RSS
 

Arquivo para July, 2019

Utilitarianism, philosophy and goods

31 Jul

Utilitarianism essentially sees social logic only for the goods they produce, as well as many currents of modernity, what is important is objectivity, the actual relationship with objects, and the essence of Being, its relation to the Other, and its culture. .

It thus becomes a dispute for power, money and mobilizing forces for the production of goods, no matter how these goods are distributed among different people, in different positions on the social scale, from different religious or cultural postures.

Professor Julia Markovits of Cornell University’s class, which gives an introduction to the moral aspects of utilitarianism, explains that one of the reasons that a simple disappointment of football fans together could produce a greater devaluation than a person’s pain would mean loss of values ​​associated with the soccer team, while the pain is only of the person.

He explains that according to philosopher Robert Nozick, the “utility monster” can transform an extremely good person, who transforms resources in direct relation to happiness, when more money and food we give to this person, the happier he is, but in the limit this It does not transform all ordinary people into a happy “general collectivity” because of utility.

The answer to utilitarianism is that this will not happen, because the opposite is true, the more resources we have the less impact any additional resources will have on our happiness.

If we think about accumulation this is not what happens, how much impact it has on a mega tech company account, while the same $ 100 can make a difference to a child in a poor region of the planet.

The subject may seem psychological or even sociological, but Robert Nozick was interested in the discussion of the state, so his book is called “Anarchy, State and Utopia” (2011), its original version is from 1974, so long before the fall of the Berlin wall, changes in Russia and the western world.

Nozick’s unique argument is that man chose to leave the “state of nature” and set up a kind of state whose existing morality consists of a future Minimum State, where some “laws” would work automatically, since of course it is no longer possible.

Apart from Martha Nussbaum’s recent book on “The Monarchy of Fear,” little or no literature penetrates the current conjuncture about the return of states as a force of repression and “order” to re-establish possible harmony.

He says of victims of injustice, including those practiced by the state: “What is permissible for victims of injustice to do in order to rectify the injustices committed against them, including the large number of injustices committed by people acting through government? I do not know of a complete or theoretically sophisticated approach to these issues. ”(NORZICK, 2011, p. 195).

He is the only author to criticize John Rawls’s utilitarianism on the issue of distribution and the only author to include in his critique Bernard Williams’s text on the fact that the state’s only action on inequality is the question of disease, curiously. Obama’s health plan that was attacked by Donald Trump. Addressing even Utopia, Nozick states that: “Life is not a race where everyone competes for a prize pre-set by someone…” (NOZICK, 2011, p. 305).

NOZICK, Robert. Anarchy, State and Utopia. Sao Paulo: WMF Martins Fontes, 2011. The following video explains these arguments, the 3rd. Julia Markovitz’s class about utilitarism:

 

Utilitarianism, economy and moral

30 Jul

The idea that it was consumerism and the production of goods in modernity that led humanity to a wave of accumulation of goods or capital is not entirely true, the fact that this was done as a way of feeding a capital-based society is rather one part of the matter, the other is what is thought of as life and happiness.
This current as an ethical doctrine that argues that goods promote happiness is not the one that arises from the beginning, liberalism defends usury and capitalization at first, the novels by Honoré de Balzac, which even Marx liked to read, show this anatomy of society liberalism of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, utilitarianism later matured with the idea that goods lead to greater happiness, notably with Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873).
In Balzac’s novels the figures of Father Goriot, named in the Human Comedy organized by the Brazilian Paulo Rónai, received in the Portuguese edition the name of Uncle Goriot, is a novel that two ungrateful daughters take everything from their father after leaving him (they were not even on their deathbed) they spend their goods on true liberalism in Paris in 1819, the period of the restoration of the French Bourbon monarchy.
Father Gouriot says on his deathbed: “Ah, my friend, do not marry, have no children! you give them life and they give you death, ”as they see their daughters spend their accumulated possessions. It is not unique to this period, as in King Lear also we note that two daughters also abandon their father because of his throne and only one will follow faithful to their father, and the Shakespeare period to remember is around the year 1605.
Utilitarianism is thus a current born in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that influenced the idea that more goods is more happiness, from this the idea that more development must also be a greater social production of goods, not forgetting that this is only an aspect of happiness.
Mill was a member of the British Parliament in 1865, and defended individual rights, including petitioning to extend the vote to women, so this defense is initially the defense of a liberal right.
Even the studies of political economy were done by Mill, who was an economist, having studied Adam Smith, David Ricardo, the physiocrats and mercantilism, and is not, therefore, an exclusivity of Marx, which is in some way aligned with Mill’s thinking, essentially in the aspect of economicism and utilitarianism, they lack the human aspect.
Interestingly, Stuart Mill defends the distribution of wealth, he writes verbatim: “The distribution of wealth, therefore, depends on the laws and customs of society,” which is in volume 2 of its Principles of Political Economy (1983).
Julia Markovits (Cornell University) presents video an introduction to the moral theory of utilitarismo:

 

The essential, the useful and the happiness

29 Jul

The times of a life in nature, when food was produced by medieval farmers, when many consumer products were handcrafted, had a look at nature, at the possibility of having a life in the essentials is first of all these days, it is the ability to forgo many things, make the list of the essentials and live well each day, and solve the problems without accumulating them and without procrastinating them.
The list of usefulness should not lead us to utilitarianism, easy formulas of happiness bring many people distress over time, frustration over unearned goods, unreached social positions, and if we have the essentials list, they are not needed.
What is useful then should be: healthy food, comfortable clothes and shoes, reading the news of the day without intoxication, there is a lot of toxic reading and social media “media” is not exclusive, newspapers and TV there is little culture and good news, remain calm even when it is not possible and acquire goods honestly, while taking care of those other than the essentials.
Happiness has no magic formulas as some ill-worked philosophies, or poorly deepened spiritualities suggest, and is certainly not indulging in consumption and futility.
Art, music, poetry and painting are necessary, as Victor Hugo said: “art is as useful as it is useful”, and perhaps even more in the days of agitation, stress and tiredness of a society that gives little respite and tranquility.
There are likely to be people who are happy with the accumulated goods, but they will one day run out and maturity will reflect on what love, utility, and peace are in a world without peace.
The meditation of the French Buddhist monk Matthieu Ricard, while focusing inwardly, contains some good Western reflections and at least made me laugh and cheer:

 

The Essentials List

26 Jul

We carry too many burdens, not just our bags, bags, even books and too much to do, because the contemporary world has difficulty making the list of the essentials.
Taking care of small household chores, not just leaving them to others, taking work seriously and taking time to rest, also dealing with what can get us out of the stress and anxiety of everyday life, having time for family members and to meditate , contemplate or even just think.
Baroque paintings, paintings and music seem to speak of a still world, too calm for my taste, some would say, but the aspects of flowers, bodegons, and still life indicate something else that is hard to see these days: flow power.
It is not the energy of force, but the energy of soul and spirit, the one that can really put us in the essentials in the face of such a troubled life, full of conflict and contradictory values, even if it is claimed to have difficulty living, it is the flow of everyday life, which is not the flow of life, of energy can be said of baroque art.
Some form of spirituality and inner well-being is responsible for harmony and life on the outside, even though daily life pushes us in the opposite direction, we must have the ability to “get out of the conventional” to make the list of essentials. When we were asked by the apostles to teach them how to pray, we could think of meditating or even just thinking for people who have no religious background.
One can for all indicate the Lord’s Prayer, the one in the “heavens” not far away, but contemplative and in Being.
May his name be holy in present terms, let meditation and contemplation always be present, may your kingdom of peace and harmony come, if not from the outside, to which we are fighting, at least the interior to face conjunctural difficulties.
And lastly, let us work for daily bread, without seeking excess and consumerism, that we may be able to forgive and be forgiven to go beyond the daily conflict. And deliver us from the evil of war, the destruction of nature, and all social ills.

 

Baroque and its expressions in the arts

25 Jul

The manifestation of the Baroque took place mainly in the fine arts, music and literature, each of these spheres expressing in a particular way the fusion between the taste for earthly things and salvation by faith, different from the Renaissance statement that affirmed human and human values. Enlightenment who tried to abolish the questions of faith with the “sapere audi”.
There are several possible views, but generally those who see the faith as a single argument criticize dualism with human values, while anthropocentric Enlightenment will criticize a “return” to religious values.
Still life, is precisely the counterpoint with the Enlightenment of “domain of nature”, today we can see the ominous consequences of the imbalance of this proposal with the possibility of the exhaustion of natural sources of life, including water and air.
The consequences of this period in the religious field were wars provoked by schisms and religious intolerance, the so-called 30-year war (1618-1648) is in fact a general way of talking about wars of European nations that emerged from 1618 until the Westphalia treaty where principles of “tolerance” were traced.
The main criticism is excess, preciousness or exaggeration in forms, to which the Brazilian artist Iole de Freitas answers: “Baroque does not mean excess, but an overflow of form and a flow of energy”, where faith and reason can be conjugate.
Two interesting cases are the post-Renaissance poet Giambattista Marino (1569-1625). whose work was also criticized for preciousness, and pre-Renaissance artist Piero dela Francesca (1415-1492), that also works on perspective and human faces were studies that influenced renaissance and there is also a certain geometric “preciousness” in it.
The influences on art and culture of various authors can be understood as a flow of energy, as Iole de Freitas says.
Iole de Freitas’s untitled work (photo) of 2011, as well as almost all of his work, are good representatives of this flow.

 

Agnus dei´s Josefa, Óbidos, PT

24 Jul

This main work Josefa d’Ayala and Cabrera, or Josefa d´Óbidos (1630-1684), was a baroque painter in the city of Óbidos, her main work was Agnus Dei, whose painting is in the Évora museum.

The painting “Cordeiro Pascal Agnus Dei” was painted between 1660 and 1670 and is in the Museum of Évora, being one of his main works, but it is for the next post.

Its baroque style of still life is characteristic of the period called “Siglo d’Oro” of the arts. There was a new glimpse of nature by integrating floreros, scenes of hunting and representation of animals and still life in the painting.

Strong Iberian influence, among them of Francisco de Zurbarán, see Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose of the Iberian style of the “bodegóns” and “vases”, of the time.

The Christian influence is also in the work, which can be observed by the grapes, two branches of wheat below and details of the leaves of the vines, besides the Lamb himself.

 

 

Josefa, Óbidos, painting Portugal´s barroque

23 Jul

Josefa d’Ayala and Cabrera, a Josefa d’Óbidos (1630-1684), daughter of father, painter Baltazar Gomes Figueira. and Spanish mother D. Catarina de Ayala Camacho Cabrera Romero, noble Andalusian.

The father is in danger in Seville in 1626 to follow ephemeral military career. Josefa was the first daughter of her eight children, having been patronized by a famous Sevillian painter, Francisco de Herrera, el Velho. who is the master of Josefa’s father in Spain.

The return to Portugal of Baltazar and D. Catarina, in 1634 (until then made in 4 years), is not a case that the woman returned with her parents and a sister Luisa (born in 1632).

He will probably stay in Seville during his childhood with his father. Juan Ortiz de Ayala, collector and amateur of Fine Arts and his godfather Francisco de Herrera.

Josefa meets the family in Óbidos in 1647. It will be in Coimbra, that realizes its first work: the engraving “Santa Catarina”, signed by Jozepha d’Alla. Coimbra 1646.

It was important for Josefa to stay in Coimbra, in the Augustinian Convent of Santa Ana (1644-47), since it was a great source of information and instruction in the seventeenth century.

It will have been through the office of the father or the convent that Josefa de Óbidos will have had access to an engraving of Italo-Flemish origin, available free of charge in an office of any medium painter of the time, or in the library of any convent.

A short video of RTP shows the work of Josefa de Óbidos:

http://ensina.rtp.pt/artigo/josefa-de-obidos-1630-ou1634-1684/

 

 

Óbidos, the Portuguese medieval city

22 Jul

The city of Óbidos, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, the little towns are villages, although they have municipal council, are linked to a district and this city is linked to the district of Leiria, in the province of Extremadura, the center has 2200 inhabitants , but the whole region has almost 12 thousand.

The city has a castle with walls, considered one of the 7 wonders of Portugal, where you can live with medieval aspects, this week for example, there is the medieval festival, but the project “Literary Village” turned Óbidos into Literary City by UNESCO.

It is 80 kilometers from Lisbon, has three cross streets, Rua Direita, Rua do Facho and Josefa d’Óbidos, a tribute to the main baroque artist of the city, post tomorrow. There are vestiges that Óbidos is inhabited from primitive peoples, its logistics near the sea, the climate and the fortification of defenses were in this region also the Romans, the Muslims and in the year 1148, after the conquest of Santarém and Lisbon by D. Afonso Henriques, was also taken from the Arabs.

There is near the Lagoa (lagoon) d’Óbidos, it is possible for the real road, being like lagoon easier of defense and also with exits to the sea in several points, going from the Beach of Bom Sucesso to the Praia da Foz do Arelho (Beach of the Foothills of the Sea Arelho), bypassing the Lagoon.

As for the name, the word comes from the Latin Oppidus, which means “fortified city”, there are signs that the emperor Cesar Augustus erected the city in the late 1st century BC. This week Óbidos holds the Medieval Festival, and there will be a doctoral meeting of Digital Art from the Open University.

The video below shows the Medieval Festival of last year:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QeVOXpiKBC4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

in Balsamão, away from the hustle and bustle

19 Jul

The movement to rest, to meditate and to dive deep in the Being, is a process of alienation of the political, social and economic crises. .
One can and should recover life from day to day, but with renewed energy, at the suggestion of a friend arriving in Portugal Marians of the Immaculate Conception.
It stands on top of Mount Morais, which is one of the five levels of the world, and the second is more important than Psalm 124, which says, “As Jerusalem surrounded thereby, protect your people / agora and forever.”
Climbing the terrace to the belvedere, with the Sierra de Bornes around, the olive groves of Chacim in the background, and the Abilheira thermal baths below, the tons of sunset are seen in this sunny period.
The story of the Polish book Casimir Wyszynski (1700-1755) described it as follows: “Here we are surrounded by rivers, fields, orchards, vineyards, meadows, olive trees and fruits of various kinds, and on this hill there are forests, trees, beautiful oaks.”
He is being formed by a monastery there, who already lived and called Brother Casimiro with his companion of grace Joao de Deus, who accepted and dressed to integrate a new order.
Does the desire to retreat and meditate to hear the deep voices in us, is also what Jesus means to care about his faith? Jesus and not to help the services of the house, seeing Jesus rebuke her (Luke 10,42): “Martha, Martha! You are worried and anxious for many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary chose a better place and this is not the one.”
It takes time to breathe, to rest and re-establish as energies.

 

Activism and the human condition

18 Jul

Part of the human “weariness” of our time is that we have decided to take to the extreme what the philosophers and mystics call “active life”, Hannah Arendt in “The Human Condition” addressed the subject, more recently Byung Chul-Han more recently in ” The society of fatigue “also addresses the issue.
It is placed next to the “contemplative life”, sometimes as opposed and at other times as complementary, the Mystic Saint Gregory Nazianus meditated and wrote on the subject, Chul-Han recovered some of these concepts.
In Arendt’s term “human condition” (2007), the term “active” refers to three essential human activities: labor, work, action, quoted in English because in portuguese no there is differentiation from the terms “labor” and “work” which corresponds to the artificialism of human existence, for example, when using machines, while Labor corresponds to the biological process of the human body as a condition for producing life.
But the action, it is for Arendt is the human condition of plurality, is mediated by things to put men in contact with each other, for this the author sees as a plurality that is tied to the fact that they are men, and not man to inhabit the Earth.
The author emphasizes that the world in which the active life takes place consists of things done by human activities; however, these things can exist only for the sake of men, and therefore they also condition them, men come into contact, and thereby make them It is immediately a condition of their existence, we live by what we do.
However the contemporary world has led people to stress, depression and now Burnout syndrome, the theme of the society of fatigue, Byung Chul-Han.
Chul-Han draws attention to the absence of contemplation, contemplative life, as part of the human need to have balance, energy and forces for action.
The biblical reading says, “Twenty to me all you who are weary” (Mt 11:28) and says the same passage “and learn from me, for I am meek and lowly in heart” (Mt 11:29).
ARENDT, Hannah. A Condição Humana. 10ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Forense Universitária, 2007.