourselves in tiredness and can be led to Bournot syndrome, in which we live in eternal confusion.

This is not new of course, but the acceleration of society due to new technologies, haste and the lack of environments and situations of deep meditation has led to an emptying of life.

To take it back is urgent, it will give us consciousness of Being, it will allow us to face problems that exist for all people and in almost every situation, and it will give us a better life.

Sloterdijk in “you can change your life,” while ironizing the false spiritual exercises of our day, called them as unsprayed ascesis, just exercise. It is not an escape from reality, and developoment antropotechnic concept. 

In Christian spirituality it means to find the humanity of the historical and divine Jesus, for when his disciples ask to see God he has the answer: “he who sees me, sees the Father”, in general terms, is in the reality, it is necessary to clarify and see. The lecture Andy Peddicombe says that 10 minutes are enough to regain consciousness:

 

Is hard thinking today

09 May

The thinker visited Barcelona where he met with several hundred people in a conversation at the Center for Contemporary Culture of Barcelona (CCCB).
Despite his affability and his apparent tranquility, interviewing Sloterdijk, whose pages an ordinary human often needs to read over and over in order to understand them, is a challenge.
With the passages of Spheres still floating on the head – “the inner, consubjective sphere can not possess at all a eucyclic and parmenideal structure: the psychic globe does not have, with the well rounded philosophical, a single center that radiates and encompasses everything, and but two epicenters that interpellate each other by resonance “, Sloterdijk interviewed as if it were in front of Plotinus.
In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, the thinker says that it is difficult to think nowadays, and certainly read a more difficult thinker, especially if he goes to the essential problems.
When asked by the journalist if we lost the ability to think he replied: “It is not capacity as such. But it does not occur the vital circumstances that allow us to distance ourselves and gain distance. For Husserl and his phenomenology it was necessary to leave the impetuous time of life, the most elementary device was always to take a step back”.
This action allows you to become an observer.
Without a certain distance, without a certain disconnection the theoretical attitude is impossible. “Today’s life does not invite thinking. ”
Julia Galef is a writer and speaker on the topics of rationality, science, technology and design.
Julia Galef examines the motivations behind these two mindsets and how they shape the way we interpret information, intertwined with a compelling 19th century history lesson from France, from a torn paper found where military secrets were sold to Germany.
The only Jewish soldier Alfred Dreyfus was convicted without convincing evidence, and sent to a prison on an island, later proven innocent and rehabilitated, what Julia Galef asks is: “Do you yearn to see the world more clearly, or just to defend your beliefs?”, see Julia’s Ted:

https://www.ted.com/talks/julia_galef_why_you_think_you_re_right_even_if_you_re_wrong?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

 

The informational impact

08 May

Society, information abundance, information turnaround and other appeals to the novelty that arose not with the internet, but with the computer and the possibility of handling the data in volume (Big Data) certainly brought a new perspective.

Anyone who wanted to understand eighteenth-century society should study the industrial revolution and its impact on manpower and the production of serial products, today anyone who wants to analyze contemporary society cannot lose sight of the volume of data they are produced to try to make this volume accessible to society.

But it is not so, because together with this volume came by previous process, it is only to check with history, not the romantic dreamed by idealists, but the real one and to realize that the problem of both Information in volume and depth, made it difficult to digging and knowing what is essential.

We have already posted here Karl Kraus, who complained to journalists in the midst of the threat of a second world war because of misunderstood news highlighting only interests. In an interview with the newspaper El Pais, Peter Sloterdijk also warned that “it is difficult to think of contemporary society,” Byung Chul Han his disciple alert to “active vita” (Chul-Han)

The phenomenon we witnessed in which information became practically a commodity, started with the digital model of Shannon (photo) and the Turing machine in the 1930s, and accelerated with the construction of modern computers.

What we witnessed and did not always participate in an “active” and reflexive way, able to elaborate thinking about information, is the fragmentation of knowledge accelerated by new gadgets, but which was initiated by a crisis in the thinking of Western society, which only deepened over the years, its initializing in modernity.

The Movie The game of imitation (2015) illustrates the life of Alain Turing and his theory:

 

 

 

Theory of Information or Signals

07 May

David Hilbert proposed 23 problems for Mathematics to solve, among them the 2nd. problem was the consistency of Arithmetic to solve problems (which started the idea of algorithm). Later from 1910 to 1913 Alfred Whitehead and Bertrand Russerl published the 3 volumes of Principia Mathematica recalling Isaac Newton’s Principia (Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica) of 1980, but logic has shown contradictions.
It was Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) who showed the contradictions of logic by demonstrating that a mathematical system is either complete or consistent, a problem that was discussed by Alan Turing and Claude Shannon at Bell Labs in the late 1930s amidst World War II .
Both were in secret projects, Turing was to decipher the Enigma machine, captured from the German army, and Shannon build the System X machine to encode messages from Roosevelt and Churchill from the allied troops.
Both spoke at the lab meetings about Gödel’s problem, and wondered if the machine could think. Boole’s circuits and the Turing machine are at the origin of modern computers, this information theory is actually information in another context, Shannon himself would call it a message, and modern computing calls it signals.
The computation evolved with the construction of the first computer by von Neuman, and we initiate at the moment to ask again if the machine will surpass the human, the philosopher Sam Harris has a opinion:

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Playing with the mind: Claude Shannon

06 May

It was time to pay tribute at the time of Claude Shannon’s contribution and genius, two journalists wrote in 2017 a book about the one that, in our vision with Vannevar Bush of whom he was a MIT lecturer, created Information Theory, although the name might be different, he knew he used information like “machine.”

In the book the information will be called a message, but it could be a sign. I did not read the book, but it was studying the Boolean Algebra that Shannon started to make a digital world, but opposing the analog is the second misconception because everything we do is analog, the clock for example, there is an analogy with the movement of the sun and of course, the rotation of the earth.

In his master’s thesis, in 1937 he analyzed electric circuits that were based only on “yes” or “no”, with connectives “and” or “and” and “not”, and it will be only in his 1948 work that his “Mathematical Theory of Communication”, became Information Theory.

The basic idea was based on calculations of the amount of information needed for a message (I prefer a signal) so that information (of human origin, transmitted by a channel or physical medium) does not lose its original relevance.

Few books have so many citations in relevant works, the book cites 91,000, and virtually the entire theory of “signal processing,” “imaging,” and any information transformed into digital “signal” must use its theory.

The central contribution of his work is called “sampling theory”, which states that in any system the maximum sampling frequency must be at least twice the highest frequency of the signal to be transmitted.

For example, an audible sound to the human ear, which reaches the maximum at 20 KHz, should have a sampling rate of at least 40 KHz. In addition to anticipating the computer along with Alan Turing, also the first Machine Learning, quite simple, but sophisticated for that time, a mouse robot in a maze: