Arquivo para November 19th, 2019

Popper and the induction

19 Nov

Idealism had a complement without which the “world of ideas” would become only metaphysical, just what it thought it denied, its complement was empiricism, and that is the question now.

While idealism will find its climax in Hegel, modern materialist theories are also Hegelian, the issue of empiricism is more recent and can be said unresolved, at least at the theoretical level, Popper said on this subject: “The formulations that have now become traditional are historically very recent in date: they spring from Hume’s critique of induction and its impact on the common sense theory of knowledge” (Popper, 1972, p. 14), he goes on. quote Bertrand Russell, but there were others.

Popper summarizes Hume’s proposal on two levels, one that will use the acronym HL (Logical Problem) and one that will use the acronym HPS (Psychological Problem), the first part of repeated problems that we experiment with and the second that wise people “believe”. what examples of you without experience will conform to those of you who have experience… that is, do we have expectations in which we place great confidence? ” (Popper, 1972, p. 15) and will say that this comes from habits.

Popper says that Hume’s distinction is “of the utmost importance” between the logical problem of the psychological problem because it equates “valid inference processes” but sees it as “rational mental processes” (Popper, 1972, p. 17), in fact they are subjective and psychological, like “belief”.

Popper thus treats the logical problem, as it is in philosophy and the exact sciences (the term nature is used, which I prefer to differentiate), it is applied to HL (logical) and then goes to HPS.]

The psychological problem led Popper to criticize Hume’s system, what he calls the principle of transference, which is true for logic will also be true for psychology, which is undoubtedly “a somewhat bold conjecture in the psychology of cognition or thought processes.”(idem).

With his principle of transference Popper can present his main result which is, “Hume being certain that there is no repetition induction in logic, by the principle of transference, there can be no such thing in psychology (or scientific method or history). of science): the idea of ​​repetition induction must be the product of error… repetition induction does not exist.”(Popper, 1972, p. 18).

One can explore the consequences of empiricism beyond science, as in politics (The Open Society), but in the scientific method using Popper’s argument this will be definitive, empiricism is irrational. Karl Popper’s Trinity College (Oxford) interview with Sir Anthony Quinton illustrates this extension of his thinking in philosophy and politics: