Arquivo para February 3rd, 2020

Still identity

03 Feb

Philosophy conceptualized the question of identity using only the logical principle, A must be A and cannot be non-A, but the very question of “being” has a metaphysical and ontological basis because what it means to be A or not to be, while Being this logical identity is only self-identity.

So cultural and religious groups that seek their own identity can only define themselves as being if they are in relation to non-A, this second principle is the difference, even Hegel says that it is this negativity that can allow what reflection to be A can have in itself.

Heidegger after explaining this principle of logical identity A = A, stating that “each A is himself the same; she says before herself is each A himself the same. In each identity resides the relationship ‘with’, therefore, a mediation, a connection, a synthesis, the union in a unity ”(Heidegger, 2006, p. 39), let us explain better using Heidegger himself.

He immediately explains that in Western history, contrary to what is imagined and said, identity “appears, through the history of Western thought with the character of unity” (idem), and it is not a “tasteless emptiness of that that, in itself devoid of relations, persists in monotonous uniformity ”(idem), that is, it is diverse, there is and the difference persists.

Since then this idea of ​​identity of the same, of us closed in groups, of false collectivity and diversity persisted, the reasons are equally historical, as Heidegger states: “only the philosophy of speculative idealism, prepared by Leibniz and Kant, founds, through Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, a place for the essence in itself synthetic of identity ”(ibidem, p. 39).

Thus, explains Heidegger: “it remains forbidden to think of representing the unity of identity as monotonous uniformity and abstract from the mediation that prevails in Unity” and concludes: “Where this happens, identity is represented only abstractly” (ibidem).

This of course is not without an ontological negativity, as the being is obliged to demand his difference, his negativity and often does so in a radically challenging way, because there is an absence of mediation, what is done in the abstract is to speak of the diverse, of the different, but in the concrete it ignores it, expels it as soon as it manifests itself as an Other.

Heidegger, M. (2006) O que é isto filosofia – identidade e diferença (What is this – philosophy – Identity and difference). RJ, Petrópolis: Editora Vozes.