Arquivo para June, 2019

The Spirit of Truth

14 Jun

The fact that truth is not logical but ontological returns the idea of Being, when penetrating this question, modernity finds a new course, in this way I encounter the Other, which is not the same and its rupture with idealism is inevitable, even if idealist pragmatism does.
Against the logical truth of Being of the Greek Parmendes, being is and non-Being is not, in the world that judges itself sensible, eternal and unchanging, there being no contradiction, there is no plurality, no distinction (which is not difference); only an inhuman and legalistic perfectionism.
The original truth, as Heidegger and his followers think, is the truth of Being, the clearing * die Lichtung), which makes possible the unfolding, the originality of creation founded on the common-belonging of Being and Man, it is Being between beings.
It lies in the direction of the Greek interpretation of truth as Alétheia, a-lethe, that is, non-forgetting and at the same time truth and not closed dogma, but in the sense of “discovery of reality”, ” , in the sense of presentation.
The question of truth is problematized by Heidegger in the context of what might be called an ontological hermeneutics, it is available to every person who wants to find it, and therefore opens himself to dialogue with all, openness to the Other to unveil plural truth.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In it is possible intercultural dialogue, interreligious and especially the interpersonal, there is an openness to the clearing and the true Self, always present in the Other.
In Christian reading of the truth, after the resurrection of Jesus and the manifestation of Pentecost, he announces to the disciples the coming “Spirit of Truth” (John 16:13): “When the Spirit of Truth comes, it will lead you to the full truth.
For he will not speak of himself, but he will speak all that he has heard; and he shall declare unto you the future things. ”
He will not speak for himself, this is the ontological sleep of some religious, which leads them to a false moral and legalism, this is the Christian clearing, forgotten along with the forgetfulness of Being.
Without dialogue with the distinguished (the different can be litigious), is dead word, idealism.


Lessons from Kant and his view of metaphysics

13 Jun

There is no doubt that everything referring to the spirit and subjectivity in Kant is intrinsically linked to the laws in the sense of modern laws, although they were only consolidated later, and this was his contribution, can read his book on logic , and what he thought as an idealistic philosophy for modernity.
Kant facilitates this view by expressing the scholastic meaning of the word, Philosophy would aim only at ability; on the contrary, his philosophy “within the limits of reason” would be true wisdom, not that which comes from above, but the rational-enlightenment: “In this scholastic meaning of the word, Philosophy aims only at ability; with respect to the concept of the world, on the contrary, it aims at utility.
From the first point of view it is, therefore, a doctrine of ability; of the latter, a doctrine of wisdom: – the lawmaker of reason, and to this extent the philosopher is not an artist of reason, but a legislator. “(Kant, 1992, p. 41).
What was constructed was to try to overcome a “philosophical dogma”, which aimed to elevate philosophy in a kind of “pure theory”, for him the dogmatic philosophies led to metaphysics, while knowledge in the “limits of reason” imposed cognitive borders. Kant contrasts his philosophy with scholasticism because of his clear separation between dogmatic philosophies descended from metaphysics of his own which has the main characteristic of knowing its limits and its cognitive frontiers.
Not by chance, near to this time did good philosophers also be scientists (in the modern sense), Hobbes, Kant himself, Descartes, Leibniz, and others, each with a specificity, but all with a view centered on reason and “laws” of State.
What happened was that the concept of dogma gradually gave way to the observation of empirical phenomena and a new way of dealing and a world view, the truth hitherto shrouded in metaphysics and philosophy as the first science gives way to scientism. This new mentality could already be noticed in Nicholas of Cusa, it cost the life of Giordano Bruno, that is, the change of the Greek conception of a world closed in a Being in the molds parmendians, thus the Being is, and the non-Being is not, without possibility of third hypothesis.
This new mentality could already be noticed in Nicholas of Cusa, it cost the life of Giordano Bruno, that is, the change of the Greek conception of a world closed in a Being in the molds parmendians, thus the Being is, and the non-Being is not, without possibility of third hypothesis.
The reason we attach this to the Christian idea of the Holy Spirit is exactly where the misunderstanding of Christian ideals for Enlightenment, the action of the spirit outside reason, was metaphysical, and the idea of transcendence was linked only to the objects of study, then came the empiricism.
Thus Kant’s general framework is to make epistemology, logic, and ethics central to philosophy, with Cosmology, Psychology, and Theology attached to a “special” metaphysics, and Ontology confined to a general, almost dead, ontology in your thinking.

KANT, I. Lógica (Tradução do texto original estabelecido por Gottlob Benjamin Jäsche de Guido Antônio de Almeida). Rio de Janeiro, Ed. Tempo Brasileiro: 1992. 


Morality and Moral of State

12 Jun

Like all idealist constructs, the principles of law, which I prefer to call state morality, are conceived by Kant both as subordinate to the moral imperative and as derived from it, though it is not so clear in its texts.
Making moral laws, or what we can call the minimum moral: respect and dignity of the person, right to opinion and other basic rights (health, food and housing), make them legal laws have an obvious difficulty if the desire is to become the legal laws a kind of particular law of moral laws, mainly from of the categorical imperative that is to become a model for the others, which individual would be this model is a problem.
The two fundamental points of Kant’s categorical imperative were the assertion that legal laws (laws of law) are moral laws, that they are not only subordinate to moral laws, but constitute a subclass of laws moral, and in the second there is a “moral concept” of that of a moral authority or faculty (Befugnis, moral faculties) to do all that is morally possible and to resist by force whoever tries to prevent someone from doing it.
The two points of questions that arise from this are how to admit that the categorical imperative as the principle of the laws of law that require only “legality”, that is, the conformity of external actions to universal laws?
The second is that it makes sense to admit the categorical imperative as the principle of laws that require only “legality,” that is, the conformity of external actions to universal laws?
The idea that the categorical imperative belongs, however, not only to conformity with universal laws, but also to unconditional, out of respect for these laws, leads to think of the legal laws as particular of moral laws, but as if they exclude an essential note to the concept of the latter (ie, unconditional conformity to laws)?
The principle of free will, which is fundamental in Christian freedom, is not the same as that of state liberalism, of the categorical imperative founded ultimately on individual liberty and not on the social limits of individual liberty.
This philosophy of idealistic morality, which is deontological, complements the teleological principle of “religion within the limits of simple reason”, builds a theological trap in which many have fallen, an idealistic religion is no different from atheism.


The teleology of Kant

11 Jun

Since Kant clearly has principles and reasonings different from religious, at least as far as Christianity is concerned, one can then analyze whether his teleology is consistent, in terms of what he calls the “moral law” and the “limits of reason. ”
Moral law is indissociable from the religious idea, it can even be said that this would be its argument in defense of the existence of God, and is in the first part of his writing: “Religion on the Limits of Simple Reason” (2008), but it is also in the beginning of the Critique of Practical Reason, for him a “fact” of reason.
The book on religion came in the years 1793 and 1794, ie Kant (1724-1804) was in his maturity of the 70 years, and thus was at the same time his intellectual maturity and his anguish before the religion, Nietszche even says in his “Death of God” and affirms that he even wanted to erect a new religion, or a new thought about it or a teleology.
Kant re-read the doctrine of original sin, somewhat outside of Enlightenment thinking and its own root and against its belief in the congenital abounding of the human being.
He interprets this “sin” as the radical evil in us, and according to his thought are the actions that impel us to deviate from the moral law, which by a “revolution in the mood” and a “transformation of the mode of thinking “(A VI, 47s) we can in freedom, overcome the basic inclination by recovering the moral law within us.
In the second part of the book he clarifies the struggle of the good principle with the bad in the heart of man (see that it is not the superior theological good), the conquest of virtue, the need to promote purity of intention and obedience to the moral law, where Christ is a kind of archetype for which we must tend as personification of the good (this theological yes).
But what he understands as “perfection” is “the suitability of the conduct of life with the sanctity of the law, it is not attainable at any time,” and from here one may better understand its maxim in the Metaphysics of the Customs: “Acts externally in such a manner that the free use of your agency may coexist with the freedom of all according to a universal law.”
In the third part, if the foundation of a kingdom of God on earth is rediscovered, the theme of community or society and ethics, which is erected by the simple laws of the virtues as a regulating principle of action, is man constitutes the genuine end of all rational religion, “built on teleological principles though with references to Christianity.
The fourth part is a critique of religion, this can best be understood in connection with an “anthropological reduction” that he wrote at the end of his life: “Anthropology from the pragmatic point of view” (1798), lived another 6 years but with little intellectual production.

KANT, I. A religião nos limites da simples razão. Tradução: Arthur Mourão. Lisboa: Edições 70, [1793] 2008.


Idealism and morality

10 Jun

Dogmas and temporal truths seem to be the easiest and simplest answers at the height of the culture of reason, not the reason for reasoning and reflection, that reason which sought to abolish creative thinking, spirituality and the subjective taste of things: art, culture and religion.
Before penetrating the questions of ethics and aesthetics, Kant in his Work “Religion in the Limits of Simple Reason” will speak of Hercules and his works: “It is only after the defeat of the monsters that Hercules becomes a musician; before such work those good sisters retreat! (Kant, 2008).
One can read in the lucid preface to the Portuguese edition of Lusofonia (available in pdf) the reason why many theologians appealed to Kant, even though some felt that their demarcation of religion was too restricted to practical reason, they opened up and were enchanted with Kant.
Kant’s demand for a priori knowledge, in the case of religion, would become “a third form of human consciousness, feeling (FDE Schleiermacher, R. Otto) and still in the twentieth century, Catholic theology, the Jesuits Joseph Maréchal († 1944 ), Karl Rahner (1984) and Bernard Lonergan (1984) used Kant’s ‘transcendental’ elements to develop the notion of the dynamism of human intelligence, in synergy with the doctrine of being haurida in Thomas Aquinas to the totality of being and, consequently, to the problem of God “(Kant, 2008, p.5), of course this is a preface and not Kant himself.
The question of evil and morality are not in Kant any a priori as one might expect, since what is a priori are concepts more related to reason, mathematics and what he thinks as empirical.
What makes him a morally reprobate action is the maximum he takes for himself as subjective inclinations, as the basis of action.
Thus a decision taken according to the moral law (or not) is not a natural act, so an intelligible action can decide against the moral law, and so what it takes as moral law is the freedom to decide, the free will, said thus: “… therefore, the judgment that the author is an evil man cannot safely be based on experience (KANT, 2008, 26)
What moves idealism as a religion, and much of contemporary thought, while retaining religious and theologians, is a notion of the essential dynamism of human intelligence, its openness to the totality of being, and therefore to the problem of God.
For the idealists the opposite would be the abandonment of the concept of lierdade, then for morality, freedom is necessary as one of the predicates of the “morally good” and therefore also of the “morally bad.”
Necessary foundations are the construction of great modern institutions: the individual, the state and in some ways even what is thought of as “family.”
KANT, I. Religion on the Limits of Reason. Translation: Arthur Mourão. Lisbon: Editions 70, [1793] 2008.


A humanitarian Pentecost

07 Jun

It was celebrated this week the landing of the Allied forces in Normandy, the end of a war that showed the limits of the human barbarism, but it is necessary not to forget the pump of Hiroshima that Michel Serres, died to a week, said to be his philosophy.
The crisis of humanitarian thought (and of practical actions of course) is evident not only by the return of old ideologies or by the emergence of authoritarian governments, this is a visible face of a failure of a form of humanism that has in its foundations the enlightenment and its resulting postulates: of man, of the state and of social equilibrium. Sloterdijk re-relays Heidegger’s Letters on Humanism to say that the project of “human pacification” has spoken, it is necessary to rethink it, and old scientific, religious, and cultural dogmas may seem like answers, but in a careful analysis they are not, they have already been tested .
Pentecost is a Christian feast that speaks of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles, this metaphor is interesting for a “humanitarian turn” that can give a new breath to the human spirit, a look beyond prejudices, false prophets or skepticism.
A new spirit, really open to the dialogue of distinction, of all cultures and peoples, as well as group and collective dogmas, can give humanity a new breath.
Where can this come from, not from isolated actions, prophetic groups and “enlightened” but from a new way of thinking humanity, with a renewed spirit, coming from above. In the field of thought is undoubtedly the overcoming of idealism on one side and also the pragmatism of the other, the idea of the excluded third besides the A and the non-A, dualistic logic, or the third instructed as wanted by Michel Serres can lead to a third spirit in which contradiction is not a problem, but a solution.
In the biblical passage, 40 days after being cruxified and appearing resurrected always leaving peace, appears to the assembled disciples and says (Jn 20,21): “Again Jesus said:” Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, I also send you. ”
The ideas and mechanisms, including the technological ones, available for peacebuilding are already there, the amount of wealth produced would be sufficient for all peoples not to greed, what happens is the igorance of these mechanisms on the one hand, and on the other a certain abandonment of those proposals that initially seemed clear, here is the “sending”.
A new spirit on the actions for greater social justice, rebalancing the forces of nature (now will be necessary technology, the process is almost irreversible destruction) and a new impetus in actions against corruption, violence and disrespect to diversity are part of a new Pentecost for humanity, a renewed spirit is needed.
Organized cheering only favors A and not-A, it takes a third force, Maslow’s name in psychology, but here it means a broader, cultural sense.


The Philosophy of Michel Serres

06 Jun

I have always been impressed by Serres’s philosophy, but I could not make a synthesis, at first it seemed physical, sometimes metaphysical, sometimes chaotic, sometimes logical-mathematical, sometimes organized and schematic, other times poetic and chaotic.

It was his death, and the impossibility of saying new things through his mouth that made a synthesis, perhaps because he will never write, because whenever he wrote there was something new, there was light to each new work he wrote. In his text body variations clarifies his choice of character Harlequin: “Why does Harlequin wear cloths mingled, inlaid, striped, stained?

Because he imitated everyone and his masters, he acquired form and color from them. The density and depth of his clothes and the surface mosaic of his cape provide a certain idea of ​​the immense body memory. (…) By stripping and re-establishing them, Harlequin remembers the gestures (of the people, in the sense of masks or disguises) that the body schema stores. “(Serres, 2004, 79).

Serres’s philosophy is light and at the same time new, for him learning is invention, as philosophy is (Serres, 1991: 27), thus creating the figure of the “learned third”, which for one who starts from the mathematical logic, is precisely a rupture because between the A and the non-A, there is a third possibility: the learned one.

It thus creates the pedagogical society, for which it predicts a revolution in education, with information in full circulation because of new technologies, wrote this in 1997. Michel Serres is a leading philosopher, there is still no pedagogy that has a direct influence on the new type of pedagogical practice that the new technologies provide, his concept and miscegenation, of continuous learning has much to add to anyone who seriously studies the new paths of education.

It is necessary that a southpaw leans to the right and that the right hand to the left in order to awaken a certain animal stillness, which seems more prone to the mortal, which he calls “mortal sleep” and to warm each one.

It is necessary that the southpaw leans to the right and the right hand to the left in order to awaken thus from their animal stillness or their mortal slumber, to warm their paralysis, from which may arise a “learned third.”

Thank you Serres, go in peace to your “Legend of the Angels”, they wait you. 


Serres, Michel. Variações do Corpo (Variations on the Body). Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2004.

________. O Contrato Natural (The natural contract). Translation by Beatriz Sioux. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, 1991.


Order and chaos in Serres

05 Jun

Starting from Lucretius and Leibniz, the epistemology of Michel Serres is a strong opposition to positivism, which suppressed the question of Why? Putting in its place the how.
Lucretius was a visionary, while everyone was talking about the mechanics of solids, Lucretius promoted fluid mechanics, perhaps Bauman had cursed him.
]His theory of clinamen, that atoms, in their free fall into emptiness, deviate from their rectilinear trajectory as little as necessary to make it possible to say,
The work of Serres on Lucretius, De rerum natura (Of Nature), of the Latin poet, generally seen only as a poetic work, contains in its bulge the principle of turbulence, essential for the development of contemporary physics.
Moreover, the writings of Lucretius, dating from the first century BC, anticipated the theory of non-order, which today is called entropy in modern physics.
What happened in classical thought was that the deviation was absurd, because it was contrary to the principle of inertia, and that made experimentation difficult. Now deviation, strictly, is the principle of life, it is what determines the flows, to exist is rather if there is something that separates, that disjunct and that is the existent previous to stability and permanence.
In this sense it says that it is precisely from the noise, from the bifurcation, as a declination, a function of the rarity where we find something that if Batenson classified as “information is the difference that makes the difference”, distinct from the entropy, the diffuse disorder, is what he called neguentropia, the degree of order and predictability of a system.
Its declination, Serres joins the inclination of Leibniz, where nature is in an oblique figure that is constituted on a parallel background. It is the act of creating something, or recreating itself, birth that overcomes death, a deviation instead of nothingness, a bifurcation, reminds me of a figure of chaotic attractors and functions, to which Serres himself also sees relationships.
On top of it, one turns to something else, as in Heraclitus, there are retakes, re-beginnings, or just feedbacks and circles that form eddies that are undone again, “rolling on inclined planes.”
It is from these relations that the five senses of communication will be given and the third included, the main elements of the thought of Michel Serres.

Serres, M. The birth of Physics (in english), (in portugueses) O nascimento da física no texto de Lucrécio. Correntes e turbulências. Trad. Péricles Trevisan. São Carlos, Ed. Unesp e Edufscar, 2003


Inheritance of the Michel Serres

04 Jun

Deceased at age 88 on 1st. in June, its publisher Sophie Bancquart issued the following note: “Die in peace, surrounded by your family,” the pioneer in the study of new communication technologies, who among others Pierre Lévy as his student left us an inheritance.
In addition to his message of peace, he said that Hiroshima was the principle of his philosophy, in addition to the ecological message, declared that the earth is the third protagonist in our history, also left a book, which can say much of its synthesis.
Since 1958, teaching has become a fundamental part of his life. He was a specialist in Leibniz, a reason he was always one of my favorite authors, and to which he dedicated a book in 1968, Le système de Leibniz et ses modèles mathématiques, comparison between Leibniz and Pascal and the point of reference question.
But it was in the concept of miscegenation network that I found a more fundamental support for developing some of my deeper concepts about networks and their presence in the contemporary world, I find that his last book, “Morales Espiègles” ( Cosnuts mischievous), published in France in February, is also on the subject.
He created a character, the Harlequin, incarnating the new, science, education, pedagogy, nature and peace, as a critic of Cartesian thought, through a new poetics, while not having a deep criticism of society and contemporary culture.
Serres’s mestizo philosophy is his preoccupation with the almost irreversible rule of science over nature and man, but with the desire to stop this practice, he sees that not always the scientists themselves perceive the ways that can threaten life on the planet.
His trilogy includes three journeys (Serres, 2008, p.59): “for the world”, “for society” (Serres, 2008, p.60) and “for the sciences” in each journey, a mestizo knowledge, a third instruction, the possibility of a narrative of the new man.

Don’t fail to penetrate deeper philosophical thinking, when addressing “the immediate sensations, the corporal conducts, the very life, in the end, things as they are” (Serres, 2005, p.239), which reminds me of the thought about the senses, and the phenomenology of “things as they are,” states in the following sequence:
“Invents less concepts than characters: Hermes, Parasite, Hermaphrodite, The Third Learned, Harlequin and Pierrô, Atlas, Angels and Dominations, Hominescent and Incandescent, they all become characters who err in the landscapes of the world, which have in common the ability to vibrate between the person and the symbol, of allying the singular to the Universal. ”
That gives a landscape about his thought, contemporary and original in philosophy.
SERRES, M. The incandescente (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho / Mariza Perassi Bosco. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2005.
Serres, Michel. Ramos. Rio de Janeiro (in portuguese). Translation by Edgard de Assis Carvalho and Mariza Perassi Bosco. Bertrand Brasil, 2008.


Michel Serres dies

03 Jun

I get the news in the morning of the 1st. of June working at home, Michel Serres passed away, I remember several things of him that I gave in class for having appreciated by the new technologies and to make analyzes less pessimistic of this aspect.
I also remember his words about Hiroshima, who affirmed it as the sole objective of his philosophy, in the sense of peace, of course, he said that he had no influence from thinkers, but he was guiding nothing less than Bachelard, he lived with Jacques Monod, and did a published interview with Bruno Latour.
In this interview she stated: “it is carnally formed in this atrocious environment and has remained, since then, removed from all politics: power continues to mean only corpses and tortures to it”, the problem of violence has always been its main problem and hence its work .
He did not follow the traditional French epistemology that in his view is based on the separation between “sciences” and “humanities”, his perspective was to create a bridge between one field and another, the primacy of the course on the discourse (see that there is difference) , in short the search for a generalized theory of the place.
He wrote in The Leibniz System: “Through the most distant regions there is often an underground relationship that intuition alone can not attain, nor can immediate knowledge or discursive knowledge, but which can be attained, by a pure and refined formalism … The aptitude to the diverse is proportional to the initial purity.”
Alongside Michel Foucault, in the early days of the University of Vincennes (Paris-VIII) in 1968, he formed a generation of researchers and thinkers who had him as a great teacher.
Among the faceted ones of Serres, the one of historian of the sciences, in “Elements of History of Sciences” (1989) was revealed. Under his direction worked Authier, Isabelle Stender, Bruno Latour and Pierre Lévy, just to mention what is best known in Brazil.
He saw in the new technologies not a curse that cushioned relations, they were dampened by modernity and non-originating knowledge, he affirmed that a new Pedagogical Society is yet to be born.
He said in a prophetic tone, that our communications world is aging, giving birth to a pedagogical society, that of our children, where continuing education will continue for the rest of our lives, an increasingly rare work.
The universities at a distance, everywhere and always present, will replace campuses, closed ghettos for rich adolescents, concentration camps of knowledge … “(SERRES, 1995, p 56).
SERRES, M. The legend of the Angels (in Portuguese), São Paulo: Aleph, 1995.