Arquivo para April 1st, 2020

A complex and beyond universe

01 Apr

When the dimension of space and time came to be studied not as isolated dimensions, but with this the gravitational force is no longer a consequence of the attraction of bodies, but a consequence of displacement in a curved space-time and thus there should be some “particle” that convey gravity between bodies.
However, gravitons were not easy to observe, a theory called Kaluza-Klein raised the hypothesis that gravity seems weak from where we exist and we observe it, because it could pass through more than three dimensions in our time, and therefore, it dilutes .
In 1960 a group of physicists with the objective of unifying physics, developed the idea of string theory where constituent units of existing matter and the elementary particles of nature are tiny oscillating vibrating strings made of energy, which, varying the oscillation, creates the various types of matter known, the weak, strong, electromagnetic forces and gravity.
The great merit of the various characteristics of the strings was to perceive vibratory patterns in the particles and going on to indicate that there could be a messenger particle of the gravitational force called gravitón, which was recently proven and this changed the conception of Universe.
In a lecture presented by Edward Witten in 1995, the so-called Second String Revolution began, which discovered patterns called Type I, Type II (A), Type II (B), Heterotic-O, Heterotic-E, had a pattern of behavior called a coupling constant. this indicated that the particles came in pairs, for example Heteritóca; O and type II (A) was inversely proportional to heterotic-E and this to Type II (B), and the theory was essential to understand the strings.
Another factor that M-theory helped to understand the Universe was that it incorporated a completely new theory of dimensions, created the idea of eleven-dimensional supergravity, but an old doubt among astrophysicists still persisted and would change everything.

There were two constants of the expansion of the universe, which Hubble called H) and the measure from distant supernovae moving away (see the post), it was recently that Lucas Lombriser, said that it is like “If we were in a kind of gigantic” bubble “, so supernovae would have influences outside this “bubble” that we live in, due to even more enigmatic forces coming from “outside”.