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Arquivo para September, 2019

Idealism: back to the pre-Socratic

18 Sep

Karl Popper knew, the Vienna circle knew, and Husserl knew that to discuss the contemporary crisis it was necessary to return to idealism, the great foundation of contemporary Enlightenment, but Popper’s thesis goes deeper than we should return to the pre-Socrates.

Both Wittgenstein and Popper are known to have their connections with the Vienna Circle questioned, as a thought, but as an influence they certainly brought the questioning root of logical positivism in general, and of conventional Kantism in particular, a critique of idealism and enlightenment. resulting from it due to the detected crisis of science.

Both speak of a return to cosmology, although Popper claims “the Tractatus was a cosmological (albeit crude) treatise and because his theory of knowledge was closely linked to cosmology” (Popper, 2014, p. 2), rather than linguistic philosophy, as many of Wittgenstein’s readers suppose, clippings are always complicated.

He will explain that “specialization may be a temptation for the scientist… for the philosopher, it is a sin” (idem), but unfortunately it has happened, philosophy is now a “department” as if the other sciences did not do it implicitly (or explicitly by bad practices) his theories.

Ironic with the Baconian spirit, he was the first in modern science to appeal to empiricist “practice,” and Popper claims all science (I would say almost every thought except the refusal to think that it is more serious): “every science starts from the observation and then, slowly and cautiously, moves towards the theory ”(Popper, 2014, p. 3), the curious thing is that they use Popper himself to affirm this, poor reading, the mediocracy of“ illiteracy ”. secondary”.

His thesis is that rationality departed from Tales of Mileno and the Ionian school, and quotes it verbatim from the fragment [15]: “that the earth is sustained by water upon which it moves like a boat. If we say there is an earthquake, the earth is being shaken by the movement of the water ”(Popper, p. 4), amazed rationalism was born along with earth moving.

Compatible with the Baconian myth, Popper states in the following passage: “The purpose of the Baconian myth is to explain why scientific statements are true, indicating that observation is the“ true origin ”of our scientific knowledge” (idem), of course, he questions. This and its purpose is to unveil the idealistic building from antiquity.

Who is going to question Tales’s idea is Anaximander in suggesting the earth as a drum, but supported by nothing, in Popper’s quote from the fragment [A 11]: “… it is supported by nothing, but remains stationary because it is equally distant of all other things.

Its shape is […] like that of a drum […]. We walk on one of its plant surfaces, while the other is on the opposite side. ”(Cit. POPPER, 2014, p. 4).

It states shortly afterwards “it made possible Aristarchus and Copernicus’ theories.” (Idem), but her idea was bold because it was about seeing the Earth freely suspended in the middle of space, and perhaps by observation, there were oceans of all ages.

On the other hand, Tales’s idea seemed natural. It is from there and from Xenophanes that Popper will build the cosmology of Parmenides, his disciple, where immutable reality, the immobile Earth is presented as a kind of logical proof (Popper, 2014, p. 14), where his idea will come from. from the one, from the undivided from a single premise, “that which is not is not,” where nothing, that which is not, does not exist. In this world full of Parmenides, there is no room for movement, this is its cosmology, which is what we refer to from the preface, when Popper stated that there is no ontology in it.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.

 

Idealisms and science

17 Sep

The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were marked by scientific, technical achievements due to the Industrial Revolution, with a world-wide expanding and flourishing trade, which gave rise to confidence that humanity seemed to flourish and history ruled by Reason, as the Enlightenment alike triumph.

With few dissonant voices, Kierkegaard first and then Nietzsche and Schopenhauer, the rest seemed to flow in a full and satisfying turn, the colonies were not spoken, and the Arab and Eastern world seemed to submit to the Western order, but there was something to disturb the colonial struggles. and the danger of war, which would see its outbreak in the 19th century. The science that seemed to do so much had an Achilles heel, had not yet solved the problem of social disputes, not only that which subjected workers and colonies, but especially the trade wars and disputes that came to subject the defeated.

It was the exacerbation of nationalism, which now returns, the trade war between nations, now between the US and China, but also between Iran and Saudi Arabia, that made the first to be called war of war, with 10 million dead. Amid the two wars emerged the Vienna Circle, neopositivism and neologicism, among several other names a prominent scientific name was Karl Popper, among others, such as Godel, Carnap, Hans Kelsen and Moritz Schlick.

In the scientific field besides Husserl who criticizes the method, Popper will also propose that the positivist inductive method presented itself to science as a volatile knowledge, which could not guarantee anything about the constancy of observed facts, and it is not possible to affirm that any assumption is the truth. with absolute precision, what Heisenberg physics already said.

But his return to Parmenides is more essential, where idealism began, and there is its ontological root: ‘being is’ and ‘non-being is not’, there is no contradiction or third hypothesis.

By stating in the previous post the return to root, it will not be in its heyday of German idealism, or even Hegel’s sacralization, Marx will say that there are new against old Hegelians, but in the origin we will find something essence to the idealism and enlightenment described by Karl Popper .

In the book “The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment” (Popper, 2014) that we find several pearls of idealistic foundations, the first in the preface by editor Arne Friemuth Petersen, he states that he gave the lecture quoting “To be or not Of Hamlet, to which Popper himself interrupted, stating more or less this:

“You see, Parmenides was neither a language analyst nor an ontologist, but a cosmologist. Your “Being” has nothing to do with ontology. ”(Popper, XIII, 2014).

I was also amazed to read this right from the preface to the book that speaks of the worldview at the origin of idealism and also of the Enlightenment, not only in Parmenides, but according to Popper himself also in Xenophanes cosmology and Parmenides epistemology (page XV). , which comes to clarify a non-rational origin, as one might suppose, he will propose that Heraclitus (everything changes) and Parmenides (nothing changes) “were reconciled and combined in modern science” (p. XX), and thus faces of it. currency.

In the notes of the Brazilian post-impression, fragments found after printing, there are several notes by Popper, the seventh that says: “Historical hypothesis: Tales is the inventor of the rational discussion method”, new surprise, but the Enlightenment was born there. back.

POPPER, K. O Mundo de Parmênides: ensaios sobre o iluminismo pré-socrático (The World of Parmenides: Essays on Pre-Socratic Enlightenment), trad. Roberto Leal Ferreira, São Paulo UNESP editor, 2014.

 

 

Mediocracy and ignorance

16 Sep

Mediocracy is one that brings “middle” knowledge above all, always has a ready opinion, based on “doxa” never in epistemy, and if it has episteme (much of classical epistemology this is) it is a set of rules and schemes that treat an object but ignore its fundamentals.
Shortly after World War II, it was Laurence J. Peter and Raymond Hull who developed this, and I was glad to see the quote in daily El Pais, which is: “systemic processes [that] enable those with average levels of competence to rise to positions. of power, driving both the supercompetent and the totally incompetent out of their way, ”can be seen in schools, political and religious groups where“ rebels ”are dismissed.
Also now Youtubers who speak of politics, philosophy and even theology, are many theologians of apocalypse and puritanism of false morals, while good readings and deepening are dispensed with on any subject.
But El País newspaper cites an author and a principle he did not know, “the secondary illiterate,” an expression coined by Hans Magnus Enzensberger, who uses this for people who have a wealth of useful knowledge that, however, does not lead him to question the intellectual foundations that produced that knowledge.
I insisted with my students and in various posts here the discussion of the foundations, especially of idealism and enlightenment that guide much of the reasoning and the “best minds” of this “secondary illiteracy”, make catch phrases, judge context by isolated facts, or refer to some extraordinary theoretical principle, generally know only the principle and not the text from which it originated, they take away unprepared minds and hearts, eager for something new.
I have not, never had, and never intend to exhaust the fundamentals, but we must go in search of these, warns Edgar Morin in the book “In Search of the Lost Fundamentals”, the great architect of the complexity method, applauded but badly read.
Also reading the novels, it is possible that some have read Stendhal, Balzac, Tolstoy, and even more contemporary Albert Camus, or Oscar Wilde’s “Portrait of Dorian Gray,” but few know or read a worthy representative of Generation X, Bret Easton Ellon, or Paul Auster who wrote “In the Land of Last Things” showing a sober future of valuelessness, unrestrained consumption and a constant search for death or whatever. This is not an exercise in arrogance, without naming names I see successful authors (perhaps cites Paulo Coelho) who sell millions of books and that the time spent reading this is the same to read something that speaks more about the contemporary world and its realities. Haruki Murakami, for example, explains why young people feel tortured, is a Nobel candidate. But all this is not new, to take apart the easy speech of… now with the new media… Robert Musil, in “The Young Törless,” speaks of cruelty as he moves into adulthood at a military school, where he learns cruelty. , morality and sexuality. His is the phrase used in the quoted report from El País: “If stupidity […] did not perfectly resemble progress, skill, hope and improvement, no one would want to be stupid,” said this before World War I. World, almost a prophecy.

 

Naming elephant and worldview

13 Sep

Deceased in February last year, American and Christian philosopher James W. Sire (1933-2018) did extensive research behind the worldview issue, said it took 30 years, published in 2004, probably to begin to address the theme in 1974.

Also his worldview must be reread, I mean that from 1974 to 2004 the world underwent transformations that it deepened, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the cold war that now seems to be reborn, the fall of dictatorships that seem to come back in all over the planet.

I have not read the book, but one of the book’s chapters and also its commentators have helped formulate an idea, though inaccurate, of his main book Naming the Elephant: Worldview as a Concept, publisher IVP Academic), and the chapter I refer to is the Definitions of Worldview: from Dilthey to Naugle, which in the title is suggestive of some idealism which the text confirms early on, is available on google Books.

It says at the beginning of Chapter 2 that the origin of the term Weltanschauung originated with Kant (1724-1804), “but only in passing,” and quotes Dilthey verbatim: “to denote a set of beliefs that underlie and shape all human thought and action.” ”(Sire, 2004, p. 23), denoting a set of beliefs that underpin and shape all human thought and action.

Although appropriate, perhaps the most thorough analysis of the term, Heidegger’s reading which updated and developed the subject in a broader sense than that of Kant and Dilthey is lacking, and Hans Georg Gadamer will rightly criticize Dilthey’s conception of the idealist.

To follow the concept of Weltanschauung Cites Nietszche, Wittgenstein, with tours of Plato and Descartes, Foucault and passing Rorthy art, and then begins to address evangelical Christian authors (Reformed is the name abroad), James Orr, Abraham Kuyper , Herman Dooyeweerd, Ronald Nash until he comes to what he calls the new synthesis that would be David Naugle.

However, never runs away from idealism, says he goes from ontology to hermeneutics (not the other way around) and says that this synthetic view is characterized by a “system”. semiotic of narrative signs ”(Sire, 2004, p. 42) quoting Naugle who made such a synthesis. However, the true synthesis hidden behind the text, with a clear nominalist view and the idea of ​​a semiotic system, reveals itself by quoting the biblical text: “Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe me also, referring to the biblical passage in John 14: 1, because you then ignore the text that says, “In my father’s house are many mansions.”

The idea of ​​signs, myths and symbols embedded in narratives that represent a worldview is not negligible, and it is even important, however any view that is solely about narrative does not do the work of removing the anthropological view and the real “historical view”.  Of what happened, being the idealist and unreal vision of Dilthey’s historicism.

There is another more significant passage, the so-called return of the prodigal son (Luke 15:10: 32), which some idealistic authors and exegetes dislike the name, seeking to idolize the eldest son who stayed at home with his father, who is more conservative. therefore, but also his prodigal son, his defect, went to the world to experiment.

The fact that he returned is commendable, but what a worldview he brought from his deviance, in fact their father is merciful to his conservative and rebel. 

 

Worldview or Cosmicview

12 Sep

Husserl’s concept of the world of life evolves into Heidegger’s Weltanschauung, his student, and is hasty to immediately link it to the worldview, just as both have a closer meaning than what some say is “superior” to the “world of life.” life ”, but in everyday philosophy we do not even get there, they still speak of“ theory ”the empiricists and idealists.
To the letter in German Welt – world, chauen look, means nothing other than a viewpoint on the conception of the world, but it was not just ‘philosophy’ but a vision beyond.
Ronald Nash, a Reformed theologian, gives a definition that seems to encompass many more and be more precise: “Life’s most important set of beliefs… is a conceptual framework by which we consciously or unconsciously apply or adjust all the things we believe, and interpret and judge reality, ”since we know even by normal science only 4% of the universe, that is, baryonic matter, and only now do we penetrate energy and dark mass with black hole studies.
Indigenous religiosity, especially Andean, as an example, has a complex view of theological interaction between original elements (what we call original culture), which interacted with phenomena and ideologies produced in modernity, even Christianity comes in with concepts of literacy. and I work with methods of modernity.
This has caused an interpenetration and reinvention of worldview that can and should be related to a worldview, the link with nature and the cosmos, with animals and which has led to the syncretism and reinvention of culture itself (Geertz 1978), and many other studies point to this worldview, such as Peruvian Maria Rostworowski and Colombian scholar Berna Carolina among others.
What purely economic or ideological studies do not understand is that cultural meanings change according to culture and its own worldview, it is impossible to treat it only with modern, colonialist or even pseudo-liberating categories.
It is necessary to enter the culture itself, to understand its originality, what is deep in the soul of these peoples, without this, colonialism with other names is reinvented.
GEERTZ, Clifford. A interpretação das culturas. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1978.

 

Physical cosmovision

11 Sep

Some people are impressed by flat earth theory, or those who do not believe that it is possible to step on the moon and that man has not undertaken this adventure, but quickly believe in miracles, meteors that will collide with the earth and other crazy things.
Stephen Hawking died last year, shortly before he gave an American TV interview, and when American astrophysicist Neil Tyson asked Hawking, “What was there before the Big Bang?” He replied that nothing, maybe there was matter or something, but did not follow the laws of physics, so at the origin there is a meta-physics, or a paraphysics, so the laws of physics and matter were not worth it, but of course there may be a kind of matter.
With his Brief History of Time, Hawking gained fame in the 1960s by explaining the theory of the uniqueness of spacetime, applying it to the logic of black holes throughout the universe, and for those who understand and embrace this worldview it has changed what we think of. science and religion.
It is good to remember that Fr. Teilhard Chardin (1881-1955), before this had already formulated a theory of the Universe, and even Augustine of Hippo (354-430) admitted the Big Bang not with this name of course, but the formation of the universe and the planets. Hawking also agrees with the biblical text that there was a great burst of light, about 13.8 billion years, and from it a dense sphere of matter was expanding.
Hawking gained international fame in formulating, in the 1960s, the theory of the uniqueness of spacetime, applying the logic of black holes to the entire universe. It has also changed the way we view science today, helping to spread physics and astrophysics.
Therefore, what existed before cannot be contemplated in any theory we formulate to explain our current observations. For Hawking, no law of physics applies until the Big Bang occurs.
The universe has evolved independently of what it was before. In 2014 the story of Hawking’s life was told in the Oscar-winning movie “Theory of Everything” (below), but what was before the Big Bang is a big mystery.

 

Antimatter and worldview

10 Sep

By Christmas 2016, the particle accelerator, known for the discovery of the Higgs particle, also called the God particle, was able to produce an antimatter, but precisely the antihydrogen, which for simplicity is supposed to be just like Helium. first substances produced in the Big Bang.
Many people, including scientists, in saying that matter and antimatter themselves produce, believe this rival the idea that God (or God in nonmonotist religions) created the universe, but the most important result would be that matter and antimatter have characteristics. similar, and this should be done by spectroscopic analysis.
At least in the case of Hydrogen, it is to prove that hydrogen and antihydrogen have identical spectroscopic characteristics, predicted in the model called Standard Physics that unifies all physics and gives matter the revelation as “autonomous” and “self-sufficient”. , that is to say it produces itself without needing an external form, this has not yet been proved.
This project is called ALPHA (this is Alpha and Omega, beginning and end), and according to project researcher Jeffrey Hangst this “is a dream come true, it was to this end that he started the project 23 years ago. , “To be able to look at such a transition in an antihydrogen particle.”
According to him, there is still much to do, adding that the discovery has opened “a whole variant of physics”, Jeffrey Hangst, head of CERN’s ALPHA project, said “this is a dream come true.”, and he agree: “that’s what I predisposed myself to 20 years ago: to be able to look at such a transition in an anti-hydrogen particle”.
Much remains to be done, but I can say right now: this is the biggest step in my career and in the history of this kind of experience.”
Hangst assumed, ensuring that this discovery“ opens up a whole new variant of physics. ”
The video below explains what the ALPHA project is:

 

A worldview beyond time

09 Sep

Aristarchus of Samos (320 BC – 250 BC) organized a cosmology far ahead of his time, what was known to date was the studies of Pythagoras (571-390 BC) and Heraclides (390-310 BC), who claimed that the stars were immobile that the earth was the center of the universe, only Mercury and Venus would orbit around the sun. While flourishing Euclid’s Geometry (300 BC – ?).
Aristarchus which also had works on optics, music and mechanics, astronomy and astrology, invited by Ptalomeu I will compose the famous Academy of Alexandria, and his influence on the Renaissance will in particular influence his studies on proportions and projections, and although others are cited, Piero dela Francesca (1415-1942) is the great success of Euclidean geometry in the Quattrocent Renaissance.
Aristarchus’ view far ahead of his time was that the earth revolved around the south, and the moon revolved around the earth, thought of two experiments to measure Earth’s radio and the distance from Earth to the Sun.
The experiment thought was to build a tower facing the sea and knowing the height of the tower and the angle between the sea horizon (where there is less distortion thinking the earth as a sphere), can similarity of triangles calculate the radius of the Earth, the The error was small for the measurement difficulties of the time, very close to the 6 378 km of the equatorial radius.
If an object is 1 ° from some measurement point, that object is necessarily 57 times its size, because the tangent of 1 ° is about 0.01745 (see figure) see figure and so Aristarchus calculated the radius of the earth.
The second experiment, knowing the radius of the earth was to find the distance to the sun, he knew that during the full moon, under the average 31 minute angle of the arc (half of 1) tells us that this measurement will be 115 times its diameter, and we can find the distance from the earth to the moon, using again the tangent (he found an angle of 87º) one can measure the distance to the sun that gave 7 million and 300 thousand kilometers, in fact the angle was 89º853´, and the distance between the earth and the sun is 150 million km.
Carl Sagan makes a beautiful presentation and Aristarchus of Samos and his worldview beyond his time:

Source: Costa, J. R. V. Aristarco de Samos e a distância Terra-Sol. Astronomia no Zênite, jul 2000. Disponível em: http://www.zenite.nu/aristarco-de-samos-e-a-distancia-terra-sol/

 

New worldview and future

06 Sep

Tied to preconceptions and the worldview that is gradually overcome by reality can do little or nothing to make the future come true, the crisis is wider than the economic warns us Edgar Morin, is not the problem of technique, but of Being , to see the Other that is not the same, to leave worlds limited by limited worldviews and that admit no others.
This means abandoning many things that are dear to us, not the principles, but the ability to review them for even greater principles that include EVERYONE and not just the self or US of selfish, closed groups.
Quantum physics, dark bodies and energies (not holes, but still unknown matter and energy), show how limited our worldview is.
It is not about wisdom or phrases made superficial, theologies made by careful analysis of reading the text, the hermeneutic circle is precisely the possibility of a textual reading from the admission of preconceptions, seen here positively, the Indeed, we can accept another worldview with a different preconception from mine.
Invited to participate in the nascent Christian community, Jesus was also asking his disciples to abandon the ancient worldview of family attachments, work, and riches, but despite the growth of Christianity over millennia (now in reverse), this view has been misunderstood and misunderstood. by the exegetes.
In Luke 14.27: 30, the Master invites them to leave behind their worldviews to follow him: “He who does not carry his cross and walk behind me cannot be my disciple.
In fact, which of you, wanting to build a tower, does not sit first and calculate the expenses, to see if it has enough to finish? Otherwise, it will lay the foundation and will not be able to finish.
And all who see this will begin to mock, saying, “This man began to build and was unable to finish!”, But the contemporary step is bigger.
Yellow September requires that you see the Other not as someone with the same rights as US.

 

Change thinking and teach to live

05 Sep

When we propose a model that is not that of the world of life, Husserl made a philosophy of it, his Lebenswelt, Habermas made it a sociology, Heidegger and Gadamer incorporate it in his thoughts, but the end that is life if not learning.
The central problem of seeking a “clearing” is that we create models too far from life, from its defense including nature, dignity and living itself, we are in a Yellow September, whose theme is none other than to say that it is worthwhile. It is worth living.
thought”.
Clinging to already outdated methods and models, logicists and neopositivists, it is not pointed out “the nature of knowledge, which itself contains the risk of error and illusion” (MORIN, 2015, p. 16).
The great complexity theorist proposes, first of all, a return to philosophy (in the sense of primary thinking) in its Socratic condition of dialogue, Aristotelian (in the sense among others, of the organization of information), Platonic (questioning of appearances), and even pre-Socratic (questioning the world, inserting knowledge in modern cosmology), finally cannot teach life without knowing that it has dilemmas, errors and options.
Morin, who could boast of wisdom by age, by intense intellectual activity, from the pedestal of those full of certainties, no doubt or misconceptions that we see parading through the gyms and public stands of devouring and unquestioning media.
Morin seeks to “conceive the instruments of a thought that is pertinent because it is complex” (Morin, 2015, p. 23), and we see the barbarism of dogma and little elaborated certainties.
Ready-made phrases, self-help manuals, (mainly economic) laissez-faire, rudeness, and ideological hysteria deepen today’s cultural, humanitarian, and social crisis.
It scares me that book readers are so sure with so little thought, in fact criticism of thought grows and the praise of ignorance seems to win any argument.
Morin encourages us and brings us to a still visible and possible future, his lecture at the Frontier of Thought (2016) is a hope and a deepening that sheds new light.

MORIN, Edgar: Ensinar a viver: manifesto para mudar a educação. Trad. Edgard de Assis Carvalho e Mariza Perassi Bosco. Porto Alegre: Sulina, 2015