Arquivo para June 10th, 2019

Idealism and morality

10 Jun

Dogmas and temporal truths seem to be the easiest and simplest answers at the height of the culture of reason, not the reason for reasoning and reflection, that reason which sought to abolish creative thinking, spirituality and the subjective taste of things: art, culture and religion.
Before penetrating the questions of ethics and aesthetics, Kant in his Work “Religion in the Limits of Simple Reason” will speak of Hercules and his works: “It is only after the defeat of the monsters that Hercules becomes a musician; before such work those good sisters retreat! (Kant, 2008).
One can read in the lucid preface to the Portuguese edition of Lusofonia (available in pdf) the reason why many theologians appealed to Kant, even though some felt that their demarcation of religion was too restricted to practical reason, they opened up and were enchanted with Kant.
Kant’s demand for a priori knowledge, in the case of religion, would become “a third form of human consciousness, feeling (FDE Schleiermacher, R. Otto) and still in the twentieth century, Catholic theology, the Jesuits Joseph Maréchal († 1944 ), Karl Rahner (1984) and Bernard Lonergan (1984) used Kant’s ‘transcendental’ elements to develop the notion of the dynamism of human intelligence, in synergy with the doctrine of being haurida in Thomas Aquinas to the totality of being and, consequently, to the problem of God “(Kant, 2008, p.5), of course this is a preface and not Kant himself.
The question of evil and morality are not in Kant any a priori as one might expect, since what is a priori are concepts more related to reason, mathematics and what he thinks as empirical.
What makes him a morally reprobate action is the maximum he takes for himself as subjective inclinations, as the basis of action.
Thus a decision taken according to the moral law (or not) is not a natural act, so an intelligible action can decide against the moral law, and so what it takes as moral law is the freedom to decide, the free will, said thus: “… therefore, the judgment that the author is an evil man cannot safely be based on experience (KANT, 2008, 26)
What moves idealism as a religion, and much of contemporary thought, while retaining religious and theologians, is a notion of the essential dynamism of human intelligence, its openness to the totality of being, and therefore to the problem of God.
For the idealists the opposite would be the abandonment of the concept of lierdade, then for morality, freedom is necessary as one of the predicates of the “morally good” and therefore also of the “morally bad.”
Necessary foundations are the construction of great modern institutions: the individual, the state and in some ways even what is thought of as “family.”
KANT, I. Religion on the Limits of Reason. Translation: Arthur Mourão. Lisbon: Editions 70, [1793] 2008.