Arquivo para June, 2019

The reduction of the divine to human environment

28 Jun

It is possible to deny the existence of God, the argument of the evidence is naive, being neither logical as some modern rationalists wanted, nor human as some German idealists wanted and nor ontological as presented by Saint Anselm.

There is a truth that comes from Socrates that says that it is not with men, but among men, this means that it is both ontological and complex at the same time, and one can not deny the historical existence of Jesus, whether by his historical birth at a time when sense was obligatory, for this was born in Bethlehem, and the record of his death and crucifixion which is told by historians of the time, including Josephus and by Jewish historiography.

But what Nietzsche, born in a family of Lutheran religious has seen beyond his time, is a philosophical and historical evidence of the death of God, through his human epiphany through the historical figure of Jesus, at least to Christianity, while God can be thought of innumerable eschatologies present in almost every culture so as not to be exhaustive, for even the so-called barbarian peoples had some form of divinity.

But the cry of Nietzsche’s madman is the realization of the construction of idealist and positivist philosophy that he wished to take as a single discourse on reality, Thomas Aquinas and other medievals were realistic as a philosophical current, now has a dark sunset.

From this isolationist, individualistic and separatist philosophy of the world three forms of collective heresies follow: a merely human God, a purely divine God, and a total absence of the third divine person: the Holy Spirit, for whom there is no forgiveness.

This sin is not the mere denial of God, but its concrete negation is the negation of the Other. Teilhard Chardin says about the inclusion of the Other that this is the “divine medium”, the typical mystique of our time, which can also be expressed as “where two or more are in my name” (Mt 18:20), which is a “and you who say that I am” (Mt 16:15), which follows several passages of the relationship with the World and with God.

One can say that there are two reductions: the merely human and the merely divine, but the main reduction is the ignorance of a third reduction which is that of the action of the Holy Spirit. In the reduction of the divine, Jesus in miracles almost always asked for a description or made allusion to the faith of the healed, the gifted or just the wonder of contact like the blind Bartimaeus, the prophet Ana, Simeon, the paralytics, lepers or the woman to whom he directs word.

True eschatology sees not only principle or end, but both in relation to the daily life of human life, Teilhard Chardin makes reflection in the book The divine medium (1957): “the slowly accumulated tension between Humanity and God will reach the limits fixed by the possibilities of the world, and then it will be the end … that we should expect not as a catastrophe but as a ‘surrender’ to the world to which we must collaborate with all our Christian forces without fear of the world, because their spells could no longer hurt those to whom he has become, beyond himself, the Body of him who is the One who comes.”

Like the evangelist Luke (Luke 9:20), Matthew also repeats Jesus’ question to the disciples, Mt 16:15: “But who do you say that I am?”

CHARDIN, T. O meio divino (The Divine medium: Essay of inner life). Lisbon: 1957. (in portuguese).


God did not die, we killed him.

27 Jun


It is a bad reading of Nietzsche’s idea that God died, what happens in the reading of “The gaia science” (Nietszche, 2017), first that speaks of science, according to which Gaia in the Greek sense refers to Mother Earth and finally , the madman “began to shout incessantly: 
“I seek God. ” Let’s see his own text, although the translation may have imperfections: “crazy man. “They did not hear of this crazy man who lit a lantern in the morning and ran to the market, and he began to shout ceaselessly,” I’m looking for God! I seek God! “? “And as there were many of those who did not believe in God, he aroused a great laugh. So he’s lost? One of them asked. Did he lose himself as a child? Another said. Are you hiding? Is he afraid of us? Did you board a ship? You emigrated? They shouted and laughed at each other.
The madman threw himself between them and pierced them with his gaze. “Where did God go?” He shouted, “I’ll tell you! We killed them – you and me. We are all his killers! But how did we do it? How did we manage to drink the sea entirely? Who gave us the sponge to erase the horizon? What have we done to unleash the land of your sun? Where does she move now? Where do we move to? Away from all the suns? Do not we continually fall?
Back, to the sides, to the front, in all directions? Are there still ‘above’ and ‘below’? Do not we wander like that through an infinite nothingness? Do not we feel the breath of the vacuum? Has not he become colder? Does not darkness everlast? Do not we have to light lanterns in the morning? Did we not hear the noise of the gravediggers bury God? Do not we smell divine putrefaction? – the gods rot too! God is dead! God is still dead!
And we killed them! How can we console ourselves, murderers among the murderers? The strongest and most sacred the world had ever possessed bleed whole under our daggers – who will cleanse us this blood? With what water could we wash? What atoning rites, what sacred games will we have to invent? Is not the greatness of this act too great for us? Should not we ourselves become gods, to at least seem worthy of it?
There has never been a greater act – and whoever comes after us will belong, because of that act, to a story higher than the whole story until then! “At that moment he silenced the mad man, and again looked at his listeners: they too were silent looking amazed at him. “I come too soon,” he said then, “is not yet my time. This enormous event is on the way, it still walks: it has not yet reached the ears of men.
Sparkle and thunder need time, the light of the stars needs time, the acts, even after they was done, need time to be seen and heard. This act is still more distant to them than the furthest constellation – and yet they have committed! – It is also told the same day the mad man broke into several churches, and in each one intoned his Requiem aeternaum deo. Taken out and interrogated, he merely replied, “What are these churches, if not the mausoleums and tombs of God?”

In the next post, I suggest some interpretations, including a Christian one, now make yours.

NIETZSCHE, F. A gaia ciência. Aforismo 125, LeBooks, 2017. (in portuguese, ebook).


The crisis of religion and ignorance

26 Jun

In the foreword to the Brazilian edition of the book “The Essence of Christianity” (Feuerbach, 2007), the translator José da Silva Brandão presents a good synthesis of German thought and the root of the crisis of Western thought can be inserted in this context.
When Marx criticized religion, he did not criticize any religion, he criticized the synthesis of his time that hovered in the idealistic German thought, coming all practically from Kant, although later Schopenhauer and Nietzsche came to disrupt this, but also his thought can only be thought of From this crisis, Kierkegaard may perhaps be thought of, but his criticism is exactly the German philosophy of the time.
In the preface says the Brazilian translator: “after Kant, there were only two exits: either to legitimize human thought as something that only finds its element elaborable in the ideal and phenomenological field (Fichte, Shcelling and Hegel), or to recognize conscious knowledge is only an effect or superficial manifestation or even a representation of the most profound unconscious causes, such as instincts, desires, etc. (Schopenhauer, Eduard von Hartmann). “(Feuerbach, 2007, p.7), which is the presentation of the translator José da Silva Brandão.
It presents, in our view, Schleiermacher as a disciple of Hegel, he was a his reader, but his reintroduction of hermeneutics is fundamental to a critique of contemporary thought, by reducing God to what can be known by feeling.
For him as for many Hegelians “religion is anthropology” and not culture, this introduces religion into historical analysis and denies the existence of an essential and eternal Being. It is in this context that the so-called Hegelian Left appears, Marx calls them old Hegelians (Feuerbach, Strauss, Bruno Bauer, Max Stimer and Karl Marx who will break them), while the margin with two criticisms are Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Marx’s criticism of Feuerbach in the book Theses on Feuerbach is in fact theses against idealism and the old German idealism, in addition to the “idea” Feuerbach is an atheist theologian.
For Feuerbach, “man’s knowledge of God is only the self-knowledge of man and his own essence.”
He brings about a total reduction of theology and of all philosophy to anthropology since “the absolute being, the God of man, is his own essence” and it is in this anthropology that much of contemporary Christian thought is based, religious life continues.
This is religious alienation: to make as God something that, in fact, is unique and only the expression of man himself. Nietzsche will call this “death of God”, but its context will be different.
FEUERBACH, Ludwig. A essencia da cristandade (The essence of Christianity). Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2007.
EdgarMorin says that the education system does not only produce knowledge, it produces ignorance and blindness, here is a video in the Roda Viva Program of the year 2000:.


Consciousness and Freedom in Morin

25 Jun

Freedom, liberalism, autonomy of reason, possibilities of countless experiences this was the fascination of the man of modernity, however he forgot his being. In his works almost always functional, Edgar Morin says in Freedom Anthropology: “Freedom is a possibility of choice”, therefore, between real and possible possibilities, without leaving aside, of course, the possibility of exploring and understanding what is imaginary.
Modern man with rationalism and the exploitation of knowledge: “Sapere aude,” cried Kant, he wanted to get rid of the constraints of the environment, and with the possibilities of ample use of intelligence and conscience he found himself subject to norms, taboos, myths, ideas, beliefs and ultimately to society, which imposes laws and prohibitions.
But Morin warns that we are also possessed by our ideas, and not only him but a whole group of thinkers affirm that we walk towards uniformity.
He described his method of the empire of environments, with this it is necessary to replace the concept of external environment that imposes fatalities on living beings by the “idea” of dependent antonomy [1], we are subject to the physicochemical environment, for example, but these are integrated into a living self-organization [2].
The third point is to understand what autonomy means, a more concrete form of freedom, it is dependent on the external environment from which it withdraws energy and organization, all living autonomy is dependent [3].
Before we are born, we have already posed with respect to the fetus inside the mother, we have inherited genes from the parents, then in the external environment the forms of accidents, losses, encounters intervene, and within each one there are several decisions that cannot be taken as the logic of decision of a machine, this involves aspects of changes of values and even of states of the soul, a conversion to a faith or a deconversion with new effects.
In a recent talk, Morin said that we walked like sleepwalkers to disaster, this is not the direction of an autonomy of freedom, but rather the idea of a greater restriction, what Martha Nussbaum called the “empire of fear.”
We return to becoming automata, and as we walk as somnambulists, possessed of a certain automatism, a certain possession, but even being machines, we are non-trivial machines, but the ideal is to overcome the machine state and acquire true consciousness: consciousness of Being.
In consciousness is the act of self-affirmation of the subject and in the act of self-affirmation of the subject is the act of self-affirmation of consciousness.
With all the criticism of the current conditions, Morin says that it is possible to live the poetry, see the video:

[1] E. MORIN, La Méthode 1. Paris, Seuil, 1977; idem, La Méthode 2, Paris, Seuil, 1980.
[2] Idem, La Méthode 2, págs. 108-110.
[3] Its dependence on the ecosystem is circular. The living portion of the ecosystem (biocenosis) consists of the interaction between living beings and depends on them, which in turn depend on it.


Cultural misery or ignorance

24 Jun

It is not a current phenomenon, although its visibility has increased with the new media, I remember the files (handouts), the manuals of this or that author that the measure that it saw via it is a vulgarity, or a good part of the pseudo -phylosophies in online videos today, but the background to it all is much worse.
Theodore Darlymple, a pseudonym of an English psychiatrist who worked in prisons with high-risk prisoners, identified human misery as the worst face of the culture, wisdom, and reason we live in, identifying three clear axes: the conveniences of corruption of the whole world, not only Brazil), sex and more sex and the death of childhood.
It is rare to find anyone innocent today, even a child, sexual trivialization did not lead to pleasure or good human conviviality, led to more violence, and Byung Chul-Han’s book goes further wrote in The Agony of Eros, wrote that already there is no love, only narcissism.
There is no doubt that there are social and economic reasons that link these facts, but what jumps the eye is that any hasty or similarly new thought appears as a great exercise of “creativity” and with a little examination it is easily seen that it is ignorance.
So themes that are no more than practical rules to live, appear as magical formulas, make campaigns and appear as miraculous source of youth, ease of enrichment or easy joy, see drugs and drinks, in short, ignorance and obscurity.
Religious or ideological pragmatism emerges as this formula, but they are not enough, corruption and illicit enrichment is also there and are themes throughout the world and hide the real interests behind beautiful words and attitudes, if not investigated in depth or nothing is perceived in real life.
There is a forgetting of being, the true religion, since religion is also subject to all kinds of ignorance, even justifying or defending it, see the irony with all manner of education, true religion and true morality.
Heidegger claimed the quest for the “clearing,” there is no doubt we live in obscure times.


Ontology and the Noosphere

21 Jun

Both intramundane and extramundane realities, and the latter exist can be interpreted differently, as as the Moebius curve (picture) it has only one side, the perspective of being internal or external depends on the observer, and both of the Noosphere.

We are immersed in a noosphere where the spirit is the set of contradictions that we live, the great human manifestations of faith, of cultures and politics are nothing other than the worldly manifestations of realities also extra world, and both depends on the world view that each group of this time, and all underline these visions.

To deny that there is a sphere of the mind or mind, the noon-sphere is to deny the reasons that are not avowedly confessed of these visions, either by difficulties of expressing them or because one wishes to conceal a part of the truth of what is really thought of these ” spheres “.

The first volume of the Peter Sloterdijk Bubbles Spheres trilogy, the only one translated into Portuguese yet, offers a philosophical-existential view of this question, the “intimate spaces” of man from the relations with his surroundings, that is, the next next are the people or the readings and information with which each personal view relates. Sloterdijk starts from a very sensitive analysis that is the mother-child duality, as originating and first relation with an inherent duality, the fetus is still intra-world uterus and the baby will already be an extraterrestrial world, the process of growth is to abandon this initial bubble.

This, in the more comfortable spaces of seeking autonomy, is a complex journey insofar as leaving a sphere that is always intimate, leaving the family, the country or in a wider way of the planet itself, one always goes to a sphere unknown.

In biblical terms, Jesus, after asking what “men” said to be him, asks the intimate question to the apostles in Luke 9:20: “And who do you say that I am?”, This is without a doubt the question that should be done with every religious worldview today.

There will be two equally incomplete answers to that of an intra worldly vision and that of another extra worldly vision, Teilhard de Chardin’s vision of the Noosphere, the two are partly correct, but both are lacking in the other, ontological terms, missing the Other.

The commandment “love thy neighbor” also refers to both, for it is “as unto itself.”


The formation of the noosphere

20 Jun

In moments of the discovery of the reality of black holes, even of midimage made by composition of black hole photos, of publication of music of the universe, of the discovery of the Cave of Chaveut in which there are even three-dimensional paintings made 30 thousand years ago, it is time to understand that a new world is already unfolding beyond our vain philosophy and our skepticism.
Teilhard Chardin wrote at a time when his thinking could not be divulged: “Let us not forget that the human soul, no matter how created apart our philosophy imagines it, is inseparable, in its birth and maturation, from the Universe where it was born. In every soul God soul and partially save the whole world, summed up in this soul in a particular and incommunicable way, “this was his view of the universe.
To the pessimists, who see only the negative and the evil, Teilhard Chardin away from France, sent to China where he could not even have the consolation of a minimally organized Christian community, continued to see beyond a “Disintegrated and disordered Humanity: the multitude, the mass , where we could distinguish only ugliness and brutality, “he observed, seeing an evolving noosphere: “The progress of the Universe, and especially of the human universe, is not a competition made to God, nor a waste of the energies He gave us.
The more Man is great, the greater the Humanity will be united, conscious and lady of his strength, – the more beautiful the Creation, the more the adoration will be perfect, the more Christ will find, for mystical additions, a body worthy of resurrection. He saw through the Eucharist this human walk, though groping, towards unity and the convergence of a free, happy and fraternal humanity: “Receive, Lord, this total Host that the Creation, moved by your attraction, presents you to the new dawn.
This bread, our effort, is not in itself, I know, more than an immense degradation.
This wine, our pain, is not, alas, more than a dissolving potion.
But in the depths of this report, you have put – I am sure, because I feel it – an irresistible and sanctifying desire that makes us all shout from the impious to the faithful: “Lord, make us One!”
The Earth-Fatherland that Edgar Morin believes, world citizenship, the governance of the planet that ask for the most advanced forces of humanity, for the daily effort of all, but mainly by the Divine will be realized, this time of turbulence gradually, by the living forces of humanity, will return to the path of justice and fraternity.
CHARDIN, Teilhard. The Divine Milieu, 1 st. 1957, SP: Cultrix, 1981.


Morin about Aesthetic and Art

19 Jun

Among the uninteresting things that get me through whatsapp I got a video that said that part of Alzheimer’s is social, in fact it was used to talk about dementia and sclerosis, not only because they knew the subject badly, but because social life was easier and more enjoyable.
Edgar Morin was in Sao Paulo, and at june 18 he seems to be the living example of this, still able to surprise his audience, has already written about the question of method, the foundations lost in modernity, land-fatherhood and a world citizenship, a book of love and poetry after the death of his companion Edwiges, now surprises talking about aesthetics and pleasure.
The conversation took place at Sesc Pinheiros, starting at 8pm, with live streaming through Facebook and YouTube videos, I delayed to post today because I wanted to look forward to it.
His proposal is now of a “poetic state,” in which resistance to modern power is not the dictatorship of arms, but the idea of becoming robots through economic power and impose an accelerated pace of life, as the Society of Bournot´s Byung Chul-Han.
Valuing the human state of aesthetic creativity is for him a second state in which one can feel “passionate, admired, in communion with others, marveling, transported, transfigured, inspired.
Something that is at the edge of the mystic, without being [clearly] religious. ” I say clearly because transfiguring or blazing is not possible without some clearly religious form, I am not talking about self-suggestion or fanatical spiritualism, but about poetry and art.
This state allows man something that Morin considers essential, allow man a particular emotion, a contemplative state Chul-Han would say, says the master at the height of his maturity without feeling old age: “Music, poetry, literature and other arts have always been present and active in my life “.
He is considered the great thinker of complexity, named for the studies that privilege multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies for problem solving, remember that he along with Nicolascu Barsarab and Lima de Freitas are authors of the ”Transdisciplinarity Charter” of Arrábida, Portugal.
Morin defends literature as a source of inspiration for this complexity, he says: “” a novel offers me a knowledge about humanity that no science can achieve because it presents complex relationships. Therefore, I believe that it is not possible to teach only through science “, when referring to the current difficulties of education. I have the impression that Morin will not die, his texts certainly will not, but his earthly life will be transported by angels to some place that will have a new name, a kind of earthly or transfigured earthly paradise, something like the biblical one: “a new heaven and a new earth, “described in John’s Apocalipse Revelation, verse 21.
See the video or link:
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Artificial Intelligence and Diagnostic Aid

18 Jun

Artificial Intelligence and Diagnostic Aid Exams for tomography and MRI are increasingly accessible in hospitals, this was due to a rapid expansion of the area, the development of computer imaging and now the aid of artificial intelligence can extend the applications and still make the results before now fast and accurate.
This is not a distant reality, hospitals in Brazil in São Paulo and Goiás Brazilians States already have these services, the images are sent to centers that bring together specialists in several areas and the diagnosis is also aided by software with Artificial Intelligence.
The radiologist from a hundred images, where possible internal injuries can be serious, in case of an accident for example, is necessary to make a report that indicates which care and/or surgery are priority, in general, some must be immediate.
With the help of the computer the machine marks potentially serious areas, with arrows or circles indicating them with probability of success up to 90%, but the final diagnosis is of the radiologist.
The problem is in the area of education where, in addition to incomprehensible resistance to the use of this technology, teaching is still done with relative delay in Brazil, in a report made for the Globo News, the USP´s professor Chao Lung Wen said that in more than 300 medical schools of the “There is no disagreement between telemedicine and medicine, there is only one medicine, and medicine has the use of telemedicine to get closer to patients. This is the fundamental point. ”
The vide below shows na overview about telemedicine:


The supersapiens and the Artificial Intelligence

17 Jun

It is common from a simplistic analysis to demonize the use of new technologies and now with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence, the batteries are turned away, of course there are no ethical objections that are always recommended, but this is true for all areas, including science and religion.
The documentary Supersapiens by director and screenwriter Markus Mooslechner explores the most advanced potential of artificial intelligence, which would link one mind to another, showing that the world is moving towards a collective technological consciousness, the title is an allusion to homo sapiens evolution of the human mind.
In a different perspective Jean Gabriel Ganascia wrote about “The Myth of Singularity”, the idea that a machine can never surpass the human mind, but the film explores a totally new possibility a kind of “networked minds” that from the point of view of a metaphor (the film is not) n In the film, the experts interviewed say that the era we are entering is an era of experimenting with an artificial intelligence connecting minds and their consciousnesses.
In the past, human physical ability was to measure it’s productivity; even though it could be accumulated collectively, now in the information age, intellect and mind have come to fulfill this central role, and immersive technologies profoundly affect our experience.
Today, technologies are totally immersive, deeply affecting the way we experience life, begins with an account of human origin, 300 thousand years ago. The setting is Jebel Irhoud, a cluster of caves 100 kilometers from Marrakesh, Morocco, where some studies indicate that it is the beginning of human life on earth. It is late afternoon, 100,000 years before the emergence of the first modern humans, a group runs into a cave: dirty, shaggy yet human hair.
As this history was discovered, and in the 1960s, a mining group began operations in Jebel Irhoud.
An explosion revealed a cave filled with sediments from the Pleistocene epoch (period between 1.8 million and 126 thousand years ago), there and not now in 2019, our future begins to be drawn, technology is not a more anomaly the very relationship of man with nature and with its origin.
The video illustrates the documentary, not his trailer, but it’s interesting: